Richard Shaw, MD

  • Richard J. Shaw


Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

Work and Education

Professional Education

Middlesex Hospital Med School, London, England, 1982


Albert Einstein College of Medicine Office of the Registrar, Bronx, NY, 1986


Albert Einstein College of Medicine Office of the Registrar, Bronx, NY, 1989


Stanford University School of Medicine Registrar, Palo Alto, CA, 1993

Board Certifications

Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology

Psychiatry, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology

All Publications

Textbook of Pediatric Psychosomatic Medicine Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Shaw RJ, DeMaso DR 2010
Clinical Manual of Pediatric Psychosomatic Medicine: Mental Health Consultation with Physically Ill Children and Adolescents Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Shaw RJ, DeMaso DR 2006
Management of Pediatric Delirium in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Patients: An International Survey of Current Practices PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Staveski, S. L., Pickler, R. H., Lin, L., Shaw, R. J., Meinzen-Derr, J., Redington, A., Curley, M. Q. 2018; 19 (6): 53843


The purpose of this study was to describe how pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians assess and manage delirium in patients following cardiac surgery.Descriptive self-report survey.A web-based survey of pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians who are members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society.Pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians (physicians and nurses).None.One-hundred seventy-three clinicians practicing in 71 different institutions located in 13 countries completed the survey. Respondents described their clinical impression of the occurrence of delirium to be approximately 25%. Most respondents (75%) reported that their ICU does not routinely screen for delirium. Over half of the respondents (61%) have never attended a lecture on delirium. The majority of respondents (86%) were not satisfied with current delirium screening, diagnosis, and management practices. Promotion of day/night cycle, exposure to natural light, deintensification of care, sleep hygiene, and reorientation to prevent or manage delirium were among nonpharmacologic interventions reported along with the use of anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and medications for insomnia.Clinicians responding to the survey reported a range of delirium assessment and management practices in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Study results highlight the need for improvement in delirium education for pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians as well as the need for systematic evaluation of current delirium assessment and management practices.

View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001558

View details for Web of Science ID 000435388800013

View details for PubMedID 29863637

Risk factors for learning problems in youth with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Epilepsy & behavior Doss, J., Caplan, R., Siddarth, P., Bursch, B., Falcone, T., Forgey, M., Hinman, K., Curt LaFrance, W., Laptook, R., Shaw, R., Weisbrot, D., Willis, M., Plioplys, S. 2017; 70: 135-139


This study examined the risk factors for learning problems (LP) in pediatric psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and their specificity by comparing psychopathology, medical, cognitive/linguistic/achievement, bullying history, and parent education variables between subjects with PNES with and without LP and between subjects with PNES and siblings with LP.55 subjects with PNES and 35 siblings, aged 8-18years, underwent cognitive, linguistic, and achievement testing, and completed somatization and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires. A semi-structured psychiatric interview about the child was administered to each subject and parent. Child self-report and/or parent report provided information on the presence/absence of LP. Parents also provided each subject's medical, psychiatric, family, and bullying history information.Sixty percent (33/55) of the PNES and 49% (17/35) of the sibling subjects had LP. A multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that bullying and impaired formulation of a sentence using a stimulus picture and stimulus word were significantly associated with increased likelihood of LP in the PNES youth. In terms of the specificity of the LP risk factors, a similar analysis comparing LP in the youth with PNES and sibling groups identified anxiety disorder diagnoses and bullying as the significant risk factors associated with LP in the PNES youth.These findings emphasize the need to assess youth with PNES for LP, particularly if they have experienced bullying, have linguistic deficits, and meet criteria for anxiety disorder diagnoses.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.yebeh.2017.03.016

View details for PubMedID 28427021

Clinical Management of Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: Part IPsychiatric and Behavioral Interventions Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Thienemann, M., Murphy, T., Leckman, J., Shaw, R., Williams, K., Kapphahn, C., Frankovich, J., Geller, D., Bernstein, G., Chang, K., Elia, J., Swedo, S. 2017; 27 (7): 566-573


This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS).Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms.Current guidelines result from consensus among the Consortium members.While underlying infectious and inflammatory processes in PANS and PANDAS patients are treated, psychiatric and behavioral symptoms need simultaneous treatment to decrease suffering and improve adherence to therapeutic intervention. Psychological, behavioral, and psychopharmacologic interventions tailored to each child's presentation can provide symptom improvement and improve functioning during both the acute and chronic stages of illness. In general, typical evidence-based interventions are appropriate for the varied symptoms of PANS and PANDAS. Individual differences in expected response to psychotropic medication may require marked reduction of initial treatment dose. Antimicrobials and immunomodulatory therapies may be indicated, as discussed in Parts 2 and 3 of this guideline series.

View details for DOI 10.1089/cap.2016.0145

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5610394

Clinical Management of Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Part II Use of Immunomodulatory Therapies Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Frankovich, J., Swedo, S., Murphy, T., Dale, R. C., Agalliu, D., Williams, K., Daines, M., Hornig, M., Chugani, H., Sanger, T., Muscal, E., Pasternack, M., Cooperstock, M., Gans, H., Zhang, Y., Cunningham, M., Bernstein, G., Bromberg, R., Willett, T., Brown, K., Farhadian, B., Chang, K., Geller, D., Hernandez, J., Sherr, J., et al 2017; 27 (7): 574-593

View details for DOI 10.1089/cap.2016.0148

Practice Patterns Revisited in Pediatric Psychosomatic Medicine PSYCHOSOMATICS Shaw, R. J., Pao, M., Holland, J. E., Demaso, D. R. 2016; 57 (6): 576-585


