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Michael Bellino, MD

  • Michael J. Bellino

Especialidades médicas y/o especialidades quirúrgicas

Orthopaedic Surgery

Trabajo y educación

Educación

New York Medical College Registrar, Valhalla, NY, 06/30/1992

Primeros años de residencia

Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, NJ, 06/30/1993

Últimos años de residencia

Shriners Hospitals for Children Orthopaedic Surgery, Sacramento, CA, 12/31/1999

UC Davis Dept of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sacramento, CA, 06/30/2000

Subespecialidad

Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Angeles, CA, 07/31/2001

Certificado(s) de especialidad

Orthopaedic Surgery, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery

Todo Publicaciones

Sequential ilioinguinal or anterior intrapelvic approach with anterior approach to the hip during combined internal fixation and total hip arthroplasty for acetabular fractures. European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie Chen, M. J., Wadhwa, H., Bellino, M. J. 2020

Abstract

PURPOSE: This study examined the complications and outcomes of geriatric acetabular fractures treated with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) performed via combined ilioinguinal or anterior intrapelvic (AIP) approach to acetabulum and anterior approach to the hip.METHODS: Eight patients with a fracture of the acetabulum were treated at a Level I trauma center between 2010 and 2019 with combined ORIF/THA using an ilioinguinal or AIP approach for the acetabulum and a separate anterior approach to the hip. Wound dehiscence, peri-incisional skin necrosis, surgical site infection, dislocation, fracture union, acetabular component stability, and heterotopic ossification (HO) were utilized as outcome measures. Merle d'Aubigne-Postel scores were collected for the six patients that had one-year minimum follow-up.RESULTS: The mean patient age was 77years. Four patients had anterior wall fractures, two had associated both column fractures, and two had anterior column-posterior hemitransverse fractures. All fractures healed with stable fixation of the acetabular component by 6 months. There were no instances of skin necrosis, dislocation, infection, or re-operation. One patient had a superficial wound dehiscence that resolved with local wound care. One patient developed radiographic HO but was clinically asymptomatic. The mean Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score was 15.8 (range=14-16).CONCLUSIONS: Our small series of geriatric patients with fracture of the acetabulum treated with combined ORIF/THA, via the ilioinguinal or AIP approach with a separate anterior approach to the hip, demonstrates satisfactory outcomes with low complications after one-year of follow-up. Further research of these challenging injuries with more patients is warranted in order to determine the subset of fracture types best treated with this method and THA survivorship.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00590-020-02810-3

View details for PubMedID 33099680

Metaphyseal callus formation in pilon fractures is associated with loss of alignment: Is stiffer better? Injury Van Rysselberghe, N. L., Campbell, S. T., Goodnough, L. H., Salazar, B. P., Bishop, J. A., Bellino, M. J., Lucas, J. F., Gardner, M. J. 2020

Abstract

To assess the relationship between metaphyseal callus formation and preservation of distal tibial alignment in pilon fractures treated with internal plate fixation.Retrospective Review SETTING: Academic Level I Trauma Center PATIENTS: Forty-two patients with AO/OTA type C2 or C3 pilon fractures treated with plate fixation.Internal fixation with anterolateral plating, medial plating, or both. Modified Radiographic Union Score in Tibial fracture (mRUST) scores were determined from six-month radiographs.Change in lateral and anterior distal tibial angles (LDTA and ADTA) at six months post-operatively.High callus formation (mRUST 11 at six months) was associated with a greater loss of coronal reduction as measured by LDTA compared to low callus formation (mRUST < 11): 3.8vs 2.1 (p=.019), with no difference in ADTA change between groups. In a multivariable logistic regression controlling for age, smoking, obesity, and open fracture, higher mRUST scores were a predictor of coronal reduction loss of five or more degrees (OR 1.71, p=.039). Dual column plating did not independently predict maintenance of alignment.Recent literature has popularized dual column fixation for pilon fractures, but it remains unknown whether increased metaphyseal stiffness enhances or impairs healing. In this series, decreased metaphyseal callus formation was associated with maintained coronal alignment, suggesting that a stiffer mechanical environment may be preferable to prevent short term reduction loss in these complex injuries.III.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2020.10.080

View details for PubMedID 33097204

An anatomic classification for heterotopic ossification about the hip. Journal of orthopaedics DeBaun, M. R., Ziino, C., LaPrade, C., Pun, S., Avedian, R. S., Bellino, M. J. 2020; 21: 22831

