Childhood Poverty and Its Effect on Health and Well-being: Enhancing Training for Learners Across the Medical Education Continuum. Academic pediatrics 2016; 16 (3): S155-62
Childhood poverty is unacceptably common in the US and threatens the health, development, and lifelong well-being of millions of children. Health care providers should be prepared through medical curricula to directly address the health harms of poverty. In this article, authors from The Child Poverty Education Subcommittee (CPES) of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty describe the development of the first such child poverty curriculum for teachers and learners across the medical education continuum.Educators, physicians, trainees, and public health professionals from 25 institutions across the United States and Canada were convened over a 2-year period and addressed 3 goals: 1) define the core competencies of child poverty education, 2) delineate the scope and aims of a child poverty curriculum, and 3) create a child poverty curriculum ready to implement in undergraduate and graduate medical education settings.The CPES identified 4 core domains for the curriculum including the epidemiology of child poverty, poverty-related social determinants of health, pathophysiology of the health effects of poverty, and leadership and action to reduce and prevent poverty's health effects. Workgroups, focused on each domain, developed learning goals and objectives, built interactive learning modules to meet them, and created evaluation and faculty development materials to supplement the core curriculum. An editorial team with representatives from each workgroup coordinated activities and are preparing the final curriculum for national implementation.This comprehensive, standardized child poverty curriculum developed by an international group of educators in pediatrics and experts in the health effects of poverty should prepare medical trainees to address child poverty and improve the health of poor children.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2015.12.012
View details for PubMedID 27044694
Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty. Academic pediatrics 2016; 16 (3): S136-46
Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2016.01.004
View details for PubMedID 27044692
Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY HEALTH 2015; 40 (6): 1140-1148
The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70%. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N=33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10900-015-0040-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000363978000012
View details for PubMedID 25980523
Child Advocacy in the Twenty-first Century. Advances in pediatrics 2015; 62 (1): 91-103
Health Care Utilization and Costs of Publicly-Insured Children with Diabetes in California. journal of pediatrics 2015; 167 (2): 449-54 e6
To examine diabetes-related health care utilization and costs for a population-based sample of children with presumed type 1 diabetes (T1D) enrolled in the California Children's Services program.Our data source was the California Children's Services claims data for the period July 1, 2009, to June 30, 2012. We studied a sample of 652 children aged 0-21years who were continuously enrolled for at least 365days, had an outpatient visit for T1D, and were taking insulin.Compared with the younger age groups, individuals in the 19-21year age group had the highest rates of hospitalization, T1D-specific bed-days, and emergency department visits. The overall median cost for this population was $7654. The overall median costs per year (and proportion of total costs) were $5603 (59%) for hospitalizations, $58 (0.4%) for emergency department visits, $144 (1.3%) for outpatient utilization, $2930 (23%) for insulin, and $1579 (13%) for blood glucose monitoring supplies. For those who used them, the median cost of pumps was an additional $2162.Further studies are needed to provide more insight into patterns of care and adverse health outcomes for children with T1D as they transition into young adulthood. The costs of insulin, glucose monitoring supplies, and pump therapy for children with T1D is substantial and may factor into future policy considerations regarding coverage and cost-sharing with families.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.04.067
View details for PubMedID 26028286
Outpatient Pharmacy Expenditures for Children With Serious Chronic Illness in California, 2010-2012. JAMA 2015; 314 (4): 405-407
Variation in Use of Pediatric Cardiology Subspecialty Care A Total Population Study in California, 1983 to 2011 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2015; 66 (1): 37-44
American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines emphasize regionalized systems of care for pediatric chronic illness. There remains a paucity of information on the status of regionalized systems of care for pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD).This study evaluated variations in use of pediatric cardiology specialty care centers (PCSCC) for pediatric patients with CHD in California between 1983 and2011.We performed a retrospective, total population analysis of pediatric CHD patients using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development unmasked database. PCSCCs were identified by California's Title V program.There were 164,310 discharges meeting inclusion criterion. Discharges from PCSCCs grew from 58% to 88%between 1983 and 2011. Regionalized care was highest for surgical (96%) versus nonsurgical (71%) admissions. Admissions with a public payer increased from 42% (1983) to 61% (2011). Total bed days nearly doubled, and median length of stay increased from 2 to 3 days (nonspecialty care) and from 4 to 5 days (specialty care). There was a decrease in the pediatric CHD in-hospital death rate from 5.1 to 2.3 per 100,000 between 1983 and 2011, and a shift toward a larger percent of deaths occurring in the newborn period.California's inpatient regionalized specialty care of pediatric CHD has increased substantially since 1983, especially for surgical CHD discharges. The death rate has decreased, the number of bed days has increased, and a large proportion of these discharges now have public payers. Health care reform efforts must consider these shifts while protecting advances in regionalization of pediatric CHD care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.04.053
View details for Web of Science ID 000357417900006
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Patient Care: Medical Students' Preparedness and Comfort TEACHING AND LEARNING IN MEDICINE 2015; 27 (3): 254-263