Given the heightened focus on the implementation of integrated care and population health management strategies, there is a critical need for an analysis of pediatric psychosomatic medicine (PPM) programs.The goal was to survey current practice patterns in academic PPM programs in North America regarding their service composition, clinical consultation services, changes in service demand, funding, and major challenges so as to inform and support advocacy efforts on behalf of children in their need for responsive and effective PPM services.With a 52.5% survey response rate from 122 child and adolescent psychiatry programs in North America, the demand for PPM services was reported to have significantly increased over the past decade as seen in the described expansion in clinical consultation services and the reported higher patient acuity, as well as new responsibilities in the care of youth with psychiatric illnesses who require boarding on medical inpatient services. Although an increased willingness by hospital administrators to fund PPM services was apparent, adequate funding remained a core issue. Although the value of research is well recognized, few programs are engaged in systematic PPM investigation.This survey provides evidence that the current field of PPM appears to be in an increasingly stronger position within academic medical centers. It is just as apparent today, as it has been in the past, that there is a need to communicate at local, regional, and national levels that PPM is an essential behavioral health service.

View details for Web of Science ID 000388064200004

View details for PubMedID 27393387

Risk factors for comorbid psychopathology in youth with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures SEIZURE-EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPILEPSY Plioplys, S., Doss, J., Siddarth, P., Bursch, B., Falcone, T., Forgey, M., Hinman, K., LaFrance, W. C., Laptook, R., Shaw, R. J., Weisbrot, D. M., Willis, M. D., Caplan, R. 2016; 38: 32-37


To examine the risk factors for internalizing (anxiety, depression) and posttraumatic stress (PTSD) disorders, somatization, and anxiety sensitivity (AS) in youth with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES).55 probands with PNES and 35 siblings, aged 8-18 years, underwent a psychiatric interview, cognitive and language testing, and completed somatization and AS questionnaires. Parents provided the subjects' medical, psychiatric, family, and adversity history information.The risk factors for the probands' internalizing disorders (girls, older age of PNES onset), somatization (older age, epilepsy), and anxiety sensitivity (girls, adversities) differed from their siblings. The risk factors in the siblings, however, were similar to the general pediatric population. Proband depression was unrelated to the study's risk variables while PTSD was significantly associated with female gender and lower Full Scale IQ.Knowledge about the specificity of the risk factors for comorbid psychopathology in youth with PNES might facilitate their early identification and treatment.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.seizure.2016.03.012

View details for Web of Science ID 000377834400007

View details for PubMedID 27085102

Emotional expressiveness and avoidance in narratives of unaccompanied refugee minors. European journal of psychotraumatology Huemer, J., Nelson, K., Karnik, N., Vlkl-Kernstock, S., Seidel, S., Ebner, N., Ryst, E., Friedrich, M., Shaw, R. J., Realubit, C., Steiner, H., Skala, K. 2016; 7: 29163-?


The aim of this study was to examine a cohort of unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) by means of psycholinguistic methods in order to obtain a more subtle picture of their degree of traumatization.Twenty-eight participants were included in the Stress-Inducing Speech Task (SIST) consisting of a free association (FA) and a stress (STR) condition. Narratives were examined by means of (1) quantitative parameters (word count); (2) psycholinguistic variables (temporal junctures, TJs), narrative structure, referential activity (RA)-a measure of emotional expressivity; and (3) content analysis ratings.Word count was significantly lower than in age-matched norms. In the FA condition, TJs were lower, but in the STR condition, rates were comparable. RA was significantly higher in both conditions. Content analysis ratings showed that the experiences described by these youths were potentially traumatic in nature.This pattern of narrative shows a mixture of fulfilling the task demand, while containing an emotionally charged narrative. Narrative structure was absent in the FA condition, but preserved in the STR condition, as URMs struggled with the description of non-normative events. This indicates that these youths have not yet emotionally dealt with and fully integrated their trauma experiences.

View details for DOI 10.3402/ejpt.v7.29163

View details for PubMedID 26955827

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4783431

Does she think shes supported? Maternal perceptions of their experiences in the neonatal intensive care Patient Experience Journal Lilo, E. A., Shaw, R. J., Corcoran, J., Storfer-Isser, A., Horwitz, S. M. 2016; 3 (1): 15-24
Adolescent Defense Style as Correlate of Problem Behavior. Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie Huemer, J., Shaw, R. J., Prunas, A., Hall, R., Gross, J., Steiner, H. 2015; 43 (5): 345-350


Adolescent problem behaviors are often the visible results of intrapsychic distress. Defensive reactions are the unconscious means of managing intrapsychic distress. This cross-sectional study examines the strength of defensive style as measured by self-report on the Response Evaluation Measure (REM-71) relative to age, sex, and SES, as a correlate of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR).A sample of 1,487 students from two suburban high schools completed self-report measures of defense style, self-esteem, and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Demographic variables (age, sex, and SES) were included as covariates.Mature and immature defense style correlated as expected with problem behaviors. Demographic variables contributed minimally to the variance in the outcome variable.Defense style, as assessed by the REM-71, is a significant correlate of clinically elevated internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in youth as in adults. This study adds to the convergent validity of the REM-71.