Abstract

Retrospective cohort.Heterotopic ossification (HO) about the hip is a debilitating condition that can occur after fixation for acetabular fractures, total hip replacement, or polytrauma with closed head injuries. No classification exists that informs surgical treatment.To establish a classification system for HO about the hip by reviewing a consecutive series of HO at a single institution. It was hypothesized that HO about the hip could be grouped into a novel classification scheme based upon the location and involved structures of the hip.Retrospective chart review of single center's case log for HO excision from 2004 to 2018 was performed. Inclusion criteria included all patients undergoing excision of heterotopic bone excision about the hip. Demographic data, pre and post hip range of motion, surgical approach for each surgery, index surgery date and interval to excision are reported as well as presence and location of HO and Brooker classification.A total of 36 patients (21 men and 15 women) and 40 hips were identified meeting inclusion criteria. The mean age at the time of the index surgery was 47 (range, 16-77 years). Traumatic injury with fracture (35%) included 9 acetabular fractures (22%), 2 long bone fractures (5%) treated with intramedullary devices, one displaced femoral neck fracture (2%), and one pelvic ring injury (2%). Total hip arthroplasty accounted for 32% of patients. Brooker classification was type 4 (35%), 3 (25%), 2 (23%), 1(17%) which translated to 55% anterior, 48% posterior, 3% medial with respect to location. Average improvement in hip flexion and abduction was 22 and 8, respectively.This study identified discrete locations for heterotopic ossification following hip or acetabulum surgery. Both posterior and anterior structures are implicated in the formation of HO, and this investigation presents a novel classification to guide surgical approach for HO excision based upon location.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jor.2020.03.038

View details for PubMedID 32273662

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7132042

Trochanteric osteotomy for acetabular fracture fixation: a case series and literature review. European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie Chen, M. J., Wadhwa, H., Tigchelaar, S. S., Frey, C. S., Gardner, M. J., Bellino, M. J. 2020

Abstract

This study examined osteotomy union and heterotopic ossification (HO) after performing digastric trochanteric osteotomies during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of acetabular and combined femoral head fractures. Femoral head osteonecrosis and trochanteric screw removal were secondarily assessed.Twenty-six patients treated at a Level I trauma center, from years 2003 to 2019, who received a digastric trochanteric osteotomy during acetabular and combined femoral head fracture ORIF through a posterior surgical approach were retrospectively identified. Osteotomies were fixed with two 3.5mm cortical lag screws. Rates of osteotomy union, HO, femoral head osteonecrosis, and trochanteric screw removal were determined.All osteotomies went onto union without displacement or failure of fixation. Only three (12%) patients developed severe HO (modified-Brooker class III-IV). There were no instances of femoral head osteonecrosis and only one (7%) patient required trochanteric screw removal.The digastric trochanteric osteotomy heals reliably with low rates of severe HO, femoral head osteonecrosis, and screw removal for soft-tissue irritation. A review of the literature is presented and found comparable findings.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00590-020-02753-9

View details for PubMedID 32743685

Assessment of Open Syndesmosis Reduction Techniques in an Unbroken Fibula Model: Visualization Versus Palpation JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Pang, E., Coughlan, M., Bonaretti, S., Finlay, A., Bellino, M., Bishop, J. A., Gardner, M. J. 2019; 33 (1): E14E18
Assessment of Open Syndesmosis Reduction Techniques in an Unbroken Fibula Model: Visualization vs. Palpation. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Pang, E. Q., Coughlan, M., Bonaretti, S., Finlay, A., Bellino, M., Bishop, J., Gardner, M. J. 2018

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This cadaveric study sought to evaluate the accuracy of syndesmotic reduction using direct visualization via an anterolateral approach compared to palpation of the syndesmosis through a laterally based incision.METHODS: Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained and underwent baseline CT scans. Subsequently, a complete syndesmotic injury was simulated by transecting the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL), posterior tibiofibular ligament (PITFL), transverse ligament, interosseous membrane, and deltoid ligament. Three orthopaedic trauma surgeons were then asked to reduce each syndesmosis using direct visualization via an anterolateral approach. Specimens were then stabilized and underwent post-reduction CT scans. Fixation was then removed, the anterolateral exposure closed, and the surgeons were then asked to reduce the syndesmosis using palpation only via a direct lateral approach. Specimens were again instrumented and underwent post-reduction CT scans. Two tailed paired t-tests were used to compare reductions with baseline scans with significance set at p<0.05.RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between reduction via direct visualization or palpation via lateral approach when compared with baseline scans. Although measurements did not reach significance, there was a tendency towards external rotation, and anteromedial translation with direct visualization and a trend towards fibular external rotation and posterolateral translation with palpation.CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in reduction quality using direct visualization or palpation to assess the syndesmosis. Surgeons may therefore choose either technique when reducing syndesmotic injures based on personal preference and other injury factors.

