Jeffrey Young, MD

  • Jeffrey Lee Young
  • “It's very rewarding to watch children overcome their limitations and optimize their physical abilities.”

I think pediatrics picked me. One of the neat things about kids is that they grow up. It's great to be able to be their doctor through that journey. I've also gravitated towards taking care of cerebral palsy and limb deformity, conditions that will stay with children. It's very rewarding to watch children overcome their limitations and optimize their physical abilities.

I enjoy motion analysis, the study of people and how they move and walk. We use motion analysis to understand abnormal walking in kids. I'm interested in treating limb deformity, and using an external fixator device to help correct the deformity and heal patients. There are incredible new technologies today where we use the computer to help us to sculpt bones.

I would like families to know that I will work with them as a team, and be with them every step of the way. I tailor my approach in a way that makes the most sense for each unique child. We have access to a whole team of specialists here; together we are able to provide the best care for children.


Orthopaedic Surgery

Work and Education

Professional Education

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 2004


Northwestern McGaw, Chicago, IL, 2005


Northwestern McGaw, Chicago, IL, 2009


Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, MD, Australia, 2010

Sinai Hospital Of Baltimore, Baltimore, 2011

Board Certifications

Orthopaedic Surgery, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery

Conditions Treated


Spina bifida

All Publications

Fast Comprehensive Single-Sequence Four-Dimensional Pediatric Knee MRI With T-2 Shuffling JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Bao, S., Tamir, J. I., Young, J. L., Tariq, U., Uecker, M., Lai, P., Chen, W., Lustig, M., Vasanawala, S. S. 2017; 45 (6): 1700-1711

View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.25508

View details for Web of Science ID 000401259900015

Fast comprehensive single-sequence four-dimensional pediatric knee MRI with T2 shuffling. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI Bao, S., Tamir, J. I., Young, J. L., Tariq, U., Uecker, M., Lai, P., Chen, W., Lustig, M., Vasanawala, S. S. 2016


To develop and clinically evaluate a pediatric knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on volumetric fast spin-echo (3DFSE) and compare its diagnostic performance, image quality, and imaging time to that of a conventional 2D protocol.A 3DFSE sequence was modified and combined with a compressed sensing-based reconstruction resolving multiple image contrasts, a technique termed T2 Shuffling (T2 Sh). With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, 28 consecutive children referred for 3T knee MRI prospectively underwent a standard clinical knee protocol followed by T2 Sh. T2 Sh performance was assessed by two readers blinded to diagnostic reports. Interpretive discrepancies were resolved by medical record chart review and consensus between the readers and an orthopedic surgeon. Image quality was evaluated by rating anatomic delineation, with 95% confidence interval. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test assessed the null hypothesis that T2 Sh structure delineation compared to conventional 2D is unchanged. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for interobserver agreement. Imaging time of the conventional protocol and T2 Sh was compared.There was 81% and 87% concordance between T2 Sh reports and diagnostic reports, respectively, for each reader. Upon consensus review, T2 Sh had 93% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to clinical reports for detection of clinically relevant findings. The 95% confidence interval of diagnostic or better rating was 95-100%, with 34-80% interobserver agreement. There was no significant difference in structure delineation between T2 Sh and 2D, except for the retinaculum (P < 0.05), where 2D was preferred. Typical imaging time for T2 Sh and the conventional exam was 7 and 13 minutes, respectively.A single-sequence pediatric knee exam is feasible with T2 Sh, providing multiplanar, reformattable 4D images. Level of Evidence 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;00:000-000.

View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.25508

View details for PubMedID 27726251

Biomechanical and Clinical Correlates of Stance-Phase Knee Flexion in Persons With Spastic Cerebral Palsy PM&R Rha, D., Cahill-Rowley, K., Young, J., Torburn, L., Stephenson, K., Rose, J. 2016; 8 (1): 11-18
Caput valgum associated with developmental dysplasia of the hip: management by transphyseal screw fixation. Journal of children's orthopaedics Torode, I. P., Young, J. L. 2015; 9 (5): 371-379


A late finding of some hips treated for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a growth disturbance of the lateral proximal femoral physis, which results in caput valgum and possibly osteoarthritis. Current treatment options include complete epiphysiodesis of the proximal femoral physis or a corrective proximal femoral osteotomy. Alternatively, a transphyseal screw through the inferomedial proximal femoral physis that preserves superolateral growth might improve this deformity.This study evaluates the effect of such a transphyseal screw on both femoral and acetabular development in patients with caput valgum following open treatment of DDH. These patients were followed clinically and radiographically until skeletal maturity. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were assessed, measuring the proximal femoral physeal orientation (PFPO), the head-shaft angle (HSA), Sharp's angle and the center edge angle of Wiberg (CE angle).Thirteen hips of 11 consecutive patients were followed prospectively. The age at the time of transphyseal screw placement was between 5 and 14years. The mean improvement of the PFPO and HSA was 14 (p<0.01) and 11 (p<0.001), respectively. The mean improvement of Sharp's angle and CE angle was 4.7 (p<0.01) and 5.8 (p<0.02), respectively. Five patients underwent screw revision.A transphyseal screw across the proximal femoral physis improved the proximal femur and acetabular geometry.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s11832-015-0681-9