View details for DOI 10.1024/1422-4917/a000368

View details for PubMedID 26373385

A Model for the Development of Mothers' Perceived Vulnerability of Preterm Infants JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL PEDIATRICS Horwitz, S. M., Storfer-Isser, A., Kerker, B. D., Lilo, E., Leibovitz, A., St John, N., Shaw, R. J. 2015; 36 (5): 371-380


Some mothers of preterm infants continue to view them as vulnerable after their health has improved. These exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability lead to poor parent-child interactions and, subsequently, to adverse child outcomes. However, there is no theoretical model to explain why these exaggerated perceptions develop in only some mother-child dyads.Data for this study come from a randomized trial of an intervention to reduce distress in mothers of preterm infants. A total of 105 mothers older than 18 years of infants aged 25-34 weeks, weighing >600 g and with clinically significant anxiety, depression, or trauma symptoms, were recruited and randomized. Women were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at 6 months after birth. The outcome for these analyses was perceptions of infant vulnerability as measured by the Vulnerable Baby Scale (VBS) at 6 months after birth. A theoretical model developed from the extant literature was tested using the MacArthur Mediator-Moderator Approach.A dysfunctional coping style, high depression, anxiety, or trauma symptoms in response to the preterm birth, and low social support were related to 6-month VBS scores. Maternal response to trauma was directly related to VBS, and an important precursor of maternal response to trauma was a dysfunctional coping style.This model suggests that maternal responses to trauma are critical in the formation of exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability as are dysfunctional coping styles and low social support. Women with these characteristics should be targeted for intervention to prevent poor parenting practices that result from exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability.

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000173

View details for Web of Science ID 000356248100009

View details for PubMedID 25961903

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4456223


View details for DOI 10.1002/imhj.21517

View details for Web of Science ID 000354487800011



To determine if an intervention to reduce maternal distress and address maternal perceptions of infants' vulnerability also reduces perceptions of vulnerability, 105 mothers of premature infants (25- to 34-weeks' gestational age; >600 g) with depression, anxiety, or trauma were randomized to a six- or nine-session intervention or a comparison condition. The outcome was changes in a measure of perception of infant vulnerability between 4 to 5 weeks' and 6 months' postdelivery, the Vulnerability Baby Scale (VBS; B. Forsyth, S. Horwitz, J. Leventhal, & J. Burger, 1996; N. Kerruish, K. Settle, P. Campbell-Stokes, & B. Taylor, 2005). High scores on the VBS were indicative of high levels of perceived infant vulnerability. The perceptions of infants' vulnerability showed significant declines, with no differences across groups or in rate of change. Mothers reporting prior trauma at entry to the study showed much lower perceptions of infants' vulnerability scores under the intervention, Cohen's d=-0.86, p=.01. Given that women with prior trauma are very likely to view their premature infants as vulnerable, this intervention may have important implications for subsequent parenting behaviors and child development.

View details for DOI 10.1002/imhj.21484

View details for Web of Science ID 000348421800006

View details for PubMedID 25452159

A multisite controlled study of risk factors in pediatric psychogenic nonepileptic seizures EPILEPSIA Plioplys, S., Doss, J., Siddarth, P., Bursch, B., Falcone, T., Forgey, M., Hinman, K., LaFrance, W. C., Laptook, R., Shaw, R. J., Weisbrot, D. M., Willis, M. D., Caplan, R. 2014; 55 (11): 1739-1747


Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in youth are symptoms of a difficult to diagnose and treat conversion disorder. PNES is associated with high medical and psychiatric morbidity, but specific PNES risk factors in the pediatric population are not known. We examined if youth with PNES have a distinct biopsychosocial risk factor profile compared to their siblings and if the interrelationships between these risk factors differentiate the PNES probands from the sibling group.This multisite study included 55 youth with a confirmed diagnosis of PNES (age range 8.6-18.4years) and their 35 sibling controls (age range 8.6-18.1years). A video EEG and psychiatric assessment confirmed the PNES diagnosis. Parents reported on each child's past and present medical/epilepsy, psychiatric, family, and educational history. Each child underwent a structured psychiatric interview, standardized cognitive and academic achievement testing, and completed self-report coping, daily stress, adversities, and parental bonding questionnaires.Compared to their siblings, the PNES probands had significantly more lifetime comorbid medical, neurological (including epilepsy), and psychiatric problems; used more medications and intensive medical services; had more higher anxiety sensitivity, practiced solitary emotional coping, and experienced more lifetime adversities. A principal components analysis of these variables identified a somatopsychiatric, adversity, epilepsy, and cognitive component. The somatopsychiatric and adversity components differentiated the probands from the siblings, and were highly significant predictors of PNES with odds ratios of 15.1 (95% CI [3.4, 67.3], and 9.5 (95% CI [2.0, 45.7]), respectively. The epilepsy and cognitive components did not differentiate between the PNES and sibling groups.These findings highlight the complex biopsychosocial and distinct vulnerability profile of pediatric PNES. They also underscore the need for screening the interrelated risk factors included in the somatopsychiatric and adversity components and subsequent mental health referral for confirmation of the diagnosis and treatment of youth with PNES.

View details for DOI 10.1111/epi.12773

View details for Web of Science ID 000345227400015

Defensive functioning and psychopathology: a study with the REM-71 COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHIATRY Prunas, A., Preti, E., Huemer, J., Shaw, R. J., Steiner, H. 2014; 55 (7): 1696-1702


The aim of the present study is to explore the association between defensive functioning (as assessed through the REM-71) and psychiatric symptoms in a large sample from the community, and the moderating role of age and gender on that association. Furthermore, we explored the concurrent validity of REM-71 as compared with "caseness" (SCL-90-R).The REM-71 was administered together with SCL-90-R to a community sample of 1,060 Italian high-school and university students (mean age=19.013.85 years; 66.7% females).Factor 1 defenses were by far the primary contributors to the predictor synthetic variable (i.e. association between defenses and psychopathology). Gender proved to moderate the association between immature defenses and symptoms. Using ROC analysis, we derived a cut-off score for Factor 1 defenses.Our results support the adoption of the REM-71 as a useful instrument for the assessment of defensive array and psychopathological liability in adolescents and adults.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.06.008