Phenomenon: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face significant barriers in accessing appropriate and comprehensive medical care. Medical students' level of preparedness and comfort caring for LGBT patients is unknown.An online questionnaire (2009-2010) was distributed to students (n = 9,522) at 176 allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in Canada and the United States, followed by focus groups (2010) with students (n = 35) at five medical schools. The objective of this study was to characterize LGBT-related medical curricula, to determine medical students' assessments of their institutions' LGBT-related curricular content, and to evaluate their comfort and preparedness in caring for LGBT patients.Of 9,522 survey respondents, 4,262 from 170 schools were included in the final analysis. Most medical students (2,866/4,262; 67.3%) evaluated their LGBT-related curriculum as "fair" or worse. Students most often felt prepared addressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; 3,254/4,147; 78.5%) and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (2,851/4,136; 68.9%). They felt least prepared discussing sex reassignment surgery (1,061/4,070; 26.1%) and gender transitioning (1,141/4,068; 28.0%). Medical education helped 62.6% (2,669/4,262) of students feel "more prepared" and 46.3% (1,972/4,262) of students feel "more comfortable" to care for LGBT patients. Four focus group sessions with 29 students were transcribed and analyzed. Qualitative analysis suggested students have significant concerns in addressing certain aspects of LGBT health, specifically with transgender patients. Insights: Medical students thought LGBT-specific curricula could be improved, consistent with the findings from a survey of deans of medical education. They felt comfortable, but not fully prepared, to care for LGBT patients. Increasing curricular coverage of LGBT-related topics is indicated with emphasis on exposing students to LGBT patients in clinical settings.
View details for DOI 10.1080/10401334.2015.1044656
View details for Web of Science ID 000357653400004
View details for PubMedID 26158327
Trends in Utilization of Specialty Care Centers in California for Adults With Congenital Heart Disease AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY 2015; 115 (9): 1298-1304
The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines recommend that management of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) be coordinated by specialty ACHD centers and that ACHD surgery for patients with moderate or complex congenital heart disease (CHD) be performed by surgeons with expertise and training in CHD. Given this, the aim of this study was to determine the proportion of ACHD surgery performed at specialty ACHD centers and to identify factors associated with ACHD surgery being performed outside of specialty centers. This retrospective population analysis used California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development's discharge database to analyze ACHD cardiac surgery (in patients 21 to 65years of age) in California from 2000 to 2011. Designation as a "specialty ACHD center" was defined on the basis of a national ACHD directory. A total of 4,611 ACHD procedures were identified. The proportion of procedures in patients with moderate and complex CHD delivered at specialty centers increased from 46% to 71% from 2000 to 2011. In multivariate analysis among those discharges for ACHD surgery in patients with moderate or complex CHD, performance of surgery outside a specialty center was more likely to be associated with patients who were older, Hispanic, insured by health maintenance organizations, and living farther from a specialty center. In conclusion, although the proportion of ACHD surgery for moderate or complex CHD being performed at specialty ACHD centers has been increasing, 1 in 4 patients undergo surgery at nonspecialty centers. Increased awareness of ACHD care guidelines and of the patient characteristics associated with differential access to ACHD centers may help improve the delivery of appropriate care for all adults with CHD.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.02.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000353926800021
More hippocrates, less hypocrisy: eliminate sugar-sweetened beverages from residency lunches. Academic medicine 2015; 90 (2): 127-128
Educating Health Care Professionals on Human Trafficking PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE 2014; 30 (12): 856-861
The US Department of State estimates that there are between 4 and 27 million individuals worldwide in some form of modern slavery. Recent studies have demonstrated that 28% to 50% of trafficking victims in the United States encountered health care professionals while in captivity, but were not identified and recognized. This study aimed to determine whether an educational presentation increased emergency department (ED) providers' recognition of human trafficking (HT) victims and knowledge of resources to manage cases of HT.The 20 largest San Francisco Bay Area EDs were randomized into intervention (10 EDs) or delayed intervention comparison groups (10 EDs) to receive a standardized educational presentation containing the following: background about HT, relevance of HT to health care, clinical signs in potential victims, and referral options for potential victims. Participants in the delayed intervention group completed a pretest in the period the immediate intervention group received the educational presentation, and all participants were assessed immediately before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention. The intervention effect was tested by comparing the pre-post change in the intervention group to the change in 2 pretests in the delayed intervention group adjusted for the effect of clustering within EDs. The 4 primary outcomes were importance of knowledge of HT to the participant's profession (5-point Likert scale), self-rated knowledge of HT (5-point Likert scale), knowledge of who to call for potential HT victims (yes/no), and suspecting that a patient was a victim of HT (yes/no).There were 258 study participants from 14 EDs; 141 from 8 EDs in the intervention group and 117 from 7 EDs in the delayed intervention comparison group, of which 20 served as the delayed intervention comparison group. Participants in the intervention group reported greater increases in their level of knowledge about HT versus those in the delayed intervention comparison group (1.42 vs -0.15; adjusted difference = 1.57 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.12]; P < 0.001). Pretest ratings of the importance of knowledge about HT to the participant's profession were high in both groups and there was no intervention effect (0.31 vs 0.55; -0.24 [-0.90-0.42], P = 0.49). Knowing who to call for potential HT victims increased from 7.2% to 59% in the intervention group and was unchanged (15%) in the delayed intervention comparison group (61.4% [28.5%-94.4%]; P < 0.01). The proportion of participants who suspected their patient was a victim of HT increased from 17% to 38% in the intervention group and remained unchanged (10%) in the delayed intervention comparison group (20.9 [8.6%-33.1%]; P < 0.01).A brief educational intervention increased ED provider knowledge and self-reported recognition of HT victims.
