Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum, Pulmonary Stenosis, and Ebstein's Malformation. Pediatric critical care medicine 2016; 17 (8): S323-9
The objectives of this review are to discuss the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical course, and current treatment strategies for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, pulmonary stenosis, and Ebstein's anomaly.MEDLINE and PubMed.Considerable advances have been made in management strategies for these complex congenital heart lesions, which have led to improved outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000818
View details for PubMedID 27490618
Recovery From Acute Kidney Injury and CKD Following Heart Transplantation in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: A Retrospective Cohort Study. American journal of kidney diseases 2016; 68 (2): 212-218
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in children following surgery for congenital heart disease and has been associated with poor long-term kidney outcomes. Children undergoing heart transplantation may be at increased risk for the development of both AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study examines AKI rates in children, adolescents, and young adults after heart transplantation and analyzes the relationship between AKI and CKD in this population.Retrospective cohort study.88 young patients who underwent heart transplantation at Lucile Packard Children'sHospital, Stanford, CA, September 1, 2007, to November 30,2013.The primary independent variable was AKI within the first 7 postoperative days, ascertained according to the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) creatinine criteria (increase in serum creatinine 1.5 times baseline within 7 days).Recovery from AKI at 3 months, ascertained as serum creatinine level< 1.5 times baseline; and development of CKD at 6 and 12 months, ascertained as estimated glomerular filtration rate< 60mL/min/1.73m(2) for more than 3 months.63 (72%) patients developed AKI; 57% had moderate (stage 2 or severe stage 3) disease. Recoveryoccurred in 39 of 63 (62%), 50% for stage 2 or 3 versus 78% for stage 1 (P=0.04). At 6 and 12 months, 3 of 82 (4%) and 4 of 76 (5%) developed CKD, respectively. At both time points, CKD was more common in those without recovery (3/22 [14%] vs 0/38 (0%); P=0.04, and 3/17 (18%) vs (0/34) 0%; P=0.03, respectively).Retrospective design, small sample size, and single-center nature of the study.AKI is common after heart transplantation in children, adolescents, and young adults. Nonrecovery from AKI is more common in patients with more severe AKI and is associated with the development of CKD during the first year.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.01.024
View details for PubMedID 26970941
Acute Kidney Injury and Cardiorenal Syndromes in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care. Pediatric critical care medicine 2016; 17 (8): S250-6
The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of acute kidney injury and its impact on immediate, short-, and long-term outcomes. In addition, the spectrum of cardiorenal syndromes will be reviewed including the pathophysiology on this interaction and its impact on outcomes.MEDLINE and PubMed.The field of cardiac intensive care continues to advance in tandem with congenital heart surgery. As mortality has become a rare occurrence, the focus of cardiac intensive care has shifted to that of morbidity reduction. Acute kidney injury adversely impact outcomes of patients following surgery for congenital heart disease as well as in those with heart failure (cardiorenal syndrome). Patients who become fluid overloaded and/or require dialysis are at a higher risk of mortality, but even minor degrees of acute kidney injury portend a significant increase in mortality and morbidity. Clinicians continue to seek methods of early diagnosis and risk stratification of acute kidney injury to prevent its adverse sequelae.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000820
View details for PubMedID 27490607
Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Description and Evaluation of a Novel Intensive Training Program for Pediatric Cardiology Trainees PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY 2016; 37 (5): 834-844
The transition from residency to subspecialty fellowship in a procedurally driven field such as pediatric cardiology is challenging for trainees. We describe and assess the educational value of a pediatric cardiology "boot camp" educational tool designed to help prepare trainees for cardiology fellowship. A two-day intensive training program was provided for pediatric cardiology fellows in July 2015 at a large fellowship training program. Hands-on experiences and simulations were provided in: anatomy, auscultation, echocardiography, catheterization, cardiovascular intensive care (CVICU), electrophysiology (EP), heart failure, and cardiac surgery. Knowledge-based exams as well as surveys were completed by each participant pre-training and post-training. Pre- and post-exam results were compared via paired t tests, and survey results were compared via Wilcoxon rank sum. A total of eight participants were included. After boot camp, there was a significant improvement between pre- and post-exam scores (PRE 549% vs. POST 858%; p0.001). On pre-training survey, the most common concerns about starting fellowship included: CVICU emergencies, technical aspects of the catheterization/EP labs, using temporary and permanent pacemakers/implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), and ECG interpretation. Comparing pre- and post-surveys, there was a statistically significant improvement in the participants comfort level in 33 of 36 (92%) areas of assessment. All participants (8/8, 100%) strongly agreed that the boot camp was a valuable learning experience and helped to alleviate anxieties about the start of fellowship. A pediatric cardiology boot camp experience at the start of cardiology fellowship can provide a strong foundation and serve as an educational springboard for pediatric cardiology fellows.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-016-1357-z
View details for Web of Science ID 000377722400005
View details for PubMedID 26961569
Initial Observations of the Effects of Calcium Chloride Infusions in Pediatric Patients with Low Cardiac Output PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY 2016; 37 (3): 610-617