View details for Web of Science ID 000342121800032

Prevention of traumatic stress in mothers of preterms: 6-month outcomes. Pediatrics Shaw, R. J., St John, N., Lilo, E., Jo, B., Benitz, W., Stevenson, D. K., Horwitz, S. M. 2014; 134 (2): e481-8


Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder are a well-recognized phenomenon in mothers of preterm infants, with implications for maternal health and infant outcomes. This randomized controlled trial evaluated 6-month outcomes from a skills-based intervention developed to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression.One hundred five mothers of preterm infants were randomly assigned to (1) a 6- or 9-session intervention based on principles of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy with infant redefinition or (2) a 1-session active comparison intervention based on education about the NICU and parenting of the premature infant. Outcome measures included the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Participants were assessed at baseline, 4 to 5 weeks after birth, and 6 months after the birth of the infant.At the 6-month assessment, the differences between the intervention and comparison condition were all significant and sizable and became more pronounced when compared with the 4- to 5-week outcomes: Davidson Trauma Scale (Cohen's d = -0.74, P < .001), Beck Anxiety Inventory (Cohen's d = -0.627, P = .001), Beck Depression Inventory II (Cohen's d = -0.638, P = .002). However, there were no differences in the effect sizes between the 6- and 9-session interventions.A brief 6-session intervention based on principles of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy was effective at reducing symptoms of trauma, anxiety, and depression in mothers of preterm infants. Mothers showed increased benefits at the 6-month follow-up, suggesting that they continue to make use of techniques acquired during the intervention phase.

View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-0529

View details for PubMedID 25049338

Prevention of traumatic stress in mothers of preterms: 6-month outcomes. Pediatrics Shaw, R. J., St John, N., Lilo, E., Jo, B., Benitz, W., Stevenson, D. K., Horwitz, S. M. 2014; 134 (2): e481-8

View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-0529

View details for PubMedID 25049338

Screening for Symptoms of Postpartum Traumatic Stress in a Sample of Mothers with Preterm Infants ISSUES IN MENTAL HEALTH NURSING Shaw, R. J., Lilo, E. A., Storfer-Isser, A., Ball, M. B., Proud, M. S., Vierhaus, N. S., Huntsberry, A., Mitchell, K., Adams, M. M., Horwitz, S. M. 2014; 35 (3): 198-206


There are no established screening criteria to help identify mothers of premature infants who are at risk for symptoms of emotional distress. The current study, using data obtained from recruitment and screening in preparation for a randomized controlled trial, aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress in a sample of mothers with premature infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit. One hundred, thirty-five mothers of preterm infants born at 26-34 weeks of gestation completed three self-report measures: the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory to determine their eligibility for inclusion in a treatment intervention study based on clinical cut-off scores for each measure. Maternal sociodemographic measures, including race, ethnicity, age, maternal pregnancy history, and measures of infant medical severity were not helpful in differentiating mothers who screened positive on one or more of the measures from those who screened negative. Programs to screen parents of premature infants for the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression will need to adopt universal screening rather than profiling of potential high risk parents based on their sociodemographic characteristics or measures of their infant's medical severity.

View details for DOI 10.3109/01612840.2013.853332

View details for Web of Science ID 000353212800007

View details for PubMedID 24597585

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3950960

Prevention of traumatic stress in mothers with preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics Shaw, R. J., St John, N., Lilo, E. A., Jo, B., Benitz, W., Stevenson, D. K., Horwitz, S. M. 2013; 132 (4): e886-94


The current study evaluates a treatment intervention developed with the goal of reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in parents of premature infants.A total of 105 mothers of preterm infants (25-34 weeks' gestational age; >600 g) were randomized to receive a 6-session intervention developed to target parental trauma as well as facilitate infant redefinition (n = 62) or to an active comparison group (n = 43). Mothers in the intervention group received a combination of trauma-focused treatments, including psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, progressive muscle relaxation, and development of their trauma narrative. The intervention also incorporated material targeting infant redefinition, defined as the process of changing the mother's negative perceptions of her infant and the parenting experience.Mothers in the intervention group reported a greater reduction in both trauma symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.41, P = .023) and depression (Cohen's d = 0.59, P < .001) compared with the comparison group. Patients under both conditions improved significantly in terms of anxiety, with no differences between groups. Results of the moderator analysis showed that mothers with higher ratings of baseline NICU stress benefited more from the intervention compared with mothers who had lower ratings (P = .036).This short, highly manualized intervention for mothers of preterm infants statistically significantly reduced symptoms of trauma and depression. The intervention is feasible, can be delivered with fidelity, and has high ratings of maternal satisfaction. Given that improvements in mothers' distress may lead to improved infant outcomes, this intervention has the potential for a high public health impact.

View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2013-1331

View details for PubMedID 23999956

Prevention of Postpartum Traumatic Stress in Mothers withPreterm Infants: Manual Development and Evaluation. Issues in mental health nursing Shaw, R. J., Sweester, C. J., St John, N., Lilo, E., Corcoran, J. B., Jo, B., Howell, S. H., Benitz, W. E., Feinstein, N., Melnyk, B., Horwitz, S. M. 2013; 34 (8): 578-586


Premature birth has been associated with multiple adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants who are premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent, both as infants and as they get older. In response to these findings, a number of educational and behavioral interventions have been developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting, and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. The current study aimed to both develop and evaluate a treatment that integrates, for the first time, effective interventions for reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and enhancing maternal-infant interactions. Conclusions from the study indicate that the intervention is feasible, able to be implemented with a high level of fidelity, and is rated as highly satisfactory by participants. Though encouraging, these findings are preliminary, and future studies should strive to reproduce these findings with a larger sample size and a comparison group.

