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Andrew Shin, MD

  • Andrew Shin


Critical Care


Work and Education

Professional Education

Univ of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 1999


Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, 2003


Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, 2006

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, 2008

Board Certifications

Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics

All Publications

Changes in Efficiency and Safety Culture After Integration of an I-PASS-Supported Handoff Process. Pediatrics Sheth, S., McCarthy, E., Kipps, A. K., Wood, M., Roth, S. J., Sharek, P. J., Shin, A. Y. 2016; 137 (2): 1-9


Recent publications have shown improved outcomes associated with resident-to-resident handoff processes. However, the implementation of similar handoff processes for patients moving between units and teams with expansive responsibilities presents unique challenges. We sought to determine the impact of a multidisciplinary standardized handoff process on efficiency, safety culture, and satisfaction.A prospective improvement initiative to standardize handoffs during patient transitions from the cardiovascular ICU to the acute care unit was implemented in a university-affiliated children's hospital.Time between verbal handoff and patient transfer decreased from baseline (397 167 minutes) to the postintervention period (24 21 minutes) (P < .01). Percentage positive scores for the handoff/transitions domain of a national culture of safety survey improved (39.8% vs 15.2% and 38.8% vs 19.6%; P = .005 and 0.03, respectively). Provider satisfaction improved related to the information conveyed (34% to 41%; P = .03), time to transfer (5% to 34%; P < .01), and overall experience (3% to 24%; P < .01). Family satisfaction improved for several questions, including: "satisfaction with the information conveyed" (42% to 70%; P = .02), "opportunities to ask questions" (46% to 74%; P < .01), and "Acute Care team's knowledgeabout my child's issues" (50% to 73%; P = .04). No differences in rates of readmission, rapid response team calls, or mortality were observed.Implementation of a multidisciplinary I-PASS-supported handoff process for patients transferring from the cardiovascular ICU to the acute care unit resulted in improved transfer efficiency, safety culture scores, and satisfaction of providers and families.

View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2015-0166

View details for PubMedID 26743818

Use of a Checklist and Clinical Decision Support Tool Reduces Laboratory Use and Improves Cost. Pediatrics Algaze, C. A., Wood, M., Pageler, N. M., Sharek, P. J., Longhurst, C. A., Shin, A. Y. 2016; 137 (1): 1-8


We hypothesized that a daily rounding checklist and a computerized order entry (CPOE) rule that limited the scheduling of complete blood cell counts and chemistry and coagulation panels to a 24-hour interval would reduce laboratory utilization and associated costs.We performed a retrospective analysis of these initiatives in a pediatric cardiovascular ICU (CVICU) that included all patients with congenital or acquired heart disease admitted to the cardiovascular ICU from September 1, 2008, until April 1, 2011. Our primary outcomes were the number of laboratory orders and cost of laboratory orders. Our secondary outcomes were mortality and CVICU and hospital length of stay.We found a reduction in laboratory utilization frequency in the checklist intervention period and additional reduction in the CPOE intervention period [complete blood count: 31% and 44% (P < .0001); comprehensive chemistry panel: 48% and 72% (P < .0001); coagulation panel: 26% and 55% (P < .0001); point of care blood gas: 43% and 44% (P < .0001)] compared with the preintervention period. Projected yearly cost reduction was $717,538.8. There was no change in adjusted mortality rate (odds ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.9, P = .65). CVICU and total length of stay (days) was similar in the pre- and postintervention periods.Use of a daily checklist and CPOE rule reduced laboratory resource utilization and cost without adversely affecting adjusted mortality or length of stay. CPOE has the potential to hardwire resource management interventions to augment and sustain the daily checklist.

View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-3019

View details for PubMedID 26681782

Exploring Value in Congenital Heart Disease: An Evaluation of Inpatient Admissions. Congenital heart disease Shin, A. Y., Hu, Z., Jin, B., Lal, S., Rosenthal, D. N., Efron, B., Sharek, P. J., Sutherland, S. M., Cohen, H. J., McElhinney, D. B., Roth, S. J., Ling, X. B. 2015; 10 (6): E278-87


Understanding value provides an important context for improvement. However, most health care models fail to measure value. Our objective was to categorize inpatient encounters within an academic congenital heart program based on clinical outcome and the cost to achieve the outcome (value). We aimed to describe clinical and nonclinical features associated with value.We defined hospital encounters based on outcome per resource utilized. We performed principal component and cluster analysis to classify encounters based on mortality, length of stay, hospital cost and revenue into six classes. We used nearest shrunken centroid to identify discriminant features associated with the cluster-derived classes. These features underwent hierarchical clustering and multivariate analysis to identify features associated with each class.We analyzed all patients admitted to an academic congenital heart program between September 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012.A total of 2658 encounters occurred during the study period. Six classes were categorized by value. Low-performing value classes were associated with greater institutional reward; however, encounters with higher-performing value were associated with a loss in profitability. Encounters that included insertion of a pediatric ventricular assist device (log OR 2.5 [95% CI, 1.78 to 3.43]) and acquisition of a hospital-acquired infection (log OR 1.42 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.87]) were risk factors for inferior health care value.Among the patients in our study, institutional reward was not associated with value. We describe a framework to target quality improvement and resource management efforts that can benefit patients, institutions, and payers alike.

View details for DOI 10.1111/chd.12290

View details for PubMedID 26219731

Reducing Mortality Related to Adverse Events in Children PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Shin, A. Y., Longhurst, C. A., Sharek, P. J. 2012; 59 (6): 1293-?


Since the launch of the 100,000 Lives Campaign by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), preventing medical adverse events to reduce avoidable mortality has emerged as a central focus for health care providers, institutions, regulators, insurance companies, and patients. Evidence-based interventions targeting the 6 interventions in the campaign have been associated with a reduction in preventable hospital deaths in the United States. The generalizability of the IHI's campaign to the pediatric population is only partly applicable. Pediatric experiences with rapid response teams and preventing central-line infections parallel the published experience of adults, with promise to significantly reduce preventable pediatric mortality.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.09.002

View details for Web of Science ID 000312618600007

View details for PubMedID 23116526

Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Almond, C. S., Shin, A. Y., Fortescue, E. B., Mannix, R. C., Wypij, D., Binstadt, B. A., Duncan, C. N., Olson, D. P., Salerno, A. E., Newburger, J. W., Greenes, D. S. 2005; 352 (15): 1550-1556