View details for PubMedID 30169400

Does the Watson-Jones or Modified Smith-Petersen Approach Provide Superior Exposure for Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation? CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Lichstein, P. M., Kleimeyer, J. P., Githens, M., Vorhies, J. S., Gardner, M. J., Bellino, M., Bishop, J. 2018; 476 (7): 146876
Does the Watson-Jones or Modified Smith-Petersen Approach Provide Superior Exposure for Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation? Clinical orthopaedics and related research Lichstein, P. M., Kleimeyer, J. P., Githens, M., Vorhies, J. S., Gardner, M. J., Bellino, M., Bishop, J. 2018

Abstract

A well-reduced femoral neck fracture is more likely to heal than a poorly reduced one, and increasing the quality of the surgical exposure makes it easier to achieve anatomic fracture reduction. Two open approaches are in common use for femoral neck fractures, the modified Smith-Petersen and Watson-Jones; however, to our knowledge, the quality of exposure of the femoral neck exposure provided by each approach has not been investigated.(1) What is the respective area of exposed femoral neck afforded by the Watson-Jones and modified Smith-Petersen approaches? (2) Is there a difference in the ability to visualize and/or palpate important anatomic landmarks provided by the Watson-Jones and modified Smith-Petersen approaches?Ten fresh-frozen human pelvi underwent both modified Smith-Petersen (utilizing the caudal extent of the standard Smith-Petersen interval distal to the anterosuperior iliac spine and parallel to the palpable interval between the tensor fascia lata and the sartorius) and Watson-Jones approaches. Dissections were performed by three fellowship-trained orthopaedic traumatologists with extensive experience in both approaches. Exposure (in cm) was quantified with calibrated digital photographs and specialized software. Modified Smith-Petersen approaches were analyzed before and after rectus femoris tenotomy. The ability to visualize and palpate seven clinically relevant anatomic structures (the labrum, femoral head, subcapital femoral neck, basicervical femoral neck, greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, and medial femoral neck) was also recorded. The quantified area of the exposed proximal femur was utilized to compare which approach afforded the largest field of view of the femoral neck and articular surface for assessment of femoral neck fracture and associated femoral head injury. The ability to visualize and palpate surrounding structures was assessed so that we could better understand which approach afforded the ability to assess structures that are relevant to femoral neck fracture reduction and fixation.After controlling for age, body mass index, height, and sex, we found the modified Smith-Petersen approach provided a mean of 2.36 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-4.28 cm; p = 0.015) additional exposure without rectus femoris tenotomy (p = 0.015) and 3.33 cm (95% CI, 1.42-5.24 cm; p = 0.001) additional exposure with a tenotomy compared with the Watson-Jones approach. The labrum, femoral head, subcapital femoral neck, basicervical femoral neck, and greater trochanter were reliably visible and palpable in both approaches. The lesser trochanter was palpable in all of the modified Smith-Petersen and none of the Watson-Jones approaches (p < 0.001). All modified Smith-Petersen approaches (10 of 10) provided visualization and palpation of the medial femoral neck, whereas visualization of the medial femoral neck was only possible in one of 10 Watson-Jones approaches (p < 0.001) and palpation was possible in eight of 10 Watson-Jones versus all 10 modified Smith-Petersen approaches (p = 0.470).In the hands of surgeons experienced with both surgical approaches to the femoral neck, the modified Smith-Petersen approach, with or without rectus femoris tenotomy, provides superior exposure of the femoral neck and articular surface as well as visualization and palpation of clinically relevant proximal femoral anatomic landmarks compared with the Watson-Jones approach.Open reduction and internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture is typically performed in a young patient (< 60 years old) with the objective of obtaining anatomic reduction that would not be possible by closed manipulation, thus enhancing healing potential. In the hands of surgeons experienced in both approaches, the modified Smith-Petersen approach offers improved direct access for reduction and fixation. Higher quality reductions and fixation are expected to translate to improved healing potential and outcomes. Although our experimental results are promising, further clinical studies are needed to verify if this larger exposure area imparts increased quality of reduction, healing, and improved outcomes compared with other approaches. The learning curve for the exposure is unclear, but the approach has broad applications and is frequently used in other subspecialties such as for direct anterior THA and pediatric septic hip drainage. Surgeons treating femoral neck fractures with open reduction and fixation should familiarize themselves with the modified Smith-Petersen approach.