View details for Web of Science ID 000345912500005
View details for PubMedID 25407038
Neonatal intensive care unit to home: the transition from parent and pediatrician perspectives, a prospective cohort study JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY 2014; 34 (10): 761-766
Neonatal intensive care unit to home: the transition from parent and pediatrician perspectives, a prospective cohort study. Journal of perinatology 2014; 34 (10): 761-766
To describe the experience of a low-income population during the transition from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to home and to compare these experiences with pediatrician perspectives.A prospective cohort study in a Level III, 40-bed NICU at a county hospital in Northern California affiliated with seven outpatient pediatric clinics. We surveyed parents in English or Spanish at discharge (n=79) and two weeks after discharge (n=49), along with outpatient pediatricians (n=17). Parents assessed experiences with discharge and the frequency with which barriers were encountered after discharge. We compared parent experiences with pediatrician estimates on four of these barriers.Spanish survey participants had more difficulty finding a NICU doctor (P=0.05) or nurse (P=0.001) to answer their questions. After discharge, 16% of families experienced significant challenges with two or more barriers. In contrast, the majority of pediatricians estimated that 50% or more families had significant challenges with all four barriers.Communication difficulties were the most commonly reported barriers during the NICU stay and physicians overestimated the frequency that families experienced challenges after discharge. Parent input is important to create effective interventions aimed at improving care and limiting disparities.
View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2014.75
View details for PubMedID 24831523
"You get what you pay for": resources for training and practice in community pediatrics matter. Pediatrics 2014; 134 (1): 173-175
Children and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges in an Evolving System ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS 2014; 14 (3): 225-233
Children and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: opportunities and challenges in an evolving system. Academic pediatrics 2014; 14 (3): 225-233
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), passed in 2010, focused primarily on the problems of adults, but the changes in payment for and delivery of care it fosters will likely impact the health care of children. The evolving epidemiology of pediatric illness in the United States has resulted in a relatively small population of medically fragile children dispersed through the country and a large population of children with developmental and behavioral health issues who experience wide degrees of health disparities. Review of previous efforts to change the health care system reveals specific innovations in child health delivery that have been designed to address issues of child health. The ACA is complex and contains some language that improves access to care, quality of care, and the particular needs of the pediatric workforce. Most of the payment models and delivery systems proposed in the ACA, however, were not designed with the needs of children in mind and will need to be adapted to address their needs. To assure that the needs of children are met as systems evolve, child health professionals within and outside academe will need to focus their efforts in clinical care, research, education, and advocacy to incorporate child health programs into changing systems and to prevent unintended harm to systems designed to care for children.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2014.02.004
View details for PubMedID 24767775
Increased Utilization of Pediatric Specialty Care: A Population Study of Pediatric Oncology Inpatients in California JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGY ONCOLOGY 2014; 36 (2): 99-107
To examine inpatient utilization of pediatric cancer specialty centers (PCSCs) by pediatric oncology patients.We performed a retrospective (1999 to 2010) population-based analysis of oncology hospitalizations for pediatric patients aged 0 through 18 years using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database. Logistic regression examined hospitalization at 29 PCSCs and variables of age, sex, tumor type, payer, race, income, and distance to admission site.Analysis of 103,961 pediatric oncology discharges revealed that 93% occurred at PCSCs. These sites experienced a 20% increase in pediatric oncology discharges, conversely non-PCSCs exhibited a 70% decrease (P<0.0001). Multivariate analyses revealed increased utilization with young age (odds ratio [OR], 4.58; 95% CI, 3.88-5.42), African American (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.11-1.43), and middle income (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.29-1.45). Decreased utilization was seen for females (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.93) and Hispanics (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.68-0.77). Payer and proximity were not significantly associated with change in utilization. Tumor types less likely to utilize a PCSC included germ cell, solid, and central nervous system tumors. Adolescents were >3 times less likely to be treated at a PCSC.Inpatient pediatric oncology care in California has become increasingly regionalized with the vast majority of patients accessing PCSCs. However, variability in hospitalizations of adolescent patients and children not treated in PCSCs deserve further evaluation.