Hyponatremia has emerged as an important cause of race-related death and life-threatening illness among marathon runners. We studied a cohort of marathon runners to estimate the incidence of hyponatremia and to identify the principal risk factors.Participants in the 2002 Boston Marathon were recruited one or two days before the race. Subjects completed a survey describing demographic information and training history. After the race, runners provided a blood sample and completed a questionnaire detailing their fluid consumption and urine output during the race. Prerace and postrace weights were recorded. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with hyponatremia.Of 766 runners enrolled, 488 runners (64 percent) provided a usable blood sample at the finish line. Thirteen percent had hyponatremia (a serum sodium concentration of 135 mmol per liter or less); 0.6 percent had critical hyponatremia (120 mmol per liter or less). On univariate analyses, hyponatremia was associated with substantial weight gain, consumption of more than 3 liters of fluids during the race, consumption of fluids every mile, a racing time of >4:00 hours, female sex, and low body-mass index. On multivariate analysis, hyponatremia was associated with weight gain (odds ratio, 4.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 8.2), a racing time of >4:00 hours (odds ratio for the comparison with a time of <3:30 hours, 7.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.9 to 23.1), and body-mass-index extremes.Hyponatremia occurs in a substantial fraction of nonelite marathon runners and can be severe. Considerable weight gain while running, a long racing time, and body-mass-index extremes were associated with hyponatremia, whereas female sex, composition of fluids ingested, and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were not.

View details for Web of Science ID 000228324200007

View details for PubMedID 15829535

The Epidemiology of Health-Care Associated Infections in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Units. The Pediatric infectious disease journal Alten, J. A., Rahman, A. F., Zaccagni, H. J., Shin, A., Cooper, D. S., Blinder, J. J., Retzloff, L., Aban, I. B., Graham, E. M., Zampi, J., Domnina, Y., Gaies, M. G. 2017


BACKGROUND: Health-care associated infections (HAI) represent serious complications for patients within pediatric cardiac intensive care units (CICU). HAI are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. There are few studies describing the epidemiology of HAI across the entire spectrum of patients (surgical and non-surgical) receiving care in dedicated pediatric CICUs.METHODS: Retrospective analyses of 22,839 CICU encounters from 10/2013-9/2016 across 22 North American CICUs contributing data to the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium clinical registry.RESULTS: HAI occurred in 2.4% of CICU encounters at a rate of 3.3 HAI/1000 CICU days, with 73% of HAI occurring in children <1 year. Eighty encounters (14%) had 2 HAI. Aggregate rates for the four primary HAI: CLABSI 1.1/1000 line days; CAUTI 1.5/1000 catheter days; VAP 1.9/1000 ventilator days; SSI 0.81/100 operations. Surgical and non-surgical patients had similar HAI rates/1000 CICU days. Incidence was twice as high in surgical encounters, and increased with surgical complexity; postoperative infection occurred in 2.8% of encounters. Prematurity, younger age, presence of congenital anomaly, STAT 4-5 surgery, admission with an active medical condition, open sternum, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with HAI. In univariable analysis, HAI was associated with longer hospital length of stay and durations of urinary catheter, central venous catheter, and ventilation. Mortality was 24.4% in patients with HAI vs. 3.4% in those without, p<0.0001.CONCLUSIONS: We provide comprehensive multicenter benchmark data regarding rates of HAI within dedicated pediatric CICUs. We confirm that while rare, HAIs of all types are associated with significant resource utilization and mortality.

View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0000000000001884

View details for PubMedID 29280785

Programmatic Approach to Management of Tetralogy of Fallot With Major Aortopulmonary Collateral Arteries A 15-Year Experience With 458 Patients CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Bauser-Heaton, H., Borquez, A., Han, B., Ladd, M., Asija, R., Downey, L., Koth, A., Algaze, C. A., Wise-Faberowski, L., Perry, S. B., Shin, A., Peng, L. F., Hanley, F. L., McElhinney, D. B. 2017; 10 (4)


Tetralogy of Fallot with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries is a complex and heterogeneous condition. Our institutional approach to this lesion emphasizes early complete repair with the incorporation of all lung segments and extensive lobar and segmental pulmonary artery reconstruction.We reviewed all patients who underwent surgical intervention for tetralogy of Fallot and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford (LPCHS) since November 2001. A total of 458 patients underwent surgery, 291 (64%) of whom underwent their initial procedure at LPCHS. Patients were followed for a median of 2.7 years (mean 4.3 years) after the first LPCHS surgery, with an estimated survival of 85% at 5 years after first surgical intervention. Factors associated with worse survival included first LPCHS surgery type other than complete repair and Alagille syndrome. Of the overall cohort, 402 patients achieved complete unifocalization and repair, either as a single-stage procedure (n=186), after initial palliation at our center (n=74), or after surgery elsewhere followed by repair/revision at LPCHS (n=142). The median right ventricle:aortic pressure ratio after repair was 0.35. Estimated survival after repair was 92.5% at 10 years and was shorter in patients with chromosomal anomalies, older age, a greater number of collaterals unifocalized, and higher postrepair right ventricle pressure.Using an approach that emphasizes early complete unifocalization and repair with incorporation of all pulmonary vascular supply, we have achieved excellent results in patients with both native and previously operated tetralogy of Fallot and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries.

View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.116.004952

View details for Web of Science ID 000397579800001

View details for PubMedID 28356265

Practice Patterns in Postoperative Echocardiographic Surveillance after Congenital Heart Surgery in Children: A Single Center Experience JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Arunamata, A., Axelrod, D. M., Kipps, A. K., McElhinney, D. B., Shin, A. Y., Hanley, F. L., Olson, I. L., Roth, S. J., Tierney, E. S. 2017; 180: 87-?


To review current institutional practice and describe factors contributing to variation in inpatient postoperative imaging surveillance after congenital heart surgery.We reviewed records of all children who underwent congenital heart surgery from June to December 2014. Number and primary indications for postoperative transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs), providers involved, cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) and total hospital length of stay, and Risk-Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 scores were recorded.A total of 253 children (age at surgery: 8 months [2 days-19 years]) received 556 postoperative TTEs (median 1 TTE/patient [1-14]), and 23% had 3 TTEs. Fifteen of 556 TTEs (2.7%) revealed a new abnormal finding. The majority of TTEs (59%) were performed in the CVICU (1.51.1 TTEs/week/patient), with evaluation of function as the most common indication (44%). Attending physician practice >10 years was not associated with fewer TTEs (P=.12). Patients with 3 TTEs had higher Risk-Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 scores (P=.001), longer CVICU lengths of stay (22 vs 3 days; P<.0001), longer overall hospitalizations (28 vs 7 days; P<.0001), and a higher incidence of mechanical circulatory support (10% vs 0%; P<.0001) than those with <3 TTEs. Eight patients with 3 TTEs did not survive, compared with 3 with <3 TTEs (P=.0004).There was wide intra-institutional variation in echocardiographic use among similar complexity surgeries. Frequency of postoperative echocardiographic surveillance was associated with degree of surgical complexity and severity of postoperative clinical condition. Few studies revealed new abnormal findings. These results may help establish evidence-based guidelines for inpatient echocardiographic surveillance after congenital heart surgery.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.09.061

