A Reduced-Toxicity Regimen Is Associated with Durable Engraftment and Clinical Cure of Nonmalignant Genetic Diseases among Children Undergoing Blood and Marrow Transplantation with an HLA-Matched Related Donor BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION 2015; 21 (3): 440-444
Blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) is a standard curative therapy for patients with nonmalignant genetic diseases. Myeloablative conditioning has been associated with significant regimen-related toxicity (RRT), whereas reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been associated with graft failure. In this prospective pilot trial conducted at 2 centers between 2006 and 2013, we report the outcome of 22 patients with nonmalignant genetic diseases who were conditioned with a novel reduced-toxicity regimen: i.v. busulfan (16 mg/kg), alemtuzumab (52 mg/m(2)), fludarabine (140 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (105 mg/kg). The median age of the study population was 3.5 years (range, 5 months to 26 years). No cases of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, severe or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or primary graft failure were reported. Median time to neutrophil engraftment (>500 cells/L) and platelet engraftment (>20K cells/L) were 19 (range, 12 to 50) and 23.5 (range, 14 to 134) days, respectively. The median length of follow-up was 3 years (range, .2 to 6.3). The overall survival rates were 95% at 100 days (95% confidence interval, .72 to .99) and 90% at 6 years (95% confidence interval, .68 to .98). RRT and chronic GVHD are significant barriers to BMT for patients with nonmalignant genetic diseases. This alemtuzumab-based reduced-toxicity regimen appears to be promising with durable engraftment, effective cure of clinical disease, low rates of RRT, and no observed chronic GVHD.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.11.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000350009500009
View details for PubMedID 25459642
Improved Outcomes after Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation for Children with Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma: Twenty Years Experience at a Single Institution BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION 2015; 21 (2): 326-334
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the survival of pediatric patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (auBMT) for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (rrHL) and to identify factors that might contribute to their outcome. We reviewed the records and clinical course of 89 consecutive rrHL patients 21 years old who underwent auBMT at Stanford Hospitals and Clinics and the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford between 1989 and 2012. We investigated, by multiple analyses, patient, disease, and treatment characteristics associated with outcome. Endpoints were 5-year overall and event-free survival. Our findings include that cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV) as a conditioning regimen for auBMT is effective for most patients 21 years old with rrHL (5-year overall survival, 71%). Transplantation after the year 2001 was associated with significantly improved overall survival compared with our earlier experience (80% compared with 65%). Patients with multiply relapsed disease or with disease not responsive to initial therapy fared less well compared with those with response to initial therapy or after first relapse. Administration of post-auBMT consolidative radiotherapy (cRT) also appears to contribute to improved survival. We are able to conclude that high-dose chemotherapy with CBV followed by auBMT is effective for the treatment of rrHL in children and adolescents. Survival for patients who undergo auBMT for rrHL has improved significantly. This improvement may be because of patient selection and improvements in utilization of radiotherapy rather than improvements in chemotherapy. Further investigation is needed to describe the role of auBMT across the entire spectrum of patients with rrHL and to identify the most appropriate preparative regimen with or without cRT therapy in the treatment of rrHL in young patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.10.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000348632700018
Unrelated Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients with Hemoglobinopathies Using a Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimen and Third-Party Mesenchymal Stromal Cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION 2014; 20 (4): 581-586
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with a hemoglobinopathy can be curative but is limited by donor availability. Although positive results are frequently observed in those with an HLA-matched sibling donor, use of unrelated donors has been complicated by poor engraftment, excessive regimen-related toxicity, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). As a potential strategy to address these obstacles, a pilot study was designed that incorporated both a reduced-intensity conditioning and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Six patients were enrolled, including 4 with high-risk sickle cell disease (SCD) and 2 with transfusion-dependent thalassemia major. Conditioning consisted of fludarabine (150mg/m(2)), melphalan (140mg/m(2)), and alemtuzumab (60mg for patients weighing>30kg and .9mg/kg for patients weighing<30kg). Two patients received HLA 7/8 allele matched bone marrow and 4 received 4-5/6 HLA matched umbilical cord blood as the source of HSCs. MSCs were of bone marrow origin and derived from a parent in 1 patient and from an unrelated third-party donor in the remaining 5 patients. GVHD prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil. One patient had neutropenic graft failure, 2 had autologous hematopoietic recovery, and 3 had hematopoietic recovery with complete chimerism. The 2 SCD patients with autologous hematopoietic recovery are alive. The remaining 4 died either from opportunistic infection, GVHD, or intracranial hemorrhage. Although no infusion-related toxicity was seen, the cotransplantation of MSCs was not sufficient for reliable engraftment in patients with advanced hemoglobinopathy. Although poor engraftment has been observed in nearly all such trials to date in this patient population, there was no evidence to suggest that MSCs had any positive impact on engraftment. Because of the lack of improved engraftment and unacceptably high transplant-related mortality, the study was prematurely terminated. Further investigations into understanding the mechanisms of graft resistance and development of strategies to overcome this barrier are needed to move this field forward.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.12.564
