nutch_noindex
CANCELAR
COVID-2019 Alert

Information about the 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Read the latest >

/nutch_noindex

Sanno Zack, PhD

  • Sanno E Zack

Especialidades médicas y/o especialidades quirúrgicas

Psychology

Trabajo y educación

Primeros años de residencia

Beth Israel Medical Center - New York, New York, NY, 06/30/2008

Subespecialidad

Stanford University Psychology Postdoctoral Fellowship, Stanford, CA, 06/30/2010

Todo Publicaciones

Longitudinal changes in brain function associated with symptom improvement in youth with PTSD JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH Garrett, A., Cohen, J. A., Zack, S., Carrion, V., Jo, B., Blader, J., Rodriguez, A., Vanasse, T. J., Reiss, A. L., Agras, W. 2019; 114: 16169
Intrinsic Brain Connectivity Moderators of Psychotherapy Response and Changes in PTSD: A Combined Connectomic, Network Level, and Seeded Connectivity Approach Fonzo, G., Goodkind, M., Oathes, D., Zaiko, Y., Harvey, M., Peng, K., Weiss, E., Thompson, A., Zack, S., Rothbaum, B., Etkin, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S111S112
Longitudinal changes in brain function associated with symptom improvement in youth with PTSD. Journal of psychiatric research Garrett, A., Cohen, J. A., Zack, S., Carrion, V., Jo, B., Blader, J., Rodriguez, A., Vanasse, T. J., Reiss, A. L., Agras, W. S. 2019; 114: 16169

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have abnormal activation in brain regions important for emotion processing. It is unknown whether symptom improvement is accompanied by normative changes in these regions. This study identified neural changes associated with symptom improvement with the long-term goal of identifying malleable targets for interventions.METHODS: A total of 80 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were collected, including 20 adolescents with PTSD (ages 9-17) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects, each scanned before and after a 5-month period. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy was provided to the PTSD group to ensure improvement in symptoms. Whole brain voxel-wise activation and region of interest analyses of facial expression task data were conducted to identify abnormalities in the PTSD group versus HC at baseline (BL), and neural changes correlated with symptom improvement from BL to EOS of study (EOS).RESULTS: At BL, the PTSD group had abnormally elevated activation in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex compared to HC. From BL to EOS, PTSD symptoms improved an average of 39%. Longitudinal improvement in symptoms of PTSD was associated with decreasing activation in posterior cingulate, mid-cingulate, and hippocampus, while improvement in dissociative symptoms was correlated with decreasing activation in the amygdala.CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in emotion-processing brain networks in youth with PTSD normalize when symptoms improve, demonstrating neural plasticity of these regions in young patients and the importance of early intervention.

View details for PubMedID 31082658

Using fMRI connectivity to define a treatment-resistant form of post-traumatic stress disorder. Science translational medicine Etkin, A., Maron-Katz, A., Wu, W., Fonzo, G. A., Huemer, J., Vertes, P. E., Patenaude, B., Richiardi, J., Goodkind, M. S., Keller, C. J., Ramos-Cejudo, J., Zaiko, Y. V., Peng, K. K., Shpigel, E., Longwell, P., Toll, R. T., Thompson, A., Zack, S., Gonzalez, B., Edelstein, R., Chen, J., Akingbade, I., Weiss, E., Hart, R., Mann, S., Durkin, K., Baete, S. H., Boada, F. E., Genfi, A., Autea, J., Newman, J., Oathes, D. J., Lindley, S. E., Abu-Amara, D., Arnow, B. A., Crossley, N., Hallmayer, J., Fossati, S., Rothbaum, B. O., Marmar, C. R., Bullmore, E. T., O'Hara, R. 2019; 11 (486)

Abstract

A mechanistic understanding of the pathology of psychiatric disorders has been hampered by extensive heterogeneity in biology, symptoms, and behavior within diagnostic categories that are defined subjectively. We investigated whether leveraging individual differences in information-processing impairments in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could reveal phenotypes within the disorder. We found that a subgroup of patients with PTSD from two independent cohorts displayed both aberrant functional connectivity within the ventral attention network (VAN) as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neuroimaging and impaired verbal memory on a word list learning task. This combined phenotype was not associated with differences in symptoms or comorbidities, but nonetheless could be used to predict a poor response to psychotherapy, the best-validated treatment for PTSD. Using concurrent focal noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography, we then identified alterations in neural signal flow in the VAN that were evoked by direct stimulation of that network. These alterations were associated with individual differences in functional fMRI connectivity within the VAN. Our findings define specific neurobiological mechanisms in a subgroup of patients with PTSD that could contribute to the poor response to psychotherapy.