View details for PubMedID 29698292

The learning curve for the direct anterior approach for total hip arthroplasty: a single surgeon's first 500 cases. Hip international Hartford, J. M., Bellino, M. J. 2017: 0-?

Abstract

Concerns arise over the early complications encountered during the learning curve for the direct anterior approach for total hip arthroplasty.The purpose of this study is to examine the learning experience of a single surgeon in adapting this approach.The 1st 500 primary total hip arthroplasties are reviewed. The patients were evaluated out to 3 months. Rates of major complications, reoperations, periprosthetic fractures, heterotopic ossification, leg length discrepancies and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve deficits were identified for each of 100 patients.The major complication rate decreased from 5% to 2% throughout the series. Reoperation rates fluctuated from 2% in the 1st 100 cases to 3% in the 4th 100 cases to 1% in the 5th 100 cases. The periprosthetic fracture rate decreased from 9% to 2%.The incidence of heterotopic ossification declines throughout the series and is attributed to changes in irrigation technique and quantity. The incidence of major complications decreases with increasing experience. The most dramatic improvements occur after the 1st group of 100 cases.

View details for DOI 10.5301/hipint.5000488

View details for PubMedID 28222211

Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up. Journal of hip preservation surgery Shapiro, L. M., Safran, M. R., Maloney, W. J., Goodman, S. B., Huddleston, J. I., Bellino, M. J., Scuderi, G. J., Abrams, G. D. 2016; 3 (3): 229-235

Abstract

Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin-aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy.

View details for DOI 10.1093/jhps/hnw013

View details for PubMedID 27583163

Conventional versus virtual radiographs of the injured pelvis and acetabulum SKELETAL RADIOLOGY Bishop, J. A., Rao, A. J., Pouliot, M. A., Beaulieu, C., Bellino, M. 2015; 44 (9): 1303-1308

Abstract

Evaluation of the fractured pelvis or acetabulum requires both standard radiographic evaluation as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. The standard anterior-posterior (AP), Judet, and inlet and outlet views can now be simulated using data acquired during CT, decreasing patient discomfort, radiation exposure, and cost to the healthcare system. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality of conventional radiographic views of the traumatized pelvis to virtual radiographs created from pelvic CT scans.Five patients with acetabular fractures and ten patients with pelvic ring injuries were identified using the orthopedic trauma database at our institution. These fractures were evaluated with both conventional radiographs as well as virtual radiographs generated from a CT scan. A web-based survey was created to query overall image quality and visibility of relevant anatomic structures. This survey was then administered to members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA).Ninety-seven surgeons completed the acetabular fracture survey and 87 completed the pelvic fracture survey. Overall image quality was judged to be statistically superior for the virtual as compared to conventional images for acetabular fractures (3.15 vs. 2.98, p=0.02), as well as pelvic ring injuries (2.21 vs. 1.45, p=0.0001). Visibility ratings for each anatomic landmark were statistically superior with virtual images as well.Virtual radiographs of pelvic and acetabular fractures offer superior image quality, improved comfort, decreased radiation exposure, and a more cost-effective alternative to conventional radiographs.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00256-015-2171-z

View details for Web of Science ID 000358329600008

The prevalence of sacroiliac joint degeneration in asymptomatic adults. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Eno, J. T., Boone, C. R., Bellino, M. J., Bishop, J. A. 2015; 97 (11): 932-936

Abstract

Degenerative changes of the sacroiliac joint have been implicated as a cause of lower back pain in adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sacroiliac joint degeneration in asymptomatic patients.Five hundred consecutive pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans, made at a tertiary-care medical center, of patients with no history of pain in the lower back or pelvic girdle were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed for degenerative changes of the sacroiliac joint. After exclusion criteria were applied, 373 CT scans (746 sacroiliac joints) were evaluated for degenerative changes. Regression analysis was used to determine the association between age and the degree of sacroiliac joint degeneration.The prevalence of sacroiliac joint degeneration was 65.1%, with substantial degeneration occurring in 30.5% of asymptomatic subjects. The prevalence steadily increased with age, with 91% of subjects in the ninth decade of life displaying degenerative changes.Radiographic evidence of sacroiliac joint degeneration is highly prevalent in the asymptomatic population and is associated with age. Caution must be exercised when attributing lower back or pelvic girdle pain to sacroiliac joint degeneration seen on imaging.Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.N.01101