View details for DOI 10.3109/01612840.2013.789943

View details for PubMedID 23909669

Prevention of Postpartum Traumatic Stress in Mothers with Preterm Infants: Manual Development and Evaluation ISSUES IN MENTAL HEALTH NURSING Shaw, R. J., Sweester, C. J., John, N. S., Lilo, E., Corcoran, J. B., Jo, B., Howell, S. H., Benitz, W. E., Feinstein, N., Melnyk, B., Horwitz, S. M. 2013; 34 (8): 578-586


Premature birth has been associated with multiple adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants who are premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent, both as infants and as they get older. In response to these findings, a number of educational and behavioral interventions have been developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting, and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. The current study aimed to both develop and evaluate a treatment that integrates, for the first time, effective interventions for reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and enhancing maternal-infant interactions. Conclusions from the study indicate that the intervention is feasible, able to be implemented with a high level of fidelity, and is rated as highly satisfactory by participants. Though encouraging, these findings are preliminary, and future studies should strive to reproduce these findings with a larger sample size and a comparison group.

View details for DOI 10.3109/01612840.2013.789943

View details for Web of Science ID 000209366600003

Parental coping in the neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings Shaw, R. J., Bernard, R. S., Storfer-Isser, A., Rhine, W., Horwitz, S. M. 2013; 20 (2): 135-142


Fifty-six mothers of premature infants who participated in a study to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) completed the Brief COPE, a self-report inventory of coping mechanisms, the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire to assess acute stress disorder (ASD) and the Davidson Trauma Scale to assess PTSD. 18% of mothers had baseline ASD while 30% of mothers met the criteria for PTSD at the 1-month follow-up. Dysfunctional coping as measured by the Brief COPE was positively associated with elevated risk of PTSD in these mothers (RR=1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.15; p=.008). Maternal education was positively associated with PTSD; each year increase in education was associated with a 17% increase in the relative risk of PTSD at 1month follow-up (RR=1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.35; p=.03). Results suggest that dysfunctional coping is an important issue to consider in the development of PTSD in parents of premature infants.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s10880-012-9328-x

View details for PubMedID 22990746

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3578086

Personality and Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Repression, Resilience and Vulnerability CHILD PSYCHIATRY & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Huemer, J., Voelkl-Kernstock, S., Karnik, N., Denny, K. G., Granditsch, E., Mitterer, M., Humphreys, K., Plattner, B., Friedrich, M., Shaw, R. J., Steiner, H. 2013; 44 (1): 39-50


Examining personality and psychopathological symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs), we measured intra-individual dimensions (repression and correlates thereof) usually associated with resilience. Forty-one URMs completed the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), assessing personality, and the Youth Self-Report (YSR), describing current symptoms. URMs endorsed high levels of Repressive Defensiveness, Denial of Distress, and Restraint; unexpectedly, URMs reported high Distress and reduced Happiness (WAI, p's < 0.05). Although YSR symptoms were below clinical cut points, there were notable correlations between Distress and Attention Problems, Self-destructive, and Aggressive Behavior (all on the YSR), correcting for multiple comparisons (p's < 0.004). URMs exposed to non-normative stressors reported non-symptomatic outcomes, and high levels of personality dimensions correlating with resilience. However, URMs also endorsed high Distress and low Happiness, calling their resilience into question. Positive correlations between WAI Distress and YSR symptom subscales suggest that URMs harbor vulnerabilities of clinical and forensic significance.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s10578-012-0308-z

View details for Web of Science ID 000314065000003

View details for PubMedID 22661148

Effectiveness of therapeutic and behavioral interventions for parents of low-birth-weight premature infants: A review INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL Brecht, C. J., Shaw, R. J., St John, N. H., Horwitz, S. M. 2012; 33 (6): 651-665


Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes.

View details for DOI 10.1002/imhj.21349

View details for Web of Science ID 000311375600010

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3925006

Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression and Trauma in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Study JOURNAL OF TRAUMATIC STRESS Bernard, R. S., Williams, S. E., Storfer-Isser, A., Rhine, W., Horwitz, S. M., Koopman, C., Shaw, R. J. 2011; 24 (2): 230-234


Parents of hospitalized premature infants are at risk for developing psychological symptoms. This randomized controlled pilot study examined the effectiveness of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention in reducing traumatic and depressive symptoms in mothers 1 month after their infant's discharge from the hospital. Fifty-six mothers were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Results showed that mothers experienced high levels of symptoms initially and at follow-up. At follow-up, there was a trend for mothers in the intervention group to report lower levels of depression (p = .06; Cohen's f = .318), but levels of traumatic symptoms were similar for both groups. Brief psychological interventions may reduce depressive symptoms in this population. Estimates of the effect sizes can be used to inform future intervention studies.