View details for DOI 10.1097/01.mph.0000438027.07467.f1
View details for Web of Science ID 000332087400013
View details for PubMedID 24517965
Legislative Advocacy: Evaluation of a Grand Rounds Intervention for Pediatricians ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS 2014; 14 (2): 181-185
Legislative advocacy: evaluation of a grand rounds intervention for pediatricians. Academic pediatrics 2014; 14 (2): 181-185
To evaluate the impact of a Grand Rounds Action Alert (GRAA) intervention on the behaviors, knowledge, and attitudes of pediatric grand rounds (GR) attendees; and to assess its acceptability.A cross-sectional, quasi-experimental study was performed at a freestanding children's hospital. GRAA on child health legislative topics were presented in the first 2 minutes of the pediatric GR session as well as posted outside. Each session included an action item, such as writing/signing letters to elected officials or informational sheets with legislator contact information. Main outcome measures included self-reported behavior, advocacy knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability.One year after GRAA implementation, GR attendees with high exposure to the intervention were more likely to have written/signed a letter to a legislator compared to those with low/no exposure (60% vs 35%, P=.016). Those with high exposure were also more knowledgeable regarding financing of health care for low-income children (20% vs 5%, P=.027). Attitudes toward advocacy at baseline were positive: respondents agreed it is important to remain informed about (98%) and advocate for (94%) legislation favorable to children's health. Implementing this program was challenging, but the intervention was accepted favorably: 93% of respondents agreed that GRAA should continue.GRAA facilitated participation in legislative advocacy behaviors while improving self-perceived knowledge of legislative issues relating to children's health. They were well received in a large tertiary children's hospital.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2013.08.004
View details for PubMedID 24126045
Asthma, tobacco smoke and the indoor environment: a qualitative study of sheltered homeless families JOURNAL OF ASTHMA 2014; 51 (2): 142-148
Asthma is common in homeless children with an incidence of 28-40%. There are few published studies investigating asthma in homeless children. This study examines the perspectives of both caregivers and shelter staff regarding challenges and opportunities of caring for children with asthma.A focus group of sheltered parents (n=10) with children who have asthma was conducted to identify barriers to optimal asthma management. Key informant interviews (n=6) were conducted with shelter staff to discuss the shelter systems and policies to address childhood asthma. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. A representative analysis team performed qualitative theme analysis.Key themes across 5 domains were identified: asthma education, access to asthma medication and equipment, asthma action plans, structural barriers to asthma management and environmental triggers. Parents identified multiple asthma triggers present in the shelter environment but cited lack of control as a barrier to remediation. Shelter staff desired elimination of asthma triggers but refer to the lack of resources as the primary barrier. Shelter staff favored a smoking ban on shelter property but named challenges to policy implementation. Both parents and staff identified asthma education and increased access to medications would be helpful.Policies to reduce environmental exposures, such as a smoking ban, to asthma triggers has the potential to improve the health of sheltered children with asthma.
View details for DOI 10.3109/02770903.2013.857682
View details for Web of Science ID 000331908900005
View details for PubMedID 24147583
Innovations in Practice: Exploring an intensive meditation intervention for incarcerated youth CHILD AND ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH 2014; 19 (1): 69-73
A Multi-Institutional Medical Educational Collaborative: Advocacy Training in California Pediatric Residency Programs ACADEMIC MEDICINE 2013; 88 (3): 314-321
Educational collaboratives offer a promising approach to disseminate educational resources and provide faculty development to advance residents' training, especially in areas of novel curricular content; however, their impact has not been clearly described. Advocacy training is a recently mandated requirement of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education that many programs struggle to meet.The authors describe the formation (in 2007) and impact (from 2008 to 2010) of 13 California pediatric residency programs working in an educational collaboration ("the Collaborative") to improve advocacy training. The Collaborative defined an overarching mission, assessed the needs of the programs, and mapped their strengths. The infrastructure required to build the collaboration among programs included a social networking site, frequent conference calls, and face-to-face semiannual meetings. An evaluation of the Collaborative's activities showed that programs demonstrated increased uptake of curricular components and an increase in advocacy activities. The themes extracted from semistructured interviews of lead faculty at each program revealed that the Collaborative (1) reduced faculty isolation, increased motivation, and strengthened faculty academic development, (2) enhanced identification of curricular areas of weakness and provided curricular development from new resources, (3) helped to address barriers of limited resident time and program resources, and (4) sustained the Collaborative's impact even after formal funding of the program had ceased through curricular enhancement, the need for further resources, and a shared desire to expand the collaborative network.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182806291
View details for Web of Science ID 000315522600015
View details for PubMedID 23348081
Global Health Training in Pediatric Residency: A Qualitative Analysis of Faculty Director Insights ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS 2012; 12 (3): 238-244
Interest and participation in global health (GH) has been growing rapidly among pediatric residents. Residency programs are responding by establishing formal GH programs. We sought to define key insights in GH education from pediatric residency programs with formal GH tracks.Seven model pediatric residency programs with formal GH training were identified in 2007. Faculty directors representing 6 of these programs participated in expert interviews assessing 6 categories of questions about GH tracks: understanding how GH tracks establish partnerships with global sites; defining organizational and financing structure of GH tracks; describing resident curriculum and pre-trip preparation; describing clinical experiences of residents in GH tracks; defining evaluation of residents and GH tracks; and defining factors that affect development and ongoing implementation of GH tracks. Data were analyzed using qualitative methodology.All programs relied on faculty relationships to establish dynamic partnerships with global sites. All programs acknowledged resident burden on GH partners. Strategies to alleviate burden included improving resident supervision and providing varying models of GH curricula and pre-trip preparation, generally based on core residency training competencies. Support and funding for GH programs are minimal and variable. Resident experiences included volunteer patient care, teaching, and research. Commitment of experienced faculty and support from institutional leadership facilitated implementation of GH programs.Directors of 6 model GH programs within pediatric residencies provided insights that inform others who want to establish successful GH partnerships and resident training that will prepare trainees to meet global child health needs.