View details for Web of Science ID 000390028100018

Fluid overload independent of acute kidney injury predicts poor outcomes in neonates following congenital heart surgery. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) Mah, K. E., Hao, S., Sutherland, S. M., Kwiatkowski, D. M., Axelrod, D. M., Almond, C. S., Krawczeski, C. D., Shin, A. Y. 2017


Fluid overload (FO) is common after neonatal congenital heart surgery and may contribute to mortality and morbidity. It is unclear if the effects of FO are independent of acute kidney injury (AKI).This was a retrospective cohort study which examined neonates (age<30days) who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass in a university-affiliated children's hospital between 20 October 2010 and 31 December 2012. Demographic information, risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery score, surgery type, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross-clamp time, and vasoactive inotrope score were recorded. FO [(fluid in-out)/pre-operative weight] and AKI defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria were calculated. Outcomes were all-cause, in-hospital mortality and median postoperative hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay.Overall, 167 neonates underwent cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass in the study period, of whom 117 met the inclusion criteria. Of the 117 neonates included in the study, 76 (65%) patients developed significant FO (>10%), and 25 (21%) developed AKIStage 2. When analyzed as FO cohorts (< 10%,10-20%, > 20% FO), patients with greater FO were more likely to have AKI (9.8 vs. 18.2 vs. 52.4%, respectively, with AKIstage 2; p=0.013) and a higher vasoactive-inotrope score, and be premature. In the multivariable regression analyses of patients without AKI, FO was independently associated with hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay [0.322 extra days (p=0.029) and 0.468 extra days (p<0.001), respectively, per 1% FO increase). In all patients, FO was also associated with mortality [odds ratio 1.058 (5.8% greater odds of mortality per 1% FO increase); 95% confidence interval 1.008,1.125;p=0.032].Fluid overload is an important independent contributor to outcomes in neonates following congenital heart surgery. Careful fluid management after cardiac surgery in neonates with and without AKI is warranted.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-017-3818-x

View details for PubMedID 29128923

Temporary Circulatory Support in U.S. Children Awaiting Heart Transplantation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Yarlagadda, V. V., Maeda, K., Zhang, Y., Chen, S., Dykes, J. C., Gowen, M. A., Shuttleworth, P., Murray, J. M., Shin, A. Y., Reinhartz, O., Rosenthal, D. N., McElhinney, D. B., Almond, C. S. 2017; 70 (18): 225060


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has long served as the standard of care for short-term mechanical circulatory support in pediatrics. It is unknown whether newer-generation temporary circulatory support (TCS) devices afford children a meaningful survival advantage over ECMO.This study sought to determine whether bridge-to-heart transplant survival with a TCS device is superior to ECMO after adjusting for patient differences.All children21 years of age listed for heart transplant from 2011 to 2015 who received a TCS device orECMO as a bridge to transplant were identified using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data. Children supported with a TCS device were compared with a propensity score (PS)-matched cohort of childrensupported with ECMO as a bridge to transplant. The primary endpoint was Kaplan-Meier survival to transplant.The number of TCS devices implanted in children increased from3 per year before 2011 to 50 in 2015. Overall, 93 patients implanted with TCS devices were included for analysis (59% left ventricular assist devices, 23% right ventricular assist devices, 18% biventricular assist devices). The most commonly used device was the CentriMag-PediMag system (65%), followed by TandemHeart (18%), Rotaflow (6%), and Impella (5%). Among 164 PS-matched patients, support duration was longer for the TCS cohort (median 19days vs. 6days; p< 0.001), and was longest for the CentriMag-PediMag (24days vs. 6days; p< 0.001) with 27% supported for >60days. Compared with the ECMO cohort, the PS-matched TCS cohort had longer survival to transplant (hazard ratio: 0.49; 95% confidence interval: 0.30 to 0.79) and longer overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% confidence interval: 0.39 to 0.96), with 90-day mortality before transplant that was modestly reduced (from 45% withECMO to 39% with TCS).The use of TCS devices in children as a bridge to transplant has risen rapidly in recent years, ledbythegrowth of magnetically levitated centrifugal flow pumps. Compared with conventional ECMO, TCS durationsarelonger, and more importantly, patient survival is superior.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.08.072

View details for PubMedID 29073953

Unique Molecular Patterns Uncovered in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Elevated Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Levels: Implications for Intravenous Immunoglobulin Responsiveness PLOS ONE Wang, Y., Li, Z., Hu, G., Hao, S., Deng, X., Huang, M., Ren, M., Jiang, X., Kanegaye, J. T., Ha, K., Lee, J., Li, X., Jiang, X., Yu, Y., Tremoulet, A. H., Burns, J. C., Whitin, J. C., Shin, A. Y., Sylvester, K. G., McElhinney, D. B., Cohen, H. J., Ling, X. B. 2016; 11 (12)


Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) occurs in 10-20% of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). The risk of resistance is about two-fold higher in patients with elevated gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels. We sought to understand the biological mechanisms underlying IVIG resistance in patients with elevated GGT levels.We explored the association between elevated GGT levels and IVIG-resistance with a cohort of 686 KD patients (Cohort I). Gene expression data from 130 children with acute KD (Cohort II) were analyzed using the R square statistic and false discovery analysis to identify genes that were differentially represented in patients with elevated GGT levels with regard to IVIG responsiveness. Two additional KD cohorts (Cohort III and IV) were used to test the hypothesis that sialylation and GGT may be involved in IVIG resistance through neutrophil apoptosis.Thirty-six genes were identified that significantly explained the variations of both GGT levels and IVIG responsiveness in KD patients. After Bonferroni correction, significant associations with IVIG resistance persisted for 12 out of 36 genes among patients with elevated GGT levels and none among patients with normal GGT levels. With the discovery of ST6GALNAC3, a sialyltransferase, as the most differentially expressed gene, we hypothesized that sialylation and GGT are involved in IVIG resistance through neutrophil apoptosis. We then confirmed that in Cohort III and IV there was significantly less reduction in neutrophil count in IVIG non-responders.Gene expression analyses combining molecular and clinical datasets support the hypotheses that: (1) neutrophil apoptosis induced by IVIG may be a mechanism of action of IVIG in KD; (2) changes in sialylation and GGT level in KD patients may contribute synergistically to IVIG resistance through blocking IVIG-induced neutrophil apoptosis. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanism of action in IVIG resistance, and possibly for development of novel therapeutics.