View details for DOI 10.1002/jts.20626

View details for Web of Science ID 000289528300014

View details for PubMedID 21438016

Inter-rater reliability of the Pediatric Transplant Rating Instrument (P-TRI): Challenges to reliably identifying adherence risk factors during pediatric pre-transplant evaluations PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Fisher, M., Storfer-Isser, A., Shaw, R. J., Bernard, R. S., Drury, S., Ularntinon, S., Horwitz, S. M. 2011; 15 (2): 142-147


The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of the P-TRI, a 17-item instrument developed to identify risk factors associated with poor treatment adherence in pediatric solid organ transplant candidates. Because factors influencing treatment adherence may vary with age, the 89 subject samples were divided into pre-adolescent (0-11 yr) and adolescent (12-19 yr) groups. Each subject received two independent P-TRI ratings based on pretransplant psychosocial assessments separately conducted by a PSYC and a SWTC. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using the delta statistic. Overall, agreement was higher in the pre-adolescent group, with delta>0.70 for five items and delta<0.30 for two items. For the adolescent group, one item had a delta>0.70 and seven items had a delta<0.30. Overall, PSYC P-TRI ratings indicated fewer areas of concern on items assessing family dynamics compared with SWTC P-TRI ratings, whereas the reverse was true for items related to psychiatric history. Results highlight the challenges of conducting a reliable pretransplant assessment of adherence-related risk factors and suggest the need for revisions to the P-TRI prior to its use in clinical practice.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2010.01428.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000288316300008

View details for PubMedID 21226810

Overt and Covert Aggression in College Women with Bulimia Nervosa ZEITSCHRIFT FUR KINDER-UND JUGENDPSYCHIATRIE UND PSYCHOTHERAPIE Huemer, J., Sagar, A., Alquero, K., Denny, K., Shaw, R. J., Steiner, H. 2011; 39 (6): 409-415


This study examines the prevalence of overt and covert aggression in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) as well as the relationship between the severity of BN and the frequency of aggressive acts.20 female college students with BN and 20 control subjects completed self-report measures of aggressive behavior and eating disorder pathology. They also completed the Juvenile Health and Wellness Survey-76 to assess general risk taking and indices of sexual behavior and mental health.BN subjects reported higher levels of both overt and covert aggression (p < .001). Overt aggression tended to be more premeditated, while the self-report of covert aggression behavior was more impulsive. Levels of aggressive behavior were significantly correlated with severity of BN (p < .01). Subjects with BN reported higher levels of risk-taking and sexual behaviors.Aggression is an important clinical issue in BN. Subtypes of aggression suggest different pathways for overt and covert aggressive acts with impulsive covert aggression being more closely related to the binge-purge cycle. Awareness of subtypes of aggression in BN may have important clinical and treatment implications.

View details for DOI 10.1024/1422-4917/a000139

View details for Web of Science ID 000296582300005

View details for PubMedID 22031013

Psychosocial assessment prior to pediatric transplantation: A review and summary of key considerations PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Annunziato, R. A., Fisher, M. K., Jerson, B., Bochkanova, A., Shaw, R. J. 2010; 14 (5): 565-574


Prior to listing for transplantation, patients participate in a comprehensive, multidisciplinary evaluation. One component of this process, incorporated by the vast majority of transplant centers, is a psychosocial assessment conducted by a mental health professional. The primary objectives of a pre-transplant psychosocial assessment are to identify risk factors for difficulty adjusting post-transplant as well as behaviors that may compromise transplantation outcomes. This paper aims to provide a summary of key considerations for pediatric transplant teams describing what this assessment might include, when it should be performed, training requirements for the evaluators, how results of the evaluation might best be utilized and suggestions for optimal patient preparation. Our findings suggest that the evaluation, which can be conducted by a variety of professionals, should include assessment of patient knowledge and motivation for transplant, mental health and substance abuse history, presence or absence of family and social support, availability of financial resources, past history of treatment adherence, and the quality of the family's relationship with the transplant team. Repeat assessments and utilizing the initial evaluation for outcome assessment should be considered. Finally, the evaluation offers a unique opportunity for better preparing patients and families for transplantation.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2010.01353.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000279765900003

View details for PubMedID 20609171

Concurrent Treatment of Steroid-Related Mood and Psychotic Symptoms With Risperidone PEDIATRICS Ularntinon, S., Tzuang, D., Dahl, G., Shaw, R. J. 2010; 125 (5): E1241-E1245


Corticosteroid treatment is an important therapeutic modality for many pediatric medical conditions including acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, steroid-induced behavioral and mood abnormalities are common and potentially disabling adverse effects that have been widely reported in the pediatric literature. From this case series, we report the efficacy of risperidone in 3 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed steroid-related mood and psychotic symptoms during treatment with prednisone and dexamethasone. Risperidone is an effective short-term pharmacologic agent for controlling steroid-related psychiatric adverse effects when cessation or dose reduction of steroid therapy is not an option.

View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2009-1815

View details for Web of Science ID 000277232800060

View details for PubMedID 20385646

Pediatric psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: A study of assessment tools EPILEPSY & BEHAVIOR Salpekar, J. A., Plioplys, S., Siddarth, P., Bursch, B., Shaw, R. J., Asato, M. R., LaFrance, W. C., Weisbrot, D. M., Dunn, D. W., Austin, J. K., Olson, D. M., Caplan, R. 2010; 17 (1): 50-55


The goal of this study was to identify assessment tools and associated behavioral domains that differentiate children with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) from those with epilepsy. A sample of 24 children with PNES (mean age 14.0 years, 14 female), 24 children with epilepsy (mean age 13.6 years, 13 female), and their parents were recruited from five epilepsy centers in the United States. Participants completed a battery of behavioral questionnaires including somatization, anxiety, and functional disability symptoms. Children with PNES had significantly higher scores on the Childhood Somatization and Functional Disability Inventories, and their parents reported more somatic problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Depression, anxiety, and alexithymia instruments did not differentiate the groups. Measures of somatization and functional disability may be promising tools for differentiating the behavioral profile of PNES from that of epilepsy. Increased somatic awareness and perceived disability emphasize the similarity of PNES to other pediatric somatoform disorders.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.10.002