View details for PubMedID 30944165

Using fMRI connectivity to define a treatment-resistant form of post-traumatic stress disorder SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Etkin, A., Maron-Katz, A., Wu, W., Fonzo, G. A., Huemer, J., Vertes, P. E., Patenaude, B., Richiardi, J., Goodkind, M. S., Keller, C. J., Ramos-Cejudo, J., Zaiko, Y., Peng, K. K., Shpigel, E., Longwell, P., Toll, R. T., Thompson, A., Zack, S., Gonzalez, B., Edelstein, R., Chen, J., Akingbade, I., Weiss, E., Hart, R., Mann, S., Durkin, K., Baete, S. H., Boada, F. E., Genfi, A., Autea, J., Newman, J., Oathes, D. J., Lindley, S. E., Abu-Amara, D., Arnow, B. A., Crossley, N., Hallmayer, J., Fossati, S., Rothbaum, B. O., Marmar, C. R., Bullmore, E. T., O'Hara, R. 2019; 11 (486)
PTSD Psychotherapy Outcome Predicted by Brain Activation During Emotional Reactivity and Regulation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Fonzo, G. A., Goodkind, M. S., Oathes, D. J., Zaiko, Y. V., Harvey, M., Peng, K. K., Weiss, M., Thompson, A. L., Zack, S. E., Lindley, S. E., Arnow, B. A., Jo, B., Gross, J. J., Rothbaum, B. O., Etkin, A. 2017; 174 (12): 116374
Selective Effects of Psychotherapy on Frontopolar Cortical Function in PTSD AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Fonzo, G. A., Goodkind, M. S., Oathes, D. J., Zaiko, Y. V., Harvey, M., Peng, K. K., Weiss, M., Thompson, A. L., Zack, S. E., Mills-Finnerty, C. E., Rosenberg, B. M., Edelstein, R., Wright, R. N., Kole, C. A., Lindley, S. E., Arnow, B. A., Jo, B., Gross, J. J., Rothbaum, B. O., Etkin, A. 2017; 174 (12): 117584
Reorganization of Resting Connectivity Patterns Following Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Fonzo, G., Goodkind, M., Oathes, D., Zaiko, Y., Harvey, M., Peng, K., Weiss, E., Thompson, A., Zack, S., Mills-Finnerty, C., Rosenberg, B., Edelstein, R., Wright, R., Kole, C., Rothbaum, B., Etkin, A. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2017: S122S123
The Effects of Psychotherapy on Amygdalar Subregional Functional Connectivity in PTSD Fonzo, G., Goodkind, M., Oathes, D., Zaiko, Y., Harvey, M., Peng, K., Weiss, E., Thompson, A., Zack, S., Mills-Finnerty, C., Rosenberg, B., Edelstein, R., Wright, R., Kole, C., Rothbaum, B., Etkin, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: S236S237
PTSD Psychotherapy Outcome Predicted by Brain Activation During Emotional Reactivity and Regulation. The American journal of psychiatry Fonzo, G. A., Goodkind, M. S., Oathes, D. J., Zaiko, Y. V., Harvey, M., Peng, K. K., Weiss, M. E., Thompson, A. L., Zack, S. E., Lindley, S. E., Arnow, B. A., Jo, B., Gross, J. J., Rothbaum, B. O., Etkin, A. 2017; 174 (12): 116374

Abstract

Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but many patients do not respond. Brain functions governing treatment outcome are not well characterized. The authors examined brain systems relevant to emotional reactivity and regulation, constructs that are thought to be central to PTSD and exposure therapy effects, to identify the functional traits of individuals most likely to benefit from treatment.Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation. Participants were then randomly assigned to immediate prolonged exposure treatment (N=36) or a waiting list condition (N=30). A random subset of the prolonged exposure group (N=17) underwent single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) concurrent with fMRI to examine whether predictive activation patterns reflect causal influence within circuits. Linear mixed-effects modeling in line with the intent-to-treat principle was used to examine how baseline brain function moderated the effect of treatment on PTSD symptoms.At baseline, individuals with larger treatment-related symptom reductions (compared with the waiting list condition) demonstrated 1) greater dorsal prefrontal activation and 2) less left amygdala activation, both during emotion reactivity; 3) better inhibition of the left amygdala induced by single TMS pulses to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and 4) greater ventromedial prefrontal/ventral striatal activation during emotional conflict regulation. Reappraisal-related activation was not a significant moderator of the treatment effect.Capacity to benefit from prolonged exposure in PTSD is gated by the degree to which prefrontal resources are spontaneously engaged when superficially processing threat and adaptively mitigating emotional interference, but not when deliberately reducing negative emotionality.