View details for PubMedID 26041855

The Prevalence of Sacroiliac Joint Degeneration in Asymptomatic Adults JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Eno, J. T., Boone, C. R., Bellino, M. J., Bishop, J. A. 2015; 97A (11): 932-936

Abstract

Degenerative changes of the sacroiliac joint have been implicated as a cause of lower back pain in adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sacroiliac joint degeneration in asymptomatic patients.Five hundred consecutive pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans, made at a tertiary-care medical center, of patients with no history of pain in the lower back or pelvic girdle were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed for degenerative changes of the sacroiliac joint. After exclusion criteria were applied, 373 CT scans (746 sacroiliac joints) were evaluated for degenerative changes. Regression analysis was used to determine the association between age and the degree of sacroiliac joint degeneration.The prevalence of sacroiliac joint degeneration was 65.1%, with substantial degeneration occurring in 30.5% of asymptomatic subjects. The prevalence steadily increased with age, with 91% of subjects in the ninth decade of life displaying degenerative changes.Radiographic evidence of sacroiliac joint degeneration is highly prevalent in the asymptomatic population and is associated with age. Caution must be exercised when attributing lower back or pelvic girdle pain to sacroiliac joint degeneration seen on imaging.Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.N.01101

View details for Web of Science ID 000363418100010

Does Intraoperative Fluoroscopy Optimize Limb Length and the Precision of Acetabular Positioning in Primary THA? ORTHOPEDICS Leucht, P., Huddleston, H. G., Bellino, M. J., Huddleston, J. I. 2015; 38 (5): E380-E386

Abstract

Reduced limb length discrepancy and more accurate cup positioning are purported benefits of using fluoroscopy for total hip arthroplasty (THA). The authors compared limb length discrepancy and cup position in 200 patients (group I, posterior approach without fluoroscopy; group II, anterior supine approach with fluoroscopy) who underwent primary THA. Mean limb length discrepancy was 2.7 mm (SD, 5.2 mm; range, -9.8 to 20.9 mm) and 0.7 mm (SD, 3.7 mm; range, -11.8 to 10.5 mm) for groups I and II, respectively (P=.002). In group I, 7% of hips had limb length discrepancy greater than 1 cm compared with 3% in group II. Mean cup inclination measured 40.8 (SD, 5.0; range, 26.1-53.7) in group I and 43.4 (SD, 5.6; range, 31.3-55.9) in group II (P=.008). In group I, 96% of cups had inclination within 10 of the mean compared with 92% in group II (P=.24). Mean anteversion measured 35.3 (SD, 7.1; range, 17.8-60.7) in group I and 25.9 (SD, 8.2; range, 1.5-44.8) in group II (P=.0001). In group I, 87% of hips exhibited anteversion within 10 of the mean compared with 76% in group II (P=.045). Although the anterior approach with intraoperative fluoroscopy reduced mean limb length discrepancy, the clinical significance of this reduction is unclear. Fluoroscopy reduced the incidence of limb length discrepancy greater than 1 cm. However, the use of fluoroscopy did not help to improve the precision of cup positioning.

View details for DOI 10.3928/01477447-20150504-54

View details for Web of Science ID 000356148900005

View details for PubMedID 25970364

Radial nerve transection associated with closed humeral shaft fractures: a report of two cases and review of the literature JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Leucht, P., Ryu, J. H., Bellino, M. J. 2015; 24 (4): E96-E100

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2014.12.005

View details for Web of Science ID 000351224800003

View details for PubMedID 25660240

Conventional versus virtual radiographs of the injured pelvis and acetabulum. Skeletal radiology Bishop, J. A., Rao, A. J., Pouliot, M. A., Beaulieu, C., Bellino, M. 2015; 44 (9): 13038

Abstract

Evaluation of the fractured pelvis or acetabulum requires both standard radiographic evaluation as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. The standard anterior-posterior (AP), Judet, and inlet and outlet views can now be simulated using data acquired during CT, decreasing patient discomfort, radiation exposure, and cost to the healthcare system. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality of conventional radiographic views of the traumatized pelvis to virtual radiographs created from pelvic CT scans.Five patients with acetabular fractures and ten patients with pelvic ring injuries were identified using the orthopedic trauma database at our institution. These fractures were evaluated with both conventional radiographs as well as virtual radiographs generated from a CT scan. A web-based survey was created to query overall image quality and visibility of relevant anatomic structures. This survey was then administered to members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA).Ninety-seven surgeons completed the acetabular fracture survey and 87 completed the pelvic fracture survey. Overall image quality was judged to be statistically superior for the virtual as compared to conventional images for acetabular fractures (3.15 vs. 2.98, p=0.02), as well as pelvic ring injuries (2.21 vs. 1.45, p=0.0001). Visibility ratings for each anatomic landmark were statistically superior with virtual images as well.Virtual radiographs of pelvic and acetabular fractures offer superior image quality, improved comfort, decreased radiation exposure, and a more cost-effective alternative to conventional radiographs.