Initial Observations of the Effects of Calcium Chloride Infusions in Pediatric Patients with Low Cardiac Output. Pediatric cardiology 2016; 37 (3): 610-617
Myocardial contractility and relaxation are highly dependent on calcium homeostasis. Immature myocardium, as in pediatric patients, is thought to be more dependent on extracellular calcium for optimal function. For this reason, intravenous calcium chloride infusions may improve myocardial function in the pediatric patient. The objectives of this study were to report the hemodynamic changes seen after administration of continuous calcium chloride to critically ill children. We retrospectively identified pediatric patients (newborn to 17years old) with hemodynamic instability admitted to the cardiac ICU between May 2011 and May 2012 who received a continuous infusion of calcium chloride. The primary outcome was improvement in cardiac output, assessed by arterial-mixed venous oxygen saturation (A-V) difference. Sixty-eight patients, mean age 0.872.67years, received a total of 116 calcium infusions. Calcium chloride infusions resulted in significant improvements in primary and secondary measures of cardiac output at 2 and 6h. Six hours after calcium initiation, A-V oxygen saturation difference decreased by 7.4% (32.62.1 to 25.22.0%, p<0.001), rSO2 increased by 5.5% (63.1 vs 68.6%, p<0.001), and serum lactate decreased by 0.9mmol/l (3.3 vs 2.4mmol/l, p<0.001) with no change in HR (149.1 vs 145.6bpm p=0.07). Urine output increased 0.66ml/kg/h in the 8-h period after calcium initiation when compared to pre-initiation (p=0.003). Neonates had the strongest evidence of effectiveness with other age groups trending toward significance. Calcium chloride infusions improve markers of cardiac output in a heterogenous group of pediatric patients in a cardiac ICU. Neonates appear to derive the most benefit from utilization of these infusions.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-015-1322-2
View details for PubMedID 26687150
The Kidney in Critical Cardiac Disease: Proceedings From the 10th International Conference of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery 2016; 7 (2): 152-163
The field of cardiac intensive care continues to advance in tandem with congenital heart surgery. The focus of intensive care unit care has now shifted to that of morbidity reduction and eventual elimination. Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with adverse outcomes, including prolonged intensive care and hospital stays, diminished quality of life, and increased long-term mortality. Acute kidney injury occurs frequently, complicating the care of both postoperative patients and those with heart failure. Patients who become fluid overloaded and/or require dialysis are at high risk of mortality, but even minor degrees of AKI portend a significant increase in mortality and morbidity. Clinicians continue to seek methods of early diagnosis and risk stratification of AKI to prevent its adverse sequelae. Previous conventional wisdom that survivors of AKI fully recover renal function without subsequent consequences may be flawed.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135115623289
View details for PubMedID 26957397
Dexmedetomidine Is Associated With Lower Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury After Congenital Heart Surgery PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE 2016; 17 (2): 128-134
Recent data have suggested an association between the use of dexmedetomidine and a decreased incidence of acute kidney injury in adult patients after cardiopulmonary bypass. However, no study has focused on this association among pediatric populations where the incidence of acute kidney injury is particularly high and of critical significance. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the use of postoperative dexmedetomidine and the incidence of acute kidney injury in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The secondary objective was to determine whether there was an association between dexmedetomidine use and duration of mechanical ventilation or cardiovascular ICU stay.Single-center retrospective matched cohort study.A 20-bed quaternary cardiovascular ICU in a university-based pediatric hospital in California.Children less than 18 years old admitted after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between January 1, 2012, and May 31, 2014.None.Data from a cohort of 102 patients receiving dexmedetomidine during the first postoperative day after cardiac surgery were compared to an age- and procedure-matched cohort not receiving dexmedetomidine. Cohorts had similar baseline and demographic characteristics. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine were less likely to develop acute kidney injury (24% vs 36%; odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29-0.99; p = 0.046). After adjusting for age, bypass time, nephrotoxin use, and vasoactive inotropic score, the use of dexmedetomidine was associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury with adjusted odds ratio of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.27-0.98; p = 0.048). There was no difference between the cohorts with respect to the duration of mechanical duration (1 d each; p = 0.98) or cardiovascular ICU stays (5 vs 6 d; p = 0.91).The use of a dexmedetomidine infusion in pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery was associated with a decreased incidence of acute kidney injury; however, it was not associated with changes in clinical outcomes. Further prospective study is necessary to validate these findings.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000611
View details for Web of Science ID 000369672900004
View details for PubMedID 26673841
Association of Definition of Acute Kidney Injury by Cystatin C Rise With Biomarkers and Clinical Outcomes in Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery JAMA PEDIATRICS 2015; 169 (6): 583-591