View details for PubMedID 28715908

Selective Effects of Psychotherapy on Frontopolar Cortical Function in PTSD. The American journal of psychiatry Fonzo, G. A., Goodkind, M. S., Oathes, D. J., Zaiko, Y. V., Harvey, M., Peng, K. K., Weiss, M. E., Thompson, A. L., Zack, S. E., Mills-Finnerty, C. E., Rosenberg, B. M., Edelstein, R., Wright, R. N., Kole, C. A., Lindley, S. E., Arnow, B. A., Jo, B., Gross, J. J., Rothbaum, B. O., Etkin, A. 2017; 174 (12): 117584

Abstract

Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but a comprehensive, emotion-focused perspective on how psychotherapy affects brain function is lacking. The authors assessed changes in brain function after prolonged exposure therapy across three emotional reactivity and regulation paradigms.Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) at rest and while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation. Individuals were then randomly assigned to immediate prolonged exposure treatment (N=36) or a waiting list condition (N=30) and underwent a second scan approximately 4 weeks after the last treatment session or a comparable waiting period, respectively.Treatment-specific changes were observed only during cognitive reappraisal of negative images. Psychotherapy increased lateral frontopolar cortex activity and connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex/ventral striatum. Greater increases in frontopolar activation were associated with improvement in hyperarousal symptoms and psychological well-being. The frontopolar cortex also displayed a greater variety of temporal resting-state signal pattern changes after treatment. Concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and fMRI in healthy participants demonstrated that the lateral frontopolar cortex exerts downstream influence on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex/ventral striatum.Changes in frontopolar function during deliberate regulation of negative affect is one key mechanism of adaptive psychotherapeutic change in PTSD. Given that frontopolar connectivity with ventromedial regions during emotion regulation is enhanced by psychotherapy and that the frontopolar cortex exerts downstream influence on ventromedial regions in healthy individuals, these findings inform a novel conceptualization of how psychotherapy works, and they identify a promising target for stimulation-based therapeutics.

View details for PubMedID 28715907

Brain Mechanisms and Predictors of Response to Prolonged Exposure Therapy in PTSD Fonzo, G., Goodkind, M., Oathes, D., Zaiko, Y., Harvey, M., Peng, K., Weiss, E., Mills-Finnerty, C., Thompson, A., Zack, S., Lindley, S., Arnow, B., Jo, B., Gross, J., Rothbaum, B., Etkin, A. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2016: S291S292
Attachment History as a Moderator of the Alliance Outcome Relationship in Adolescents PSYCHOTHERAPY Zack, S. E., Castonguay, L. G., Boswell, J. F., Mcaleavey, A. A., Adelman, R., Kraus, D. R., Pate, G. A. 2015; 52 (2): 258-267

Abstract

The role of the alliance in predicting treatment outcome is robust and long established. However, much less attention has been paid to mechanisms of change, including moderators, particularly for youth. This study examined the moderating role of pretreatment adolescent-caregiver attachment and its impact on the working alliance-treatment outcome relationship. One hundred adolescents and young adults with primary substance dependence disorders were treated at a residential facility, with a cognitive-behavioral emphasis. The working alliance and clinical symptoms were measured at regular intervals throughout treatment. A moderator hypothesis was tested using a path analytic approach. Findings suggested that attachment to the primary caregiver moderated the impact of the working alliance on treatment outcome, such that for youth with the poorest attachment history, working alliance had a stronger relationship with outcome. Conversely, for those with the strongest attachment histories, alliance was not a significant predictor of symptom reduction. This finding may help elucidate alliance-related mechanisms of change, lending support for theories of corrective emotional experience as one function of the working alliance in youth psychotherapy.

View details for DOI 10.1037/a0037727

View details for Web of Science ID 000354606900016

View details for PubMedID 25822108

Mindfulness Based Interventions for Youth JOURNAL OF RATIONAL-EMOTIVE AND COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR THERAPY Zack, S., Saekow, J., Kelly, M., Radke, A. 2014; 32 (1): 44-56
HELPFUL AND HINDERING EVENTS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY: A PRACTICE RESEARCH NETWORK STUDY PSYCHOTHERAPY Castonguay, L. G., Boswell, J. F., Zack, S. E., Baker, S., Boutselis, M. A., Chiswick, N. R., Damer, D. D., Hemmelstein, N. A., Jackson, J. S., Morford, M., Ragusea, S. A., Roper, J. G., Spayd, C., Weiszer, T., Borkovec, T. D., Holtforth, M. G. 2010; 47 (3): 327-344

Abstract

This paper presents the findings of a psychotherapy process study conducted within the Pennsylvania Psychological Association Practice Research Network (PPA-PRN). The investigation was the product of a long-term collaborative effort, both in terms of the study design and implementation, between experienced clinicians of various theoretical orientations and full-time psychotherapy researchers. Based on a relatively large sample of clients seen in independent practice settings, close to 1,500 therapeutic events (described by clients and therapists as being particularly helpful or hindering) were collected. These events were coded by three independent observers using a therapy content analysis system. Among the findings, both clients and therapists perceived the fostering of self-awareness as being particularly helpful. The results also point to the importance of paying careful attention to the therapeutic alliance and other significant interpersonal relationships. The merits and difficulties of conducting scientifically rigorous and clinically relevant studies in naturalistic contexts are also discussed.

View details for DOI 10.1037/a0021164

View details for Web of Science ID 000282850000007

View details for PubMedID 22402090