View details for Web of Science ID 000273837700007

View details for PubMedID 19948427

Traumatic Stress Reactions in Parents in Pediatric Intensive Care: A Review CURRENT PSYCHIATRY REVIEWS Ularntinon, S., Bernard, R., Wren, F., St John, N., Horwitz, S. M., Shaw, R. J. 2010; 6 (4): 26168
Comparison of Short-Term Psychological Outcomes of Respiratory Failure Treated by Either Invasive or Non-Invasive Ventilation PSYCHOSOMATICS Shaw, R. J., Harvey, J. E., Bernard, R., Gunary, R., Tiley, M., Steiner, H. 2009; 50 (6): 586-591


There is now widespread recognition of the development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals subjected to treatment in the hospital intensive care unit (ICU).The authors sought to investigate traumatic aspects of the ICU hospitalization experience.A group of 20 adult pulmonary patients requiring ventilation in the ICU were compared with 20 patients treated without ventilation. Subjects completed a semistructured interview about their hospital experience and were given self-report measures to assess PTSD and coping style.Subjects requiring invasive ventilation were significantly more likely to endorse symptoms of PTSD. There was a strong correlation between symptoms of PTSD and recall of memories of traumatic medical events. Symptoms of PTSD were positively associated with habitual experiences of distress and negatively associated with the use of denial of distress.Specific traumatic aspects of a patient's treatment, in this case the experience of intubation and mechanical ventilation, may be an additive risk factor for the development of PTSD.

View details for Web of Science ID 000272488900006

View details for PubMedID 19996229

The Italian version of the Response Evaluation Measure-71 COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHIATRY Prunas, A., Madeddu, F., Pozzoli, S., Gatti, C., Shaw, R. J., Steiner, H. 2009; 50 (4): 369-377


The aim of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Response Evaluation Measure (REM-71), a 71-item self-report measure previously developed for the assessment of defenses in adults and adolescents. The authors also examined the differences in the use of defenses based on sex and age (early adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood), and the association between defenses, psychosocial health, and psychologic distress in a large community sample.The Italian version of REM-71 was obtained through back-translation and administered to 1648 (1020 female subjects, mean age = 19.5 years, SD = +/-5.77) community subjects, aged between 13 and 68 years, voluntarily recruited among high school and university students in Milan, Italy, and the surrounding area. All subjects completed a self-report measure to assess demographic variables and satisfaction with life. A subsample (n = 1197) completed the Italian version of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised to assess symptoms of psychologic distress.Results were highly consistent with those obtained in the original English version of the REM-71 and included satisfactory internal consistency of the measure. Factor analyses yielded 2 principal factors that showed overall stability across age and sex subgroups. Factor 1 and factor 2 defenses were significantly correlated, in line with theoretical expectations, with positive and negative aspects of various domains of life.Results provide further support for the structure and validity of the REM-71 as a useful instrument for the assessment of defenses in adolescents and adults and suggest no major cross-cultural differences in the organization of these defenses.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.09.010

View details for Web of Science ID 000266820100011

View details for PubMedID 19486736

The Relationship Between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit PSYCHOSOMATICS Shaw, R. J., Bernard, R. S., DeBlois, T., Ikuta, L. M., Ginzburg, K., Koopman, C. 2009; 50 (2): 131-137


Having an infant hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a highly stressful event for parents. Researchers have proposed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a model to explain the psychological reaction of parents to their NICU experience.The authors sought to examine the prevalence of PTSD in parents 4 months after the birth of their premature or sick infants and the relationship of PTSD and symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) immediately after their infant's birth.Eighteen parents completed a self-report measure of ASD at baseline in addition to self-report measures of PTSD and depression at a 4-month follow-up assessment.In the sample, 33% of fathers and 9% of mothers met criteria for PTSD. ASD symptoms were significantly correlated with both PTSD and depression. Fathers showed a more delayed onset in their PTSD symptoms, but, by 4 months, were at even greater risk than mothers.The relatively high levels of psychological distress experienced by parents coupled with the potential negative outcomes on the parent and infant suggest that it is important to try to prepare parents for the expected psychological reactions that may occur in the event of a NICU hospitalization and also to support parents during the transition to home care.

View details for Web of Science ID 000265270400005

View details for PubMedID 19377021

Defence mechanisms in schizophrenia PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH Shaw, R. J., Geurse, M. K., Steiner, H. 2008; 2 (4): 240-248

View details for DOI 10.1002/pmh.47

View details for Web of Science ID 000207692700004

Posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic injury: Narratives as unconscious indicators of psychopathology BULLETIN OF THE MENNINGER CLINIC Hashemi, B., Shaw, R. J., Hong, D. S., Hall, R., Nelson, K., Steiner, H. 2008; 72 (3): 179-190


Current conventional assessment methodologies used to diagnose posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rely heavily on symptom counts obtained from clinical interviews or self-report questionnaires. Such measures may underestimate the impact of traumatic events, particularly in individuals who deny or repress emotional distress. This case report illustrates the use of two methods of narrative analysis to assess unconscious representations of PTSD. Linguistic analysis and a computerized analysis of referential activity were able to capture unconscious aspects of the traumatic experience.