View details for Web of Science ID 000304212400014
View details for PubMedID 22503444
A neonatal resuscitation curriculum in Malawi, Africa: did it change in-hospital mortality? International journal of pediatrics 2012; 2012: 408689-?
Objective. The WHO estimates that 99% of the 3.8 million neonatal deaths occur in developing countries. Neonatal resuscitation training was implemented in Namitete, Malawi. The study's objective was to evaluate the training's impact on hospital staff and neonatal mortality rates. Study Design. Pre-/postcurricular surveys of trainee attitude, knowledge, and skills were analyzed. An observational, longitudinal study of secondary data assessed neonatal mortality. Result. All trainees' (n = 18) outcomes improved, (P = 0.02). Neonatal mortality did not change. There were 3449 births preintervention, 3515 postintervention. Neonatal mortality was 20.9 deaths per 1000 live births preintervention and 21.9/1000 postintervention, (P = 0.86). Conclusion. Short-term pre-/postintervention evaluations frequently reveal positive results, as ours did. Short-term pre- and postintervention evaluations should be interpreted cautiously. Whenever possible, clinical outcomes such as in-hospital mortality should be additionally assessed. More rigorous evaluation strategies should be applied to training programs requiring longitudinal relationships with international community partners.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2012/408689
View details for PubMedID 22164184
Do Medical Professionalism and Medical Education Involve Commitments to Political Advocacy? ACADEMIC MEDICINE 2011; 86 (9): 1062-1063
Access to Pediatric Subspecialty Care: A Population Study of Pediatric Rheumatology Inpatients in California ARTHRITIS CARE & RESEARCH 2011; 63 (7): 998-1005
To examine trends in the specialty care hospitalization of pediatric rheumatology patients and determine how nonclinical factors influence access.This study used California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge database to perform a retrospective population analysis of pediatric rheumatology hospitalizations in California between 1999 and 2007. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between hospitalization in specialty care centers with a pediatric rheumatologist and nonclinical patient characteristics.A total of 18,641 pediatric discharges revealed that 57% were discharged from a specialty care center with a pediatric rheumatologist. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with increased utilization of specialty care centers with a pediatric rheumatologist were public insurance (odds ratio [OR] 1.62, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.51-1.74; P < 0.0001), being Hispanic (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.19-1.40; P < 0.0001) or Asian non-Hispanic (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.26-1.54; P < 0.0001), and high pediatric rheumatology specialty care bed supply (OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.49-3.14; P < 0.0001). A decreased utilization of specialty care centers with a pediatric rheumatologist was seen for patients ages <1 year (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.40-0.52; P < 0.0001), ages 1-4 years (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.46-0.55; P < 0.0001), ages 5-9 years (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.62-0.75; P < 0.0001), ages 15-18 years (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.47-0.56; P < 0.0001), males (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.70-0.80; P < 0.0001), and patients residing farther away from a specialty care center with a pediatric rheumatologist (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.51-0.63; P < 0.0001).Nonclinical factors play an increasingly important role in the hospitalization patterns of pediatric rheumatology patients in California. Understanding these factors is crucial if we are to ensure that the variation in access to care reflects clinical need.
View details for DOI 10.1002/acr.20458
View details for Web of Science ID 000292809200011
View details for PubMedID 21360697
Health, Occupational and Environmental Risks of Emancipated Migrant Farmworker Youth JOURNAL OF HEALTH CARE FOR THE POOR AND UNDERSERVED 2010; 21 (4): 1215-1226
This study examines the perceptions of health, health seeking behavior, access to information and resources, work related hazards, substance abuse, and social support of emancipated migrant youth (EMY) who come to the United States without their families to work.Semi-structured interviews were performed with EMY living without their families in Santa Clara County, California. Interviews were digitally recorded in Spanish, transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed by a five-person analysis team.Eleven interviews were conducted with 29 participants. Work was identified as the overarching priority of the EMY Their greatest concern was becoming sick and unable to work. They described their work environment as demanding and stressful, but felt obliged to work regardless of conditions. Alcohol and drug abuse were reported as prevalent problems.Emancipated migrant youth are a vulnerable population who have significant occupational stress, hazardous environmental exposures, social isolation, and drug/alcohol abuse.