View details for PubMedID 26009268

Surgical Treatment of Flail Chest and Rib Fractures JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Fowler, T. T., Taylor, B. C., Bellino, M. J., Althausen, P. L. 2014; 22 (12): 751-760

Abstract

Despite significant advances in critical care management, flail chest remains a clinically significant finding, with a mortality rate of up to 33%. Nonsurgical management is associated with prolonged ventilator support, pneumonia, respiratory difficulties, and lengthy stays in the intensive care unit, as well as chronic pain from nonunion and malunion of the bony thorax. Treatment with aggressive pulmonary toilet, ventilator support, and different modalities of pain control remains the benchmark of care. However, several recent randomized controlled studies of surgical intervention of flail chest have demonstrated an improvement in the number of ventilator days, intensive care unit and hospital stays, incidence of pneumonia, and respiratory function and hospital costs, as well as faster return to work. The success of these surgical constructs compared with those of historical attempts at open fixation is largely the result of modern plating technology and improvement in surgical approaches. Clinical evidence continues to grow regarding proper indications and techniques for surgical stabilization of flail chest.

View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOS-22-12-751

View details for Web of Science ID 000345534600001

Fibronectin-aggrecan complex as a marker for cartilage degradation in non-arthritic hips. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA Abrams, G. D., Safran, M. R., Shapiro, L. M., Maloney, W. J., Goodman, S. B., Huddleston, J. I., Bellino, M. J., Scuderi, G. J. 2014; 22 (4): 768-773

Abstract

To report hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations in hips with and without radiographic arthritis.Patients with no arthritis (Tonnis grade 0) and patients with Tonnis grade 2 or greater hip osteoarthritis (OA) were identified from patients undergoing either hip arthroscopy or arthroplasty. Synovial fluid was collected at the time of portal establishment for those undergoing hip arthroscopy and prior to arthrotomy for the arthroplasty group. Analytes included fibronectin-aggrecan complex (FAC) as well as a standard 12 cytokine array. Variables recorded were Tonnis grade, centre-edge angle of Wiberg, as well as labrum and cartilage pathology for the hip arthroscopy cohort. A priori power analysis was conducted, and a Mann-Whitney U test and regression analyses were used with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant.Thirty-four patients were included (17 arthroplasty, 17 arthroscopy). FAC was the only analyte to show a significant difference between those with and without OA (p<0.001). FAC had significantly higher concentration in those without radiographic evidence of OA undergoing microfracture versus those not receiving microfracture (p<0.05).There was a significantly higher FAC concentration in patients without radiographic OA. Additionally, those undergoing microfracture had increased levels of FAC. As FAC is a cartilage breakdown product, no significant amounts may be present in those with OA. In contrast, those undergoing microfracture have focal area(s) of cartilage breakdown. These data suggest that FAC may be useful in predicting cartilage pathology in those patients with hip pain but without radiographic evidence of arthritis.Diagnostic, Level III.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00167-014-2863-2

View details for PubMedID 24477496

The posterior approach to pelvic ring injuries: A technique for minimizing soft tissue complications INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Fowler, T. T., Bishop, J. A., Bellino, M. J. 2013; 44 (12): 1780-1786

Abstract

Surgical techniques and fixation strategies for the treatment of unstable posterior pelvic ring injuries continue to evolve. The safety of the posterior surgical approach in particular has been questioned due to historically high rates of wound related complications. More contemporary studies have shown lower infection rates, however concern still persists. These concerns for infection and wound necrosis have led, in part, to increased interest in closed reduction and percutaneous fixation for treatment of these injuries but an open posterior approach remains the optimal strategy in some injury patterns. We describe herein a modified posterior approach to the pelvis designed to minimize wound related complications and present our clinical results demonstrating wound complication rates consistent with contemporary publications.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2013.08.005

View details for Web of Science ID 000326376500016

View details for PubMedID 24011422

Response to letter to editor regarding "Risk factors for development of heterotopic ossification of the elbow after fracture fixation". Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery Abrams, G. D., Bellino, M. J., Cheung, E. V. 2013; 22 (7)