View details for Web of Science ID 000260482800002

View details for PubMedID 18990054

Hypnosis-provoked nonepileptic events in children EPILEPSY & BEHAVIOR Olson, D. M., Howard, N., Shaw, R. J. 2008; 12 (3): 456-459


The purpose of this study was to describe the use of hypnotic suggestion as a means of precipitating nonepileptic events in children while they are undergoing video electroencephalographic monitoring (VEEG) for differential diagnosis of seizurelike behavior.Nine children aged 8-16 years were referred for VEEG to differentiate between epileptic seizures and nonepileptic events. All subjects underwent psychiatric consultation. Hypnosis was attempted in all subjects to try to provoke typical seizurelike events.In eight of nine patients, their typical seizurelike events were provoked by hypnosis. In all eight children, video and EEG analysis of the provoked events demonstrated them to be nonepileptic. No epileptiform abnormalities were present on interictal EEGs. No epileptic seizures occurred.Hypnosis is a useful and ethical means of provoking psychogenic nonepileptic events in children. Hypnotic suggestion should be considered as a provocative method when possibly psychogenic nonepileptic events have not occurred spontaneously during diagnostic evaluation.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.yebeh.2007.12.003

View details for Web of Science ID 000254553900014

View details for PubMedID 18249039

Pediatric Transplant Rating Instrument - A scale for the pretransplant psychiatric evaluation of pediatric organ transplant recipients PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Fung, E., Shaw, R. J. 2008; 12 (1): 57-66


Although the majority of pediatric solid organ transplant centers in the United States employ psychosocial criteria to assess the suitability of potential transplant candidates, there are no standardized pretransplant psychosocial assessment measures. Assessment scales that have been developed were designed for adult transplant recipients and are not suitable for use in the pediatric population. The P-TRI was developed to address this gap in the pediatric pretransplant psychosocial evaluation. It is intended to identify areas of psychosocial vulnerability that may be associated with poor treatment adherence and to facilitate the development of informed and focused psychosocial interventions for pediatric patients before and after transplant surgery. Items on the rating instrument were generated based on a review of the major correlates of treatment adherence in the pediatric population. Data are currently being collected for further reliability and validity analyses.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2007.00785.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000252122200011

View details for PubMedID 18186890



Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EM) is usually a self-limited neurological illness commonly accompanied by a variety of neurological symptoms. The presence of acute psychotic symptoms in EM, however, has not previously been reported, and there is no literature to guide its treatment and management. In this case report, the onset of psychotic symptoms in a hypoactive delirium and their significant improvement following the administration of atypical antipsychotics are described in a boy with EM. This case report demonstrates the efficacy and safety of antipsychotic agents during the acute phase of meningoencephalitis.

View details for DOI 10.2190/PM.38.3.e

View details for Web of Science ID 000261315400005

View details for PubMedID 19069573

PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH NON-EPILEPTIC EVENTS (NEE): PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL PROFILES 62nd Annual Meeting of the American-Epilepsy-Society/2nd Biennial North American Regional Epilepsy Congress Plioplys, S., Siddarth, P., Asato, M., Austin, J. K., Bursch, B., Dunn, D. W., Shaw, R. J., Salpekar, J. A., ZUKERMAN, J., Caplan, R. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2008: 151151
Defense mechanisms in schizophrenia Personality and Mental Health Shaw RJ, Geurse M, Steiner H 2008; 2: 240-248
Factitious disorder by proxy: Pediatric condition falsification HARVARD REVIEW OF PSYCHIATRY Shaw, R. J., Dayal, S., Hartman, J. K., DeMaso, D. R. 2008; 16 (4): 215-224


We present a comprehensive overview of the condition factitious disorder by proxy, also known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy. The review begins by highlighting essential definitions and the etiology and epidemiology of the disorder. It then analyzes relevant clinical issues such as assessment and diagnostic methods. The final section is a detailed discussion of the complex issues facing the clinician, including the process of confronting the perpetrator, relevant legal issues, and the treatment of the caretaker, child, and family through a multidisciplinary, team approach.

View details for DOI 10.1080/10673220802277870

View details for Web of Science ID 000258001000001

View details for PubMedID 18661364

Multidisciplinary management of pediatric nonepileptic seizures JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Plioplys, S., Asato, M. R., Bursch, B., Salpekar, J. A., Shaw, R., Caplan, R. 2007; 46 (11): 1491-1495

View details for DOI 10.1097/chi.0b013e31814dab98

View details for Web of Science ID 000250358100011

View details for PubMedID 18049299

Psychiatric medications for the treatment of pruritus Conference on the Futute of Psychiatric Diagnosis - Refining the Research Agenda Shaw, R. J., Dayal, S., Good, J., Bruckner, A. L., Joshi, S. V. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2007: 97078


To review the use of psychiatric medications in the treatment of pruritus.A literature review was conducted using the key words pruritus, psychiatric, and treatment.Three categories of pruritus are described: dermatologic, systemic, and psychogenic. Peripheral and central nervous system mechanisms of pruritus are reviewed. Conventional dermatologic treatments for pruritus are contrasted with some of the common psychopharmacologic treatment modalities that include anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antipsychotic agents. A treatment algorithm is offered to help guide the treatment of patients with pruritus.Psychiatric medications have been used successfully in the treatment of pruritus that is associated with both psychocutaneous and systemic disorders, which are resistant to conventional treatment.

View details for DOI 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181572799

View details for Web of Science ID 000251204900024

View details for PubMedID 17991825

Subtypes of pediatric delirium: A treatment algorithm PSYCHOSOMATICS Karnik, N. S., Joshi, S. V., Paterno, C., Shaw, R. 2007; 48 (3): 253-257


Delirium in adult populations of hospitalized patients has been well characterized into hyperactive, hypoactive, and mixed subtypes. The degree to which these subtypes apply to pediatric populations has yet to be fully demonstrated. In this case report, the authors present two cases of delirium that serve as examples of the hyperactive and hypoactive/mixed types and then discuss treatment. They find marked differences in the response of different delirium subtypes to haloperidol and risperidone and theorize as to the neurochemical pathways by which these pharmacological agents might work. This framework provides an algorithm for the treatment of pediatric delirium.

View details for Web of Science ID 000246210400010

View details for PubMedID 17478595

Abdominal migraine and treatment with intravenous valproic acid PSYCHOSOMATICS Tan, V., Sahami, A. R., Peebles, R