View details for Web of Science ID 000283622700012
View details for PubMedID 21099073
Variation in Specialty Care Hospitalization for Children With Chronic Conditions in California PEDIATRICS 2010; 125 (6): 1190-1199
Despite the documented utility of regionalized systems of pediatric specialty care, little is known about the actual use of such systems in total populations of chronically ill children. The objective of this study was to evaluate variations and trends in regional patterns of specialty care hospitalization for children with chronic illness in California.Using California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development unmasked discharge data set between 1999 and 2007, we performed a retrospective, total-population analysis of variations in specialty care hospitalization for children with chronic illness in California. The main outcome measure was the use of pediatric specialty care centers for hospitalization of children with a chronic condition in California.Analysis of 2 170 102 pediatric discharges revealed that 41% had a chronic condition, and 44% of these were discharged from specialty care centers. Specialty care hospitalization varied by county and type of condition. Multivariate analyses associated increased specialty care center use with public insurance and high pediatric specialty care bed supply. Decreased use of regionalized care was seen for adolescent patients, black, non-Hispanic children, and children who resided in zip codes of low income or were located farther from a regional center of care.Significant variation exists in specialty care hospitalization among chronically ill children in California. These findings suggest a need for greater scrutiny of clinical practices and child health policies that shape patterns of hospitalization of children with serious chronic disease.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2009-1109
View details for Web of Science ID 000278268600013
View details for PubMedID 20439593
Lessons learned from a community-academic partnership addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino American families. Progress in community health partnerships : research, education, and action 2010; 4 (4): 305-313
Filipino Americans have more adolescent pregnancies than other Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs). Few community-academic collaborations have addressed adolescent pregnancy prevention in this community.We sought to describe the lessons learned from and impact of a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program for Filipino Americans implemented by a Filipina pediatrics resident.We formed a community-academic partnership between the Filipino Youth Coalition, a community-based organization (CBO) in San Jose, California, and the Stanford School of Medicine's Pediatric Advocacy Program. We developed a culturally tailored parent-teen conference addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino Americans. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated this intervention by collecting both pre- and post-conference data using a convenience sample design.Engaging particular aspects of Filipino culture (i.e., religion and intergenerational differences) helped to make this community-academic partnership successful. For physicians-in-training who are conducting community-based participatory research (CBPR), project challenges may include difficulties in building and maintaining academic- community relationships, struggles to promote sustainability, and conflicting goals of "community insiders" and "academic outsiders." Authors offer insights and implications for residents interested in practicing CBPR.CBPR is a key tool for exploring health issues in understudied populations. CBPR experiences can provide meaningful educational opportunities for physicians-in-training and can build sustained capacity in CBOs. They can also help residents to develop analytic skills, directly affect the health of the communities they serve, and, for minority physicians, give back to the communities they call home.
View details for DOI 10.1353/cpr.2010.0023
View details for PubMedID 21169708
Impact of Managed Care on Publicly Insured Children with Special Health Care Needs ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS 2010; 10 (1): 48-55
The aim of this review was to evaluate the impact of managed care on publicly insured children with special health care needs (CSHCN).We conducted a review of the extant literature. Using a formal computerized search, with search terms reflecting 7 specific outcome categories, we summarized study findings and study quality.We identified 13 peer-reviewed articles that evaluated the impact of Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance program (SCHIP) Managed Care (MSMC) on health services delivery to populations of CSHCN, with all studies observational in design. Considered in total, the available scientific evidence is varied. Findings concerning care access demonstrate a positive effect of MSMC; findings concerning care utilization were mixed. Little information was identified concerning health care quality, satisfaction, costs, or health status, whereas no study yielded evidence on family impact.The available studies suggest that the evaluated record of MSMC for CSHCN has been mixed, with considerable heterogeneity in the definition of CSHCN, program design, and measured outcomes. These findings suggest caution should be exercised in implementing MSMC for CSHCN and that greater emphasis on health outcomes and cost evaluations is warranted.
View details for Web of Science ID 000279188000010
View details for PubMedID 20129481
Integrating Collaborative Population Health Projects into a Medical Student Curriculum at Stanford ACADEMIC MEDICINE 2008; 83 (4): 338-344
The authors describe the population health curriculum at the Stanford University School of Medicine from 2003 to 2007 that includes a requirement for first-year medical students to engage in community-based population health projects. The new curriculum in population health comprises classroom and experiential teaching methods. Population health projects, a key component of the curriculum, are described and classified by topic and topic area (e.g., health education; health services) and the intended outcome of the intervention (e.g., establishing new policies; advocacy). During the past four years, 344 students have entered the curriculum and have participated in 68 population health projects. The projects were determined both by students' interests and community needs, and they represented diverse topics: 51% of the 68 projects addressed topics in the area of disease prevention and health promotion; 28% addressed health care access; 15% addressed health services; 4% addressed emergency preparedness; and 1% addressed ethical issues in health. Each project had one of three targets for intervention: community capacity building, establishing policies and engaging in advocacy, and bringing about change or improvement in an aspect of the health care system. Projects represented diverse stages in the evolution of a community-campus partnership, from needs assessment to planning, implementation, and evaluation of project outcomes. Experience to date shows that classroom-based sessions and experiential learning in the area of population health can be successfully integrated in a medical school curriculum. When contextualized in a population health curriculum, population health projects can provide future physicians with an experiential counterpart to their classroom learning.