View details for Web of Science ID 000333322400022
Gene Expression Analysis in Radiotherapy Patients and C57BL/6 Mice as a Measure of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation RADIATION RESEARCH 2011; 176 (1): 49-61
Dose assessment after radiological disasters is imperative to decrease mortality through rationally directed medical intervention. Our goal was to identify biomarkers capable of qualitative (nonirradiated/irradiated) and/or quantitative (dose) assessment of radiation exposure. Using real-time quantitative PCR, biodosimetry genes were identified in blood samples from cancer patients undergoing total-body irradiation. Time- (5, 12, 23, 48 h) and dose- (0-8 Gy) dependent changes in gene expression were examined in C57BL/6 mice. A training set was used to derive weighted voting classification algorithms (nonirradiated/irradiated) and continuous regression (dose assessment) models that were tested in a separate validation set of mice. Of eight biodosimetry genes identified in cancer patients ( ACTA2 , BBC3 , CCNG1 , CDKN1A , GADD45A , MDK , SERPINE1 , Tnfrsf10b ), expression of BBC3 , CCNG1 , CDKN1A , SERPINE1 and Tnfrsf10b was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in irradiated mice. CCNG1 and CDKN1A expression segregated irradiated mice from controls with an accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of 96.3, 100.0 and 94.4%, respectively, at 48 h. Multiple linear regression analysis predicted doses for the 0-, 1-, 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-Gy treatment groups as 0.0 0.2, 1.6 1.0, 2.9 1.4, 5.1 2.0, 5.3 0.7 and 10.5 5.6 Gy, respectively. These results suggest that gene expression analysis could be incorporated into biodosimetry protocols for qualitative and quantitative assessment of radiation exposure.
View details for DOI 10.1667/RR2419.1
View details for Web of Science ID 000292441900006
View details for PubMedID 21361780
Stable Long-Term Donor Engraftment following Reduced-Intensity Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION 2008; 14 (11): 1270-1278
Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have the potential to decrease toxicities related to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and thus make HCT a more acceptable therapeutic option for this group of patients. We report the results of 7 patients enrolled on a study to evaluate safety and efficacy of HCT using bone marrow from an HLA matched sibling donor following an RIC regimen for patients with high-risk SCD. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan, fludarabine, equine antithymocyte globulin, and total lymphoid irradiation with shielding of the liver, lungs, heart, and gonads on day 1. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. The regimen was well tolerated, and all patients had hematopoietic recovery. Six of 7 patients are stably engrafted off immunosuppression and without sickle cell-related symptoms at 2 to 8.5 years after HCT. Consistent with the complete resolution of SCD related symptoms observed in the 6 engrafted patients, erythropoiesis of complete or predominantly donor origin was detected by red blood cell-specific chimerism assays, despite their having persistent mixed chimerism in the mononuclear and lymphoid compartments. These findings demonstrate the curative potential of allogeneic HCT after an RIC regimen in patients with SCD.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.08.016
View details for Web of Science ID 000260533900010
View details for PubMedID 18940682
Inflammatory cytokines and the development of pulmonary complications after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with inherited metabolic storage disorders BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION 2006; 12 (4): 430-437
Patients with inherited metabolic storage disorders are at a higher risk of developing pulmonary complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This single-center prospective study of 48 consecutive inherited metabolic storage disorder patients was performed to identify risk factors for the development of pulmonary complications after HCT. Before HCT, subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for cell count, culture, nitrite levels, and analysis of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The overall incidence of pulmonary complications was 52% (infectious, 23%; noninfectious, 29%) over a period of 4 years. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was the most frequent noninfectious complication and occurred in 19% of patients, all of whom had a diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis (Hurler and Maroteaux-Lamy syndromes). Levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in BAL fluid samples obtained before HCT were higher in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses than in patients with leukodystrophies. In addition, levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were increased in the BAL fluid of patients who developed noninfectious pulmonary complications compared with those who did not develop pulmonary complications. It is interesting to note that most noninfectious pulmonary complications occurred in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses, especially diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, which occurred exclusively in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses. Higher levels of bronchial proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines may be predictive of the development of subsequent posttransplantation noninfectious complications in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses, especially those with Hurler syndrome. Larger studies will be required to further elucidate etiologic mechanisms and predictive factors.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.12.026
View details for Web of Science ID 000236494600006
View details for PubMedID 16545727
BDCM- a novel B cell line with genetic and functional similarity to dendritic cells British Journal of Hematology 2002; 119 (3): 819-825