View details for PubMedID 26362171

Biomechanical and clinical correlates of swing-phase knee flexion in individuals with spastic cerebral palsy who walk with flexed-knee gait. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation Rha, D., Cahill-Rowley, K., Young, J., Torburn, L., Stephenson, K., Rose, J. 2015; 96 (3): 511-517


To identify clinical and biomechanical parameters that influence swing-phase knee flexion and contribute to stiff-knee gait in individuals with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and flexed-knee gait.Retrospective analysis of clinical data and gait kinematics collected from 2010 to2013.Motion and gait analysis laboratory at a children's hospital.Individuals with spastic CP (N=34; 20 boys, 14 girls; mean age SD, 10.14.1y [range, 5-20y]; Gross Motor Function Classification System I-III) who walked with flexed-knee gait 20 at initial contact and had no prior surgery were included; the more-involved limb was analyzed.Not applicable.The magnitude and timing of peak knee flexion (PKF) during swing were analyzed with respect to clinical data, including passive range of motion and Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity, and biomechanical data, including joint kinematics and hamstring, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon length during gait.Data from participants demonstrated that achieving a higher magnitude of PKF during swing correlated with a higher maximum knee flexion velocity in swing (=.582, P<0.001) and a longer maximum length of the rectus femoris (=.491, P=.003). In contrast, attaining earlier timing of PKF during swing correlated with a higher knee flexion velocity at toe-off (=-.576, P<.001), a longer maximum length of the gastrocnemius (=-.355, P=.039), and a greater peak knee extension during single-limb support phase (=-.354, P=.040).Results indicate that the magnitude and timing of PKF during swing were independent, and their biomechanical correlates differed, suggesting important treatment implications for both stiff-knee and flexed-knee gait.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.039

View details for PubMedID 25450128

Management of the knee in spastic diplegia: what is the dose? Orthopedic clinics of North America Young, J. L., Rodda, J., Selber, P., Rutz, E., Graham, H. K. 2010; 41 (4): 561-577


This article discusses the sagittal gait patterns in children with spastic diplegia, with an emphasis on the knee, as well as the concept of the "dose" of surgery that is required to correct different gait pathologies. The authors list the various interventions in the order of their increasing dose. The concept of dose is useful in the consideration of the management of knee dysfunction.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ocl.2010.06.006

View details for PubMedID 20868885

Sacral stress fractures in children. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) Mangla, J., Young, J. L., Thomas, T. O., Karaikovic, E. E. 2009; 38 (5): 232-236

View details for PubMedID 19584993

Infected Total Ankle Arthroplasty Following Routine Dental Procedure FOOT & ANKLE INTERNATIONAL Young, J. L., May, M. M., Haddad, S. L. 2009; 30 (3): 252-257

View details for DOI 10.3113/FAI.2009.0252

View details for Web of Science ID 000263867000010

View details for PubMedID 19321103

Remodeling of birth fractures of the humeral diaphysis JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ORTHOPAEDICS Husain, S. N., King, E. C., Young, J. L., Sarwark, J. F. 2008; 28 (1): 10-13


Birth fractures of the humeral diaphysis are encountered at most pediatric medical centers and pediatric orthopaedic practices. The treatment strategy of these fractures is uniformly nonoperative. However, we have not found sufficient studies in the literature demonstrating the extent to which remodeling is possible and therefore how much deformity is acceptable in the treatment of these fractures.We reviewed the records of our institution's Orthopaedic Surgery Clinic and identified all children seen for birth fractures of the humerus from 2001 to 2005. The angulation and displacement at presentation and at follow-up were measured.All patients were treated nonoperatively, and most were managed by swaddling. In 9 patients with more than 4 months of radiographic follow-up, the mean initial angulation was 26 degrees in the coronal plane and 25 degrees in the sagittal plane. The mean angulation at final follow-up was 5 degrees in the coronal plane and 7 degrees in the sagittal plane. The maximum angulation at presentation was 66 degrees, which remodeled to 5 degrees at 7.3 months' follow-up.Our findings suggest that attempts to obtain an anatomical reduction or the use of more than the simplest immobilization methods are not necessary given the tremendous capacity for remodeling of these fractures in infants.

View details for Web of Science ID 000255766600003

View details for PubMedID 18157039