Identification of the first patient with a confirmed mutation of the JAK-STAT system PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY 2005; 20 (3): 303-305
Growth hormone insensitivity (GHI) has been attributable, classically, to mutations in the gene for the GH receptor. After binding to the GH receptor, GH initiates signal transduction through a number of pathways, including the JAK-STAT pathway. We describe the first patient reported with a mutation in the gene for STAT5b, a protein critical for the transcriptional regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-004-1678-7
View details for Web of Science ID 000227713600009
View details for PubMedID 15688233
Growth hormone insensitivity resulting from post-GH receptor defects GROWTH HORMONE & IGF RESEARCH 2004; 14: S35-S38
Biochemical analysis indicates that the STAT-5b mutation affects signaling by both growth hormone (GH) and gamma-interferon. A patient with such a mutation thus manifests two new clinical disorders: (1) growth hormone insensitivity (GHI), which results from a post-receptor defect in GH signaling and (2) a new form of primary immunodeficiency. Given that the GH receptor is a member of the hematopoietin-receptor family, it seems reasonable to predict that additional cases of defects in GH signaling will be identified. The predicted phenotype would be GHI combined with defects in the immune system.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ghir.2004.03.009
View details for Web of Science ID 000221876700009
View details for PubMedID 15135774
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) parameters and tools for efficacy: The IGF-I generation test in children HORMONE RESEARCH 2004; 62: 37-43
Serum levels of growth hormone (GH)-dependent peptides could provide important and valuable measures of GH sensitivity and, potentially, responsiveness. In normal individuals, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations are dependent on the dose of GH given, with IGF-I responsiveness not decreasing with age. Individuals heterozygous for the E180 GH receptor (GHR) splice mutation have normal IGF-I generation, but those homozygous for the E180 splice mutation have very low basal and stimulated IGF-I concentrations. Similar results are observed for the serum IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) response to GH, with a correlation between changes in serum concentrations of IGF-I and changes in IGFBP-3 in normal, heterozygotic, GH-insensitive and GH-deficient participants. In individuals with the E180 splice mutation, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 tests show sensitivity and specificity for detecting GH insensitivity (GHI). In children with idiopathic short stature, it appears that some individuals have selective resistance to GH, with their ability to generate IGF-I more impaired than their ability to generate other GH-dependent peptides. This heterogeneous group may require individualization of GH dosage. IGF generation tests remain the best short-term, in vivo test for classic GHI, although diagnostic tests will undoubtedly require further modification to identify milder pathophysiologic abnormalities.
View details for DOI 10.1159/000080757
View details for Web of Science ID 000227611900007
View details for PubMedID 15761231
Growth hormone insensitivity associated with a STAT5b mutation NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 2003; 349 (12): 1139-1147
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 generation as a measure of GH sensitivity JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM 2002; 87 (10): 4754-4765
A total of 198 subjects were randomized to either high-dose (0.05 mg/kg.d) or low-dose (0.025 mg/kg.d) GH for 7 d; the alternate dose was then received after a 2-wk washout period. Groups included in the study were: normal, GH-insensitive (GHI; homozygous for the E180 splice mutation); heterozygous GHI (carriers of the E180 splice mutation); GH-deficient; and idiopathic short stature. Serum IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations (collected on d 1, 5, and 8 of treatment weeks) were GH-dependent, with significant elevation by d 5 of treatment, regardless of dose, in all normal subjects. GHI subjects had low baseline IGFBP-3 and poor or no response to either low- or high-dose GH. Heterozygous subjects, however, did not differ from age-matched normals with regard to IGFBP-3 generation. All GH-deficient subjects had subnormal baseline concentrations of IGFBP-3; most, but not all, were able to generate levels into normal ranges by 8 d of therapy. Children with idiopathic short stature showed a better response in IGFBP-3 generation compared with that previously observed with IGF-I, reaching concentrations in normal range with either dose of GH, suggesting that any GHI in this group is relatively limited to IGF-I production. For the diagnosis of GHI, the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (92%) was found on d 8 of the high-dose GH-IGFBP-3 generation test. Failure to raise both IGF-I and IGFBP-3 lowered sensitivity to 82-86% with low-dose GH, and 86-91% with high-dose GH.
View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2002-020045
View details for Web of Science ID 000178649800057
View details for PubMedID 12364470
The IGF-I generation test revisited: A marker of GH sensitivity JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM 2001; 86 (11): 5176-5183
IGF-I generation tests were developed over 20 yr ago and are currently used in differentiating GH insensitivity (GHI) from other disorders characterized by low serum IGF-I. Nevertheless, generation tests have never been adequately characterized, and insufficient normative data are available. One hundred and ninety-eight subjects [including normal subjects; subjects with GHI, GH deficiency (GHD), and idiopathic short stature (ISS); and heterozygotes for the E180 splice GH receptor mutation] were randomized to self-administration of either a high (0.05 mg/kg x d) or a low (0.025 mg/kg x d) dose of GH for 7 d. After a 2-wk washout period, they received the alternate dose. Samples were collected on d 1, 5, and 8 of each treatment period. In normal individuals, IGF-I generation was GH dependent at all ages, and little advantage was observed in using the higher dose of GH or extending beyond the d 5 sample. Some GHD patients had IGF-I levels, both baseline and stimulated, that overlapped levels in the verified GHI patients. Subjects heterozygous for the E180 GH receptor splice mutation did not show a decreased responsiveness to GH. ISS patients had low-normal IGF-I levels that did not stimulate beyond the baseline normative ranges for age. These data provide the first large scale effort to provide preliminary normative IGF generation data and evaluate the GH sensitivity of patients with GHI, GHD, and ISS.
View details for Web of Science ID 000172137600014
View details for PubMedID 11701674
Mutation of three critical amino acids of the N-terminal domain of IGF-binding protein-3 essential for high affinity IGF binding JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM 2001; 86 (10): 4943-4950
The N-terminal domain is conserved in all members of the IGF-binding protein superfamily. Most recently, studies have demonstrated the importance of an IGF-binding protein N-terminal hydrophobic pocket for IGF binding. To examine more critically the amino acids important for IGF binding within the full-length IGF-binding protein-3 protein while minimizing changes in the tertiary structure, we targeted residues I56, L80, and L81 within the proposed hydrophobic pocket for mutation. With a single change at these sites to the nonconserved glycine there was a notable decrease in binding. A greater reduction was seen when both L80 and L81 were substituted with glycine, and complete loss of affinity for IGF-I and IGF-II occurred when all three targeted amino acids were changed to glycine. Furthermore, the ability of the IGF-binding protein-3 mutants to inhibit IGF-I-stimulated phosphorylation of its receptor was a reflection of their affinity for IGF, with the lowest affinity mutants having the least inhibitory effect. These studies, thus, support the hypothesis that an N-terminal hydrophobic pocket is the primary site of high affinity binding of IGF to IGF-binding protein-3. The mutants provide a tool for future studies directed at IGF-dependent and IGF-independent actions of IGF-binding protein-3.
View details for Web of Science ID 000171755400063
View details for PubMedID 11600567
Genetic defects of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis TRENDS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM 2000; 11 (2): 39-49
Our understanding of the physiology of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis has been characterized by remarkable advances in the past decade, with clarification of genetic defects in the development of somatotropes, GH secretion and action, and IGF synthesis and action. Combined efforts of research in this area and the development of animal models of growth retardation have also indicated new genetic abnormalities that might prove to cause short stature in humans. Genetic defects, both established and hypothetical, are reviewed, and a pragmatic clinical approach to the genetic investigation of short-statured patients is presented.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085476800001
View details for PubMedID 10675889