View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0167434

View details for Web of Science ID 000392853100008

View details for PubMedID 28002448

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5176264

Web-based Real-Time Case Finding for the Population Health Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Validation of the Natural Language Processing-Based Algorithm With Statewide Electronic Medical Records. JMIR medical informatics Zheng, L., Wang, Y., Hao, S., Shin, A. Y., Jin, B., Ngo, A. D., Jackson-Browne, M. S., Feller, D. J., Fu, T., Zhang, K., Zhou, X., Zhu, C., Dai, D., Yu, Y., Zheng, G., Li, Y., McElhinney, D. B., Culver, D. S., Alfreds, S. T., Stearns, F., Sylvester, K. G., Widen, E., Ling, X. B. 2016; 4 (4)


Diabetes case finding based on structured medical records does not fully identify diabetic patients whose medical histories related to diabetes are available in the form of free text. Manual chart reviews have been used but involve high labor costs and long latency.This study developed and tested a Web-based diabetes case finding algorithm using both structured and unstructured electronic medical records (EMRs).This study was based on the health information exchange (HIE) EMR database that covers almost all health facilities in the state of Maine, United States. Using narrative clinical notes, a Web-based natural language processing (NLP) case finding algorithm was retrospectively (July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013) developed with a random subset of HIE-associated facilities, which was then blind tested with the remaining facilities. The NLP-based algorithm was subsequently integrated into the HIE database and validated prospectively (July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014).Of the 935,891 patients in the prospective cohort, 64,168 diabetes cases were identified using diagnosis codes alone. Our NLP-based case finding algorithm prospectively found an additional 5756 uncodified cases (5756/64,168, 8.97% increase) with a positive predictive value of .90. Of the 21,720 diabetic patients identified by both methods, 6616 patients (6616/21,720, 30.46%) were identified by the NLP-based algorithm before a diabetes diagnosis was noted in the structured EMR (mean time difference = 48 days).The online NLP algorithm was effective in identifying uncodified diabetes cases in real time, leading to a significant improvement in diabetes case finding. The successful integration of the NLP-based case finding algorithm into the Maine HIE database indicates a strong potential for application of this novel method to achieve a more complete ascertainment of diagnoses of diabetes mellitus.

View details for PubMedID 27836816

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5124114

Exploring the Role of Polycythemia in Patients With Cyanosis After Palliative Congenital Heart Surgery. Pediatric critical care medicine Siehr, S. L., Shi, S., Hao, S., Hu, Z., Jin, B., Hanley, F., Reddy, V. M., McElhinney, D. B., Ling, X. B., Shin, A. Y. 2016; 17 (3): 216-222


To understand the relationship between polycythemia and clinical outcome in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome following the Norwood operation.A retrospective, single-center cohort study.Pediatric cardiovascular ICU, university-affiliated children's hospital.Infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome admitted to our medical center from September 2009 to December 2012 undergoing stage 1/Norwood operation.None.Baseline demographic and clinical information including first recorded postoperative hematocrit and subsequent mean, median, and nadir hematocrits during the first 72 hours postoperatively were recorded. The primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and length of hospitalization. Thirty-two patients were included in the analysis. Patients did not differ by operative factors (cardiopulmonary bypass time and cross-clamp time) or traditional markers of severity of illness (vasoactive inotrope score, lactate, saturation, and PaO2/FIO2 ratio). Early polycythemia (hematocrit value > 49%) was associated with longer cardiovascular ICU stay (51.0 [ 38.6] vs 21.4 [ 16.2] d; p < 0.01) and total hospital length of stay (65.0 [ 46.5] vs 36.1 [ 20.0] d; p = 0.03). In a multivariable analysis, polycythemia remained independently associated with the length of hospitalization after controlling for the amount of RBC transfusion (weight, 4.36 [95% CI, 1.35-7.37]; p < 0.01). No difference in in-hospital mortality rates was detected between the two groups (17.6% vs 20%).Early polycythemia following the Norwood operation is associated with longer length of hospitalization even after controlling for blood cell transfusion practices. We hypothesize that polycythemia may be caused by hemoconcentration and used as an early marker of capillary leak syndrome.

View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000654

View details for PubMedID 26825044

Prospective stratification of patients at risk for emergency department revisit: resource utilization and population management strategy implications. BMC emergency medicine Jin, B., Zhao, Y., Hao, S., Shin, A. Y., Wang, Y., Zhu, C., Hu, Z., Fu, C., Ji, J., Wang, Y., Zhao, Y., Jiang, Y., Dai, D., Culver, D. S., Alfreds, S. T., Rogow, T., Stearns, F., Sylvester, K. G., Widen, E., Ling, X. B. 2016; 16 (1): 10-?


Estimating patient risk of future emergency department (ED) revisits can guide the allocation of resources, e.g. local primary care and/or specialty, to better manage ED high utilization patient populations and thereby improve patient life qualities.We set to develop and validate a method to estimate patient ED revisit risk in the subsequent 6months from an ED discharge date. An ensemble decision-tree-based model with Electronic Medical Record (EMR) encounter data from HealthInfoNet (HIN), Maine's Health Information Exchange (HIE), was developed and validated, assessing patient risk for a subsequent 6month return ED visit based on the ED encounter-associated demographic and EMR clinical history data. A retrospective cohort of 293,461 ED encounters that occurred between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012, was assembled with the associated patients' 1-year clinical histories before the ED discharge date, for model training and calibration purposes. To validate, a prospective cohort of 193,886 ED encounters that occurred between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013 was constructed.Statistical learning that was utilized to construct the prediction model identified 152 variables that included the following data domains: demographics groups (12), different encounter history (104), care facilities (12), primary and secondary diagnoses (10), primary and secondary procedures (2), chronic disease condition (1), laboratory test results (2), and outpatient prescription medications (9). The c-statistics for the retrospective and prospective cohorts were 0.742 and 0.730 respectively. Total medical expense and ED utilization by risk score 6months after the discharge were analyzed. Cluster analysis identified discrete subpopulations of high-risk patients with distinctive resource utilization patterns, suggesting the need for diversified care management strategies.Integration of our method into the HIN secure statewide data system in real time prospectively validated its performance. It promises to provide increased opportunity for high ED utilization identification, and optimized resource and population management.