View details for Web of Science ID 000267654000005
View details for PubMedID 18367891
Introduction of a Pediatric Palliative Care Curriculum for pediatric residents JOURNAL OF PALLIATIVE MEDICINE 2008; 11 (2): 164-170
The Pediatric Palliative Care Curriculum (PPCC) was introduced as a pilot study in response to the published need for increased pediatric education in end-of-life (EOL) care. The PPCC was designed to better train residents in EOL issues so they could become more comfortable and knowledgeable in caring for children and adolescents with life-threatening illnesses.The PPCC consisted of six hour-long sessions run by a clinical psychologist, a licensed social worker, and faculty with experience in EOL care. The curriculum repeated every 6 weeks for 1 year. Residents in the training program at Stanford University rotating through oncology, pulmonology, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) were invited to attend. Session topics included: (1) personal coping skills, (2) being a caring professional, (3) recognizing cultural and familial differences, (4) pain management, (5) practical issues, and (6) meeting a bereaved parent. Pretest and posttest surveys with five-point Likert scale questions were used to measure curricular impact.Statistically significant improvement was found in resident self-report of: feeling prepared to initiate do-not-resuscitate discussions (p = 0.001), access to nonpharmacologic pain resources (p = 0.005), exposure to role models who balance medical professionalism and expression of grief (p = 0.005), ability to address dying patient anxiety (p = 0.01), administer pain medications (p = 0.01), initiate organ donation discussions (p = 0.05), and discuss transition from curative to palliative care (p = 0.05). Survey ratings for the following topics were unchanged: "expression of grief is unprofessional" and "residency stress prohibits the processing of and coping with grief."Pediatric residents who participated in this pilot study felt they learned important skills in pediatric EOL care and enhanced their confidence in their ability to care for dying patients and their families. Interventions like the PPCC may be useful at other institutions and aid in the transition to competency-based training.
View details for DOI 10.1089/jpm.2007.0194
View details for Web of Science ID 000254651600010
View details for PubMedID 18333729
Making pediatrics residency programs family friendly: Views along the professional educational continuum JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS 2006; 149 (1): 1-2
Advocacy by any other name would smell as sweet ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 2006; 160 (4): 453-453
Does children's screen time predict requests for advertised products? Cross-sectional and prospective analyses ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 2006; 160 (4): 363-368
To examine children's screen media exposure and requests for advertised toys and food/drinks.Prospective cohort study.Twelve elementary schools in northern California.Eight hundred twenty-seven third grade children participated at baseline; 386 students in 6 schools were followed up for 20 months.None.Child self-reported requests for advertised toys and foods/drinks.At baseline, children's screen media time was significantly associated with concurrent requests for advertised toys (Spearman r = 0.15 [TV viewing] and r = 0.20 [total screen time]; both P<.001) and foods/drinks (Spearman r = 0.16 [TV viewing] and r = 0.18 [total screen time]; both P<.001). In prospective analysis, children's screen media time at baseline was significantly associated with their mean number of toy requests 7 to 20 months later (Spearman r = 0.21 [TV viewing] and r = 0.24 [total screen time]; both P<.001) and foods/drinks requests (Spearman r = 0.14 [TV viewing] and r = 0.16 [total screen time]; both P<.01). After adjusting for baseline requests and sociodemographic variables, the relationship between screen media exposure and future requests for advertised foods/drinks remained significant for total TV viewing and total screen media exposure. The relationship with future requests for toys remained significant for total screen media exposure.Screen media exposure is a prospective risk factor for children's requests for advertised products. Future experimental studies on children's health- and consumer-related outcomes are warranted.
View details for Web of Science ID 000236516500004
View details for PubMedID 16585480
Universal health care coverage for children: Impact on pediatric health care providers JOURNAL OF HEALTH CARE FOR THE POOR AND UNDERSERVED 2005; 16 (4): 622-633
A Northern California county expanded health coverage to cover nearly all children in the state through a new insurance program. In two years, 75,500 children entered a health care system near capacity. We hypothesized that the influx of thousands of previously uninsured children into the health system would affect providers in many ways. This cross-sectional study sought to investigate how this influx affected provider practices, job satisfaction, access to specialists, and overarching views about the program. Qualitative analyses of expert interviews were performed. Providers reported improved access to health care, specialists, and medications for patients. They cited increased job satisfaction for providers due to fewer limits on care, improved referral process, and decreased patient family financial stress. Providers noted the persistence of long appointment wait times for specialist care. After moving to near universal coverage, safety net providers described increased job satisfaction. Because this study examined safety-net providers, future research requires a more representative sample of providers.