Research has identified improved biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI). Cystatin C (CysC) is a better glomerular filtration rate marker than serum creatinine (SCr) and may improve AKI definition.To determine if defining clinical AKI by increases in CysC vs SCr alters associations with biomarkers and clinical outcomes.Three-center prospective cohort study of intensive care units in New Haven, Connecticut, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Participants were 287 patients 18 years or younger without preoperative AKI or end-stage renal disease who were undergoing cardiac surgery. The study dates were July 1, 2007, through December 31, 2009.For biomarker vs clinical AKI associations, the exposures were first postoperative (0-6 hours after surgery) urine interleukin 18, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule 1, and liver fatty acid-binding protein. For clinical AKI outcome associations, the exposure was Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes AKI definition (based on SCr or CysC).Clinical AKI, length of stay, and length of mechanical ventilation. We determined areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve and odds ratios for first postoperative biomarkers to predict AKI.The SCr-defined vs CysC-defined AKI incidence differed substantially (43.6% vs 20.6%). Percentage agreement was 71% ( = 0.38); stage 2 or worse AKI percentage agreement was 95%. Interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1 discriminated for CysC-defined AKI better than for SCr-defined AKI. For interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.74 and 0.65, respectively, for CysC-defined AKI, and 0.66 and 0.58, respectively, for SCr-defined AKI. Fifth (vs first) quintile concentrations of both biomarkers were more strongly associated with CysC-defined AKI. For interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1, the odds ratios were 16.19 (95% CI, 3.55-73.93) and 6.93 (95% CI, 1.88-25.59), respectively, for CysC-defined AKI vs 6.60 (95% CI, 2.76-15.76) and 2.04 (95% CI, 0.94-4.38), respectively, for SCr-defined AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and liver fatty acid-binding protein associations with both definitions were similar. The CysC definitions and SCr definitions were similarly associated with clinical outcomes of resource use.Compared with the SCr-based definition, the CysC-based definition is more strongly associated with urine interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1 in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Consideration should be made for defining AKI based on CysC in clinical care and future studies.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.54
View details for Web of Science ID 000355735500015
Cardiac biomarkers and acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Pediatrics 2015; 135 (4): e945-56
To examine the relationship of cardiac biomarkers with postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) among pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery.Data from TRIBE-AKI, a prospective study of children undergoing cardiac surgery, were used to examine the association of cardiac biomarkers (N-type pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, creatine kinase-MB [CK-MB], heart-type fatty acid binding protein [h-FABP], and troponins I and T) with the development of postoperative AKI. Cardiac biomarkers were collected before and 0 to 6 hours after surgery. AKI was defined as a 50% or 0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine, within 7 days of surgery.Of the 106 patients included in this study, 55 (52%) developed AKI after cardiac surgery. Patients who developed AKI had higher median levels of pre- and postoperative cardiac biomarkers compared with patients without AKI (all P < .01). Preoperatively, higher levels of CK-MB and h-FABP were associated with increased odds of developing AKI (CK-MB: adjusted odds ratio 4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-13.41; h-FABP: adjusted odds ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.27-6.03). When combined with clinical models, both preoperative CK-MB and h-FABP provided good discrimination (area under the curve 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.87, and 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.87, respectively) and improved reclassification indices. Cardiac biomarkers collected postoperatively did not significantly improve the prediction of AKI beyond clinical models.Preoperative CK-MB and h-FABP are associated with increased risk of postoperative AKI and provide good discrimination of patients who develop AKI. These biomarkers may be useful for risk stratifying patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-2949
View details for PubMedID 25755241
Cardiac Biomarkers and Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery PEDIATRICS 2015; 135 (4): E945-E956
Combining Functional and Tubular Damage Biomarkers Improves Diagnostic Precision for Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2014; 64 (25): 2753-2762
Increases in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline signify acute kidney injury (AKI) but offer little granular information regarding its characteristics. The 10th Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) suggested that combining AKI biomarkers would provide better precision for AKI course prognostication.This study investigated the value of combining a functional damage biomarker (plasma cystatin C[pCysC]) with a tubular damage biomarker (urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [uNGAL]), forming a composite biomarker for prediction of discrete characteristics of AKI.Data from 345 children after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were analyzed. Severe AKI was defined as Kidney Disease Global Outcomes Initiative stages 2 to 3 (>100% SCr) within 7 days of CPB. Persistent AKI lasted >2 days. SCr in reversible AKI returned to baseline48 h after CPB. The composite of uNGAL (>200 ng/mg urine Cr= positive [+]) and pCysC (>0.8 mg/l= positive [+]), uNGAL+/pCysC+, measured 2 h after CPB initiation, was compared to SCr increases of50% for correlation with AKI characteristics by using predictive probabilities, likelihood ratios (LR), and area under the curve receiver operating curve (AUC-ROC) values.Severe AKI occurred in 18% of patients. The composite uNGAL+/pCysC+ demonstrated a greater likelihood than SCr for severe AKI (+LR: 34.2 [13.0:94.0] vs. 3.8 [1.9:7.2]) and persistent AKI (+LR: 15.6 [8.8:27.5] versus 4.5 [2.3:8.8]). In AKI patients, the uNGAL-/pCysC+ composite was superior to SCr for prediction of transient AKI. Biomarker composites carried greater probability for specific outcomes than SCr strata.Composites of functional and tubular damage biomarkers are superior to SCr for predicting discrete characteristics of AKI.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.09.066
View details for Web of Science ID 000346734900007
View details for PubMedID 25541128