View details for DOI 10.1186/s12873-016-0074-5

View details for PubMedID 26842066

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4739399

NLP based congestive heart failure case finding: A prospective analysis on statewide electronic medical records. International journal of medical informatics Wang, Y., Luo, J., Hao, S., Xu, H., Shin, A. Y., Jin, B., Liu, R., Deng, X., Wang, L., Zheng, L., Zhao, Y., Zhu, C., Hu, Z., Fu, C., Hao, Y., Zhao, Y., Jiang, Y., Dai, D., Culver, D. S., Alfreds, S. T., Todd, R., Stearns, F., Sylvester, K. G., Widen, E., Ling, X. B. 2015; 84 (12): 1039-1047


In order to proactively manage congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, an effective CHF case finding algorithm is required to process both structured and unstructured electronic medical records (EMR) to allow complementary and cost-efficient identification of CHF patients.We set to identify CHF cases from both EMR codified and natural language processing (NLP) found cases. Using narrative clinical notes from all Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) patients, the NLP case finding algorithm was retrospectively (July 1, 2012-June 30, 2013) developed with a random subset of HIE associated facilities, and blind-tested with the remaining facilities. The NLP based method was integrated into a live HIE population exploration system and validated prospectively (July 1, 2013-June 30, 2014). Total of 18,295 codified CHF patients were included in Maine HIE. Among the 253,803 subjects without CHF codings, our case finding algorithm prospectively identified 2411 uncodified CHF cases. The positive predictive value (PPV) is 0.914, and 70.1% of these 2411 cases were found to be with CHF histories in the clinical notes.A CHF case finding algorithm was developed, tested and prospectively validated. The successful integration of the CHF case findings algorithm into the Maine HIE live system is expected to improve the Maine CHF care.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2015.06.007

View details for PubMedID 26254876

Development, Validation and Deployment of a Real Time 30 Day Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment Tool in the Maine Healthcare Information Exchange PLOS ONE Hao, S., Wang, Y., Jin, B., Shin, A. Y., Zhu, C., Huang, M., Zheng, L., Luo, J., Hu, Z., Fu, C., Dai, D., Wang, Y., Culver, D. S., Alfreds, S. T., Rogow, T., Stearns, F., Sylvester, K. G., Widen, E., Ling, X. B. 2015; 10 (10)

View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0140271

View details for Web of Science ID 000362511000113

View details for PubMedID 26448562

Innovation in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care: An Exponential Convergence Toward Transformation of Care. World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery Maher, K. O., Chang, A. C., Shin, A., Hunt, J., Wong, H. R. 2015; 6 (4): 588-596


The word innovation is derived from the Latin noun innovatus, meaning renewal or change. Although companies such as Google and Apple are nearly synonymous with innovation, virtually all sectors in our current lives are imbued with yearn for innovation. This has led to organizational focus on innovative strategies as well as recruitment of chief innovation officers and teams in a myriad of organizations. At times, however, the word innovation seems like an overused clich, as there are now more than 5,000 books in print with the word "innovation" in the title. More recently, innovation has garnered significant attention in health care. The future of health care is expected to innovate on a large scale in order to deliver sustained value for an overall transformative care. To date, there are no published reports on the state of the art in innovation in pediatric health care and in particular, pediatric cardiac intensive care. This report will address the issue of innovation in pediatric medicine with relevance to cardiac intensive care and delineate possible future directions and strategies in pediatric cardiac intensive care.

View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135115606087

View details for PubMedID 26467873

Online Prediction of Health Care Utilization in the Next Six Months Based on Electronic Health Record Information: A Cohort and Validation Study JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH Hu, Z., Hao, S., Jin, B., Shin, A. Y., Zhu, C., Huang, M., Wang, Y., Zheng, L., Dai, D., Culver, D. S., Alfreds, S. T., Rogow, T., Stearns, F., Sylvester, K. G., Widen, E., Ling, X. 2015; 17 (9)


The increasing rate of health care expenditures in the United States has placed a significant burden on the nation's economy. Predicting future health care utilization of patients can provide useful information to better understand and manage overall health care deliveries and clinical resource allocation.This study developed an electronic medical record (EMR)-based online risk model predictive of resource utilization for patients in Maine in the next 6 months across all payers, all diseases, and all demographic groups.In the HealthInfoNet, Maine's health information exchange (HIE), a retrospective cohort of 1,273,114 patients was constructed with the preceding 12-month EMR. Each patient's next 6-month (between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013) health care resource utilization was retrospectively scored ranging from 0 to 100 and a decision tree-based predictive model was developed. Our model was later integrated in the Maine HIE population exploration system to allow a prospective validation analysis of 1,358,153 patients by forecasting their next 6-month risk of resource utilization between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013.Prospectively predicted risks, on either an individual level or a population (per 1000 patients) level, were consistent with the next 6-month resource utilization distributions and the clinical patterns at the population level. Results demonstrated the strong correlation between its care resource utilization and our risk scores, supporting the effectiveness of our model. With the online population risk monitoring enterprise dashboards, the effectiveness of the predictive algorithm has been validated by clinicians and caregivers in the State of Maine.The model and associated online applications were designed for tracking the evolving nature of total population risk, in a longitudinal manner, for health care resource utilization. It will enable more effective care management strategies driving improved patient outcomes.

View details for DOI 10.2196/jmir.4976

View details for Web of Science ID 000361809800005

View details for PubMedID 26395541

Utility of Clinical Biomarkers to Predict Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infections After Congenital Heart Surgery. Pediatric infectious disease journal Shin, A. Y., Jin, B., Hao, S., Hu, Z., Sutherland, S., McCammond, A., Axelrod, D., Sharek, P., Roth, S. J., Ling, X. B. 2015; 34 (3): 251-254


Central line associated bloodstream infections is an important contributor of morbidity and mortality in children recovering from congenital heart surgery. The reliability of commonly used biomarkers to differentiate these patients have not been specifically studied.This was a retrospective cohort study in a university-affiliated children's hospital examining all patients with congenital or acquired heart disease admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit following cardiac surgery who underwent evaluation for a catheter-associated bloodstream infection.Among 1260 cardiac surgeries performed, 451 encounters underwent an infection evaluation post-operatively. Twenty-five instances of CLABSI and 227 instances of a negative infection evaluation were the subject of analysis. Patients with CLABSI tended to be younger (1.34 vs 4.56 years, p = 0.011) and underwent more complex surgery (RACHS-1 score 3.79 vs 3.04, p = 0.039). The two groups were indistinguishable in WBC, PMNs and band count at the time of their presentation. On multivariate analysis, CLABSI was associated with fever (adjusted OR 4.78; 95% CI, 1.6 to 5.8) and elevated CRP (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.68) after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated the discriminatory power of both fever and CRP (area under curve 0.7247, 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.74 and 0.58, 95% CI 0.4208 to 0.7408). We calculated multilevel likelihood ratios for a spectrum of temperature and CRP values.We found commonly used serum biomarkers such as fever and CRP not to be helpful discriminators in patients following congenital heart surgery.