View details for Web of Science ID 000233779500005
View details for PubMedID 16311488
Child advocacy training - Curriculum outcomes and resident satisfaction ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 2005; 159 (9): 842-847
Many health problems affecting children today are based in the community and cannot be easily addressed in the office setting. Child advocacy is an effective approach for pediatricians to take.To describe pediatric residents' choices of advocacy topics and interventions.Cross-sectional observational study.Residents from 3 pediatric training programs participated in the Child Advocacy Curriculum, which featured standardized workshops and the development of individual advocacy projects. To evaluate the curriculum, project descriptions and material products were analyzed to determine individual advocacy topics, topic themes, and targets of project interventions. Differences among programs were assessed. Residents also completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing their experience with the Child Advocacy Curriculum.Residents demonstrated a wide range of interests in selecting advocacy topics: 99 residents chose 38 different topics. The most common topic was obesity (13 residents) followed by health care access (9), teen pregnancy prevention (6), and oral health (5). Themes included health promotion and disease prevention, injury prevention, health care access, children with special health care needs, child development, at-risk populations, and the impact of media on child health. The project interventions targeted the local community most frequently (37%), followed by resident education (27%), hospital systems (21%), and public and health policy (15%). The vast majority of participating residents reported a positive experience with the Child Advocacy Curriculum.The wide range of topics and settings in which residents developed projects illustrates residents' extensive interests and ingenuity in applying needed advocacy solutions to complex child health issues.
View details for Web of Science ID 000231653800007
View details for PubMedID 16143743
Creating an analytic voice in the policy storm AMBULATORY PEDIATRICS 2005; 5 (1): 45-46
Lead paint dangers and physician advocacy. The virtual mentor : VM 2005; 7 (12)
The crucial role of the vanishing school nurse ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 2004; 158 (11): 1091-1091
Wernicke encephalopathy and Beriberi during total parenteral nutrition attributable to multivitamin infusion shortage PEDIATRICS 1998; 101 (1)
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neurologic disorder characterized by a triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and mental confusion. WE is attributable to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Beriberi is the systemic counterpart of thiamine deficiency and often manifests in cardiovascular collapse. WE is usually associated with alcoholism and malnutrition. It has also been seen in people with gastrointestinal diseases with malabsorption. Patients who have received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without proper replacement of thiamine have also developed WE. Since November 1996, there has been a shortage of multivitamin infusion (MVI). Many patients who were on chronic TPN with MVI ceased to receive the MVI and were converted to an oral form of the multivitamin. As a result, there have been several reports of children and adults on TPN who have developed WE as a result of thiamine deficiency. With this case report, we bring to attention the association of the MVI shortage and WE. Early diagnosis of WE is important, because if it is treated with thiamine in the acute stages, the neurologic and cardiovascular abnormalities can be reversed.We report a 20-year-old female patient with Crohn's disease who developed WE as a result of thiamine deficiency. She had Crohn's disease since age 9 years and was on chronic TPN. Two months before admission, MVI was discontinued in the TPN because of the shortage of its supply. An oral multivitamin tablet was substituted instead. She was admitted to the hospital for persistent vomiting. In the hospital, she continued to receive TPN without MVI, but continued taking an oral multivitamin preparation. Two weeks after admission, she developed signs of WE including diplopia, ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, and memory disturbance. She also developed hypotension that was thought to be caused by beriberi. She was treated with 50 mg of intravenous thiamine. Within hours of the intravenous thiamine, her hypotension resolved. The day after the infusion, she no longer complained of diplopia, and her ophthalmoplegia had improved dramatically. Magnetic resonance imaging showed several areas of abnormally high signal on T2-weighted images in the brainstem, thalamus, and mamillary bodies. The topographic distribution of these changes was typical of WE. After 2 months, her mental status and neurologic status had recovered completely.WE and thiamine deficiency should be considered in all patients with malabsorption, malnutrition, and malignancies. WE from thiamine deficiency can occur as a result of cessation of MVI in the TPN infusion. Even if an oral multivitamin preparation is given instead of MVI, patients with malabsorption may not absorb thiamine adequately. Prompt diagnosis of WE is important because it is potentially fatal and readily treatable with thiamine supplementation. Early recognition of WE may be more difficult in children, because the classic triad of symptoms may not develop fully. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in these cases to confirm the diagnosis of WE. Because the shortage of MVI is expected to be a long-term, there are likely to be more cases of WE in the pediatric population of TPN-dependent children. Because there is no shortage of intravenous thiamine, it should be administered with TPN even if MVI is not available.
View details for Web of Science ID 000071331400026
View details for PubMedID 9417174