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2013.03.011

View details for PubMedID 23623207

Comparison of tricalcium phosphate cement and cancellous autograft as bone void filler in acetabular fractures with marginal impaction. Injury Leucht, P., Castillo, A. B., Bellino, M. J. 2013; 44 (7): 969-974

Abstract

To compare clinical and radiological outcome between acetabular fractures with marginal impaction that were treated with either cancellous bone graft (CBG) or tricalcium phosphate cement (TPC) as bone void filler.Retrospective study.Forty-three patients with acetabular fractures with marginal impaction.Eighteen patients received cancellous bone graft and 25 patients received tricalcium phosphate cement as bone void filler.Clinical outcome was assessed using the Merle d'Aubigne score and Short-form-36. Radiographs were evaluated for postoperative reduction, arthritis grade and development of heterotopic ossification.Forty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. There was no significant difference in the demographics, laterality, fracture type, associated injuries, surgical approach and postoperative quality of reduction between the groups. At final follow-up, a significantly higher number of patients in the cancellous bone graft group exhibited signs of moderate to severe post-traumatic arthritis (CBG: 6 (33%) vs. TPC: 4 (20%), p=0.007) and required a total hip arthroplasty (CBG: 4 (22.2%) vs. TPC: 1 (5%), p=0.08). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the SF-36 score and the modified Merle d'Aubigne score.Patients with acetabular fractures with marginal impaction treated with tricalcium phosphate cement exhibit a significantly lower incidence of post-traumatic arthritis when compared to patients treated with cancellous bone graft.III.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2013.04.017

View details for PubMedID 23684351

Risk factors for development of heterotopic ossification of the elbow after fracture fixation JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Abrams, G. D., Bellino, M. J., Cheung, E. V. 2012; 21 (11): 1550-1554

Abstract

Postoperative heterotopic ossification (HO) about the elbow may occur after surgical fixation of fractures and can contribute to dysfunction. Factors associated with HO formation after surgical fixation of elbow trauma are not well understood.All patients who underwent surgery for elbow trauma at our institution from October 2001 through August 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with prior injury or deformity to the involved elbow were excluded. Demographic data; fracture type; surgical treatment; and presence, location, and size of HO were recorded. The Fisher exact test, (2) test, and multivariate logistic regression were used with an value of .05 used for significance.A total of 159 patients were identified, with 89 (37 men and 52 women) meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean age was 54.4 years (range, 18-90 years), and the mean follow-up time was 180 days. Age, male gender, lateral collateral ligament repair, and dual-incision approach were not associated with increased ectopic bone formation. Distal humeral fractures were a significant predictor of heterotopic bone. In patients in whom HO ultimately developed, it was visible on radiographs obtained 2 weeks postoperatively in 86% of cases.This investigation found predictors for the development of HO after surgical fixation of intra-articular elbow fractures. Furthermore, HO went on to develop at the time of final follow-up in only 14% of patients without HO on radiographs obtained 2 weeks postoperatively. This may suggest that absence of HO on radiographs obtained 2 weeks postoperatively may predict a more favorable outcome.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2012.05.040

View details for PubMedID 22947234

Assessment of Compromised Fracture Healing JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Bishop, J. A., Palanca, A. A., Bellino, M. J., Lowenberg, D. W. 2012; 20 (5): 273-282

Abstract

No standard criteria exist for diagnosing fracture nonunion, and studies suggest that assessment of fracture healing varies among orthopaedic surgeons. This variability can be problematic in both clinical and orthopaedic trauma research settings. An understanding of risk factors for nonunion and of diagnostic tests used to assess fracture healing can facilitate a systematic approach to evaluation and management. Risk factors for nonunion include medical comorbidities, age, and the characteristics of the injury. The method of fracture management also influences healing. Comprehensive evaluation includes an assessment of the patient's symptoms, signs, and immune and endocrine status as well as the biologic capacity of the fracture, presence of infection, and quality of reduction and fixation. Diagnostic tests include plain radiography, CT, ultrasonography, fluoroscopy, bone scan, MRI, and several laboratory tests, including assays for bone turnover markers in the peripheral circulation. A systematic approach to evaluating fracture union can help surgeons determine the timing and nature of interventions.