View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0000000000000553

View details for PubMedID 25232780

Real-time web-based assessment of total population risk of future emergency department utilization: statewide prospective active case finding study. Interactive journal of medical research Hu, Z., Jin, B., Shin, A. Y., Zhu, C., Zhao, Y., Hao, S., Zheng, L., Fu, C., Wen, Q., Ji, J., Li, Z., Wang, Y., Zheng, X., Dai, D., Culver, D. S., Alfreds, S. T., Rogow, T., Stearns, F., Sylvester, K. G., Widen, E., Ling, X. B. 2015; 4 (1)


An easily accessible real-time Web-based utility to assess patient risks of future emergency department (ED) visits can help the health care provider guide the allocation of resources to better manage higher-risk patient populations and thereby reduce unnecessary use of EDs.Our main objective was to develop a Health Information Exchange-based, next 6-month ED risk surveillance system in the state of Maine.Data on electronic medical record (EMR) encounters integrated by HealthInfoNet (HIN), Maine's Health Information Exchange, were used to develop the Web-based surveillance system for a population ED future 6-month risk prediction. To model, a retrospective cohort of 829,641 patients with comprehensive clinical histories from January 1 to December 31, 2012 was used for training and then tested with a prospective cohort of 875,979 patients from July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013.The multivariate statistical analysis identified 101 variables predictive of future defined 6-month risk of ED visit: 4 age groups, history of 8 different encounter types, history of 17 primary and 8 secondary diagnoses, 8 specific chronic diseases, 28 laboratory test results, history of 3 radiographic tests, and history of 25 outpatient prescription medications. The c-statistics for the retrospective and prospective cohorts were 0.739 and 0.732 respectively. Integration of our method into the HIN secure statewide data system in real time prospectively validated its performance. Cluster analysis in both the retrospective and prospective analyses revealed discrete subpopulations of high-risk patients, grouped around multiple "anchoring" demographics and chronic conditions. With the Web-based population risk-monitoring enterprise dashboards, the effectiveness of the active case finding algorithm has been validated by clinicians and caregivers in Maine.The active case finding model and associated real-time Web-based app were designed to track the evolving nature of total population risk, in a longitudinal manner, for ED visits across all payers, all diseases, and all age groups. Therefore, providers can implement targeted care management strategies to the patient subgroups with similar patterns of clinical histories, driving the delivery of more efficient and effective health care interventions. To the best of our knowledge, this prospectively validated EMR-based, Web-based tool is the first one to allow real-time total population risk assessment for statewide ED visits.

View details for DOI 10.2196/ijmr.4022

View details for PubMedID 25586600

Development, Validation and Deployment of a Real Time 30 Day Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment Tool in the Maine Healthcare Information Exchange. PloS one Hao, S., Wang, Y., Jin, B., Shin, A. Y., Zhu, C., Huang, M., Zheng, L., Luo, J., Hu, Z., Fu, C., Dai, D., Wang, Y., Culver, D. S., Alfreds, S. T., Rogow, T., Stearns, F., Sylvester, K. G., Widen, E., Ling, X. B. 2015; 10 (10)


Identifying patients at risk of a 30-day readmission can help providers design interventions, and provide targeted care to improve clinical effectiveness. This study developed a risk model to predict a 30-day inpatient hospital readmission for patients in Maine, across all payers, all diseases and all demographic groups.Our objective was to develop a model to determine the risk for inpatient hospital readmission within 30 days post discharge. All patients within the Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) system were included. The model was retrospectively developed on inpatient encounters between January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 from 24 randomly chosen hospitals, and then prospectively validated on inpatient encounters from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 using all HIE patients.A risk assessment tool partitioned the entire HIE population into subgroups that corresponded to probability of hospital readmission as determined by a corresponding positive predictive value (PPV). An overall model c-statistic of 0.72 was achieved. The total 30-day readmission rates in low (score of 0-30), intermediate (score of 30-70) and high (score of 70-100) risk groupings were 8.67%, 24.10% and 74.10%, respectively. A time to event analysis revealed the higher risk groups readmitted to a hospital earlier than the lower risk groups. Six high-risk patient subgroup patterns were revealed through unsupervised clustering. Our model was successfully integrated into the statewide HIE to identify patient readmission risk upon admission and daily during hospitalization or for 30 days subsequently, providing daily risk score updates.The risk model was validated as an effective tool for predicting 30-day readmissions for patients across all payer, disease and demographic groups within the Maine HIE. Exposing the key clinical, demographic and utilization profiles driving each patient's risk of readmission score may be useful to providers in developing individualized post discharge care plans.

View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0140271

View details for PubMedID 26448562

Outcomes Following Cardiac Catheterization After Congenital Heart Surgery CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Siehr, S. L., Martin, M. H., Axelrod, D., Efron, B., Peng, L., Roth, S. J., Perry, S., Shin, A. Y. 2014; 84 (4): 622-628


Describe outcomes following unplanned cardiac catheterization after congenital heart surgery.Utility of cardiac catheterization following congenital heart surgery is relatively understudied.Retrospective study examining demographics, indications, and outcomes of unplanned cardiac catheterization after congenital heart surgery at a single institution.Between October 2004 and April 2011, 120 patients underwent 150 unplanned postoperative cardiac catheterizations. Median day of catheterization was postoperative day 20 (range 1-269 days). Survival 30 days postcatheterization was 85%; overall survival to hospital discharge was 72%. Indications for catheterization: 63 for hemodynamic evaluation, 46 for likely intervention, and 41 for assessment of surgical repair. Of the 150 hemodynamic/interventional catheterizations, 103 (69%) were associated with a change in clinical management: 59 trans-catheter interventions, 22 re-operations, 11 changes in medication, six changes in surgical plan, and five withdrawals of support. Complications included hemorrhage in two patients, supraventricular tachycardia in two patients, and transient complete heart block requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation in one patient.Cardiac catheterization following congenital heart surgery may enable important diagnostic and therapeutic changes in clinical and surgical management. Complications were rare.

View details for DOI 10.1002/ccd.25490

View details for Web of Science ID 000342826900018

Sedative and analgesic use on night and day shifts in a pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit. AACN advanced critical care Staveski, S. L., Tesoro, T. M., Cisco, M. J., Roth, S. J., Shin, A. Y. 2014; 25 (2): 114-118


The use of sedative and analgesic medications is directly linked to patient outcomes. The practice of administering as-needed sedative or analgesic medications deserves further exploration. We hypothesized that important variations exist in the practice of administering as-needed medications in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to determine the influence of time of day on the practice of administering as-needed sedative or analgesic medications to children in the ICU.Medication administration records of patients admitted to our pediatric cardiovascular ICU during a 4-month period were reviewed to determine the frequency and timing of as-needed medication usage by shift.A total of 152 ICU admissions (1854 patient days) were reviewed. A significantly greater number of as-needed doses were administered during the night shift (fentanyl, P = .005; lorazepam, P = .03; midazolam, P = .0003; diphenhydramine, P = .0003; and chloral hydrate, P = .0006). These differences remained statistically significant after excluding doses given during the first 6 hours after cardiovascular surgery. Morphine administration was similar between shifts (P = .08).We identified a pattern of increased administration of as-needed sedative or analgesic medications during nights. Further research is needed to identify the underlying causes of this practice variation.

View details for DOI 10.1097/NCI.0000000000000023

View details for PubMedID 24752023

Risk prediction of emergency department revisit 30 days post discharge: a prospective study. PloS one Hao, S., Jin, B., Shin, A. Y., Zhao, Y., Zhu, C., Li, Z., Hu, Z., Fu, C., Ji, J., Wang, Y., Zhao, Y., Dai, D., Culver, D. S., Alfreds, S. T., Rogow, T., Stearns, F., Sylvester, K. G., Widen, E., Ling, X. B. 2014; 9 (11)


Among patients who are discharged from the Emergency Department (ED), about 3% return within 30 days. Revisits can be related to the nature of the disease, medical errors, and/or inadequate diagnoses and treatment during their initial ED visit. Identification of high-risk patient population can help device new strategies for improved ED care with reduced ED utilization.A decision tree based model with discriminant Electronic Medical Record (EMR) features was developed and validated, estimating patient ED 30 day revisit risk. A retrospective cohort of 293,461 ED encounters from HealthInfoNet (HIN), Maine's Health Information Exchange (HIE), between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012, was assembled with the associated patients' demographic information and one-year clinical histories before the discharge date as the inputs. To validate, a prospective cohort of 193,886 encounters between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013 was constructed. The c-statistics for the retrospective and prospective predictions were 0.710 and 0.704 respectively. Clinical resource utilization, including ED use, was analyzed as a function of the ED risk score. Cluster analysis of high-risk patients identified discrete sub-populations with distinctive demographic, clinical and resource utilization patterns.Our ED 30-day revisit model was prospectively validated on the Maine State HIN secure statewide data system. Future integration of our ED predictive analytics into the ED care work flow may lead to increased opportunities for targeted care intervention to reduce ED resource burden and overall healthcare expense, and improve outcomes.

View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0112944

View details for PubMedID 25393305

Clopidogrel in Infants with Systemic-to-Pulmonary-Artery Shunts NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Wessel, D. L., Berger, F., Li, J. S., Daehnert, I., Rakhit, A., Fontecave, S., Newburger, J. W. 2013; 368 (25): 2377-2384


Infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease palliated with placement of a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt are at risk for shunt thrombosis and death. We investigated whether the addition of clopidogrel to conventional therapy reduces mortality from any cause and morbidity related to the shunt.In a multicenter, double-blind, event-driven trial, we randomly assigned infants 92 days of age or younger with cyanotic congenital heart disease and a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt to receive clopidogrel at a dose of 0.2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day (467 infants) or placebo (439 infants), in addition to conventional therapy (including aspirin in 87.9% of infants). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death or heart transplantation, shunt thrombosis, or performance of a cardiac procedure due to an event considered to be thrombotic in nature before 120 days of age.The rate of the composite primary end point did not differ significantly between the clopidogrel group (19.1%) and the placebo group (20.5%) (absolute risk difference, 1.4 percentage points; relative risk reduction with clopidogrel, 11.1%; 95% confidence interval, -19.2 to 33.6; P=0.43), nor did the rates of the three components of the composite primary end point. There was no significant benefit of clopidogrel treatment in any subgroup, including subgroups defined by shunt type. Clopidogrel recipients and placebo recipients had similar rates of overall bleeding (18.8% and 20.2%, respectively) and severe bleeding (4.1% and 3.4%, respectively).Clopidogrel therapy in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease palliated with a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt, most of whom received concomitant aspirin therapy, did not reduce either mortality from any cause or shunt-related morbidity. (Funded by Sanofi-Aventis and Bristol-Myers Squibb; number, NCT00396877.).

View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1114588

View details for Web of Science ID 000320601700007

View details for PubMedID 23782178

Surgical management of neonatal atrioventricular septal defect with aortic arch obstruction. Annals of thoracic surgery Shuhaiber, J., Shin, A. Y., Gossett, J. G., Wypij, D., Backer, C. L., Hanley, F. L., Khan, M. S., Fraser, C. D., Jacques, F., Manning, P. B., Van Arsdell, G., Mayer, J. E., Costello, J. M. 2013; 95 (6): 2071-2077


For neonates with atrioventricular septal defect and aortic arch obstruction including coarctation of the aorta, we sought to determine whether a difference in outcomes exists after a primary neonatal versus staged surgical repair (neonatal arch repair with delayed intracardiac repair).This retrospective cohort study included consecutive neonates with atrioventricular septal defect and aortic arch obstruction who underwent cardiac surgery before 28 days of age at six centers from 1990 to 2009. Characteristics and outcomes between patients undergoing neonatal versus staged repair were compared.Of 66 study patients, 31 (47%) underwent primary neonatal repair and 35 (53%) underwent staged repair. At baseline echocardiogram, a greater percentage of neonatal repair patients had relative unbalanced ventricular size (56% versus 35%, p = 0.02). There were no other differences in demographic characteristics, cardiac anatomical or functional details, or surgical technique. Those undergoing neonatal repair tended to be more likely to have at least moderate left atrioventricular valve regurgitation early after repair (42% versus 19%, p = 0.05) and to have at least one major in-hospital complication (42% versus 20%, p = 0.06). After the initial cardiac operation, compared with the neonatal repair group, patients undergoing staged repair had greater survival (87% versus 57% at 6 years, log-rank p = 0.02) and freedom from the first unplanned cardiac reoperation (69% versus 45% at 6 years, log-rank p = 0.005).For neonates with atrioventricular septal defect and aortic arch obstruction, when compared with neonatal repair, a staged approach was associated with improved survival and lower morbidity.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.11.069

View details for PubMedID 23415240

Embedding time-limited laboratory orders within computerized provider order entry reduces laboratory utilization*. Pediatric critical care medicine Pageler, N. M., Franzon, D., Longhurst, C. A., Wood, M., Shin, A. Y., Adams, E. S., Widen, E., Cornfield, D. N. 2013; 14 (4): 413-419


: To test the hypothesis that limits on repeating laboratory studies within computerized provider order entry decrease laboratory utilization.: Cohort study with historical controls.: A 20-bed PICU in a freestanding, quaternary care, academic children's hospital.: This study included all patients admitted to the pediatric ICU between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009. A total of 818 discharges were evaluated prior to the intervention (January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008) and 1,021 patient discharges were evaluated postintervention (January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009).: A computerized provider order entry rule limited the ability to schedule repeating complete blood cell counts, chemistry, and coagulation studies to a 24-hour interval in the future. The time limit was designed to ensure daily evaluation of the utility of each test.: Initial analysis with t tests showed significant decreases in tests per patient day in the postintervention period (complete blood cell counts: 1.5 0.1 to 1.0 0.1; chemistry: 10.6 0.9 to 6.9 0.6; coagulation: 3.3 0.4 to 1.7 0.2; p < 0.01, all variables vs. preintervention period). Even after incorporating a trend toward decreasing laboratory utilization in the preintervention period into our regression analysis, the intervention decreased complete blood cell counts (p = 0.007), chemistry (p = 0.049), and coagulation (p = 0.001) tests per patient day.: Limits on laboratory orders within the context of computerized provider order entry decreased laboratory utilization without adverse affects on mortality or length of stay. Broader application of this strategy might decrease costs, the incidence of iatrogenic anemia, and catheter-associated bloodstream infections.

View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0b013e318272010c

View details for PubMedID 23439456

Cardiac troponin increases among runners in the Boston Marathon ANNALS OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Fortescue, E. B., Shin, A. Y., Greenes, D. S., Mannix, R. C., Agarwal, S., Feldman, B. J., Shah, M. I., Rifai, N., Landzberg, M. J., Newburger, J. W., Almond, C. S. 2007; 49 (2): 137-143


Studies indicate that running a marathon can be associated with increases in serum cardiac troponin levels. The clinical significance of such increases remains unclear. We seek to determine the prevalence of troponin increases and epidemiologic factors associated with these increases in a large and heterogeneous cohort of marathon finishers.Entrants in the 2002 Boston Marathon were recruited 1 to 2 days before the race. Data collected included demographic and training history, symptoms experienced during the run, and postrace troponin T and I levels. Simple descriptive statistics were performed to describe the prevalence of troponin increases and runner characteristics.Of 766 runners enrolled, 482 had blood analyzed at the finish line. In all, 34% were women, 20% were younger than 30 years, and 92% had run at least 1 previous marathon. Most runners (68%) had some degree of postrace troponin increase (troponin T > or = 0.01 ng/mL or troponin I > or = 0.1 ng/mL), and 55 (11%) had significant increases (troponin T > or = 0.075 ng/mL or troponin I > or = 0.5 ng/mL). Running inexperience (< 5 previous marathons) and young age (< 30 years) were associated with elevated troponins. These correlates were robust throughout a wide range of troponin thresholds considered. Health factors, family history, training, race performance, and symptoms were not associated with increases.Troponin increases were relatively common among marathon finishers and can reach levels typically diagnostic for acute myocardial infarction. Less marathon experience and younger age appeared to be associated with troponin increases, whereas race duration and the presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.09.024

View details for Web of Science ID 000243957800002

View details for PubMedID 17145114

Aortic atresia or severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with ventricular septal defect: Results of primary biventricular repair in neonates 42nd Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Thoracic-Surgeons Nathan, M., Rimmer, D., del Nido, P. J., Mayer, J. E., Bacha, E. A., Shin, A., Regan, W., Gonzalez, R., Pigula, F. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: 222732


Aortic atresia or severe aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is a frequent component of complex congenital heart disease. Aortic atresia or severe aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with two adequate ventricles is sometimes treated by Norwood palliation followed by late biventricular repair. We reviewed our experience with primary biventricular repair in this group of neonates.Retrospective review identified 17 neonates (10 males) with aortic atresia or severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with ventricular septal defect and an adequate left ventricle undergoing primary biventricular repair between 1986 and 2002. Mean age was 7.7 +/- 2.9 days, weight 3.3 +/- 0.7 kg, and body surface area 0.21 +/- 0.04 kg/m2. Associated anomalies included arch hypoplasia, 7 (41%); aortic atresia, 7 (41%); and coarctation, 5 (29%). Results are reported as mean +/- standard deviation.Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 1 to 17.7 years). Three of the 17 (18%) died within 30 days. There were no deaths in this series since 1992. Nine patients (38.9%) required one reoperation, 7 of which were for conduit stenosis, 1 for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and 1 for residual ventricular septal defect with left ventricle-to-right atrium shunt. Freedom from death at 10 years was 82% by Kaplan-Meier estimate.Excellent long-term survival can be achieved by primary biventricular repair as corroborated by our survival rate of 82%. Primary biventricular repair is an effective operation for aortic atresia and severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with adequate sized left ventricle that avoids interstage attrition associated with Norwood palliation and is our procedure of choice.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2006.05.124

View details for Web of Science ID 000242297200039

View details for PubMedID 17126139

The Boston Marathon study: A novel approach to research during residency PEDIATRICS Shin, A. Y., Almond, C. S., Mannix, R. C., Duncan, C. N., Son, M. B., McLauchlan, H. M., Kanaan, U. B., Litzow, J. M., Riney, P. S., Trenor, C. C., Fortescue, E. B., Vinci, R. J., Greenes, D. S. 2006; 117 (5): 1818-1822


Resident physicians from a pediatric academic training program developed a hospital-wide research project in an effort to enhance their residency research experience. In this model, residents themselves assumed primary responsibility for each stage of a large prospective clinical research study. The project, which was integrated successfully into the residency program, enabled a large group of residents, with mentorship from a dedicated faculty member, to benefit from a structured clinical research experience while providing the flexibility necessary to meet the demands of a busy residency curriculum. Careful topic selection with a well-defined end point, faculty involvement, resident collegiality, and institutional support were factors identified by study leaders as central to the success of this model.

View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2005-1249

View details for Web of Science ID 000237207300076

View details for PubMedID 16651344