View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOS-20-05-273

View details for PubMedID 22553099

Assessment of compromised fracture healing. J Am Acad Orthop Surg Bishop, JA, Palanca AA, Bellino, MJ, Lowenberg, DW. 2012; 20 (5)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine whether one can achieve stable fixation of a two column (transverse) acetabular fracture by only fixing a single column with a locking plate and unicortical locking screws. We hypothesized that a locking plate applied to the anterior column of a transverse acetabular fracture would create a construct that is more rigid than a non-locking plate, and that this construct would be biomechanically comparable to two column fixation.Using urethane foam models of the pelvis, we simulated transverse acetabular fractures and stabilized them with 1) an anterior column plate with bicortical screws, 2) an anterior locking plate with unicortical screws, 3) an anterior plate and posterior column lag screw, and 4) a posterior plate with an anterior column lag screw. These constructs were mechanically loaded on a servohydraulic material testing machine. Construct stiffness and fracture displacement were measured.We found that two column fixation is 54% stiffer than a single column fixation with a conventional plate with bicortical screws. There was no significant difference between fixation with an anterior column locking plate with unicortical screws and an anterior plate with posterior column lag screw. We detected a non-significant trend towards more stiffness for the anterior locking plate compared to the anterior non-locking plate.In conclusion, a locking plate construct of the anterior column provides less stability than a traditional both column construct with posterior plate and anterior column lag screw. However, the locking construct offers greater strength than a non-locking, bicortical construct, which in addition often requires extensive contouring and its application is oftentimes accompanied by the risk of neurovascular damage.

View details for DOI 10.1186/1749-799X-5-30

View details for PubMedID 20459688

Single column locking plate fixation is inadequate in two column acetabular fractures. A biomechanical analysis. Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research Khajavi, K., Lee, A. T., Lindsey, D. P., Leucht, P., Bellino, M. J., Giori, N. J. 2010; 5: 30-?

Abstract

The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) effectively requires Level I trauma centers (TC) to accept all transfers for a higher level of care if capacity exists. We hypothesized that EMTALA would burden a Level I TC by a selective referral of a poor payer mix of primarily nonoperative patients.All transfer calls (December 2003 and September 2005) to our Level I TC are handled by a dedicated transfer center. Calls were reviewed for age, surgical service requested, and outcome of request. The trauma registry was queried to compare Injury Severity Scale (ISS) score, hospital stay (LOS), operations, mortality, and payer status for transfer and primary catchment patients.In all, 821 calls were received; 77 calls were cancelled by the referring hospital and 52 were for consultation only. Of the 692 transfer requests, 534 (77%) were accepted, 134 (19%) were denied for no capacity, and only 24 (4%) were declined by TC as not clinically indicated. Transferred patients were younger (32.0 +/- 1.49 versus 38.9 +/- 0.51, p < 0.05), had similar ISS scores (13.6 +/- 0.62 versus 13.7 +/- 0.26) and LOS (7.0 +/- 0.70 versus 7.4 +/- 0.25), but were somewhat more likely to require an operation than direct admissions (58% versus 51%, p < 0.05). Although trauma (24%) and neurosurgery (24%) were the most commonly requested services, followed by orthopedics (20%), orthopedics accounted for 60% of operations on transferred patients compared with 10% to 13% for trauma and neurosurgery (mostly spine). There was no difference in the payer status of transfer and direct admit patients.Contrary to our assumptions, EMTALA patients had an identical payer mix and similar operative need compared with our primary catchment patients. They do represent a large additional patient load (20% of admissions) and differentially impact specialists, mostly operative for orthopedics and complex nonoperative care for trauma and neurosurgery. These data suggest that the primary motivations for transfer are specialist availability and complexity of care rather than financial concerns. As TCs provide backup specialty call coverage for a wide geographic area, this further supports the need for trauma systems development.

View details for DOI 10.1097/TA.0b013e31802d9716

View details for Web of Science ID 000243490100012

View details for PubMedID 17215734

Requests for 692 transfers to an academic Level I trauma center: Implications of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act 65th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Surgery-of-Trauma Spain, D. A., Bellino, M., Kopelman, A., Chang, J., Park, J., Gregg, D. L., Brundage, S. I. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2007: 6367
Acetabular Fractures In: OKU Trauma 3 Bellino MJ 2005
Pelvic Ring Injuries: Fixation of the Posterior Pelvic Ring European Journal of Trauma Olson, S., Ferrell, M; Bellino, M 2005: 536-542
Surgery of the Lower Extremities In Anesthesiologist's Manual of Surgical Procedures, eds. Jaffe RA, Samuels SI, Ravens Press, New York Bellino, M., Goodman, SB; Csongradi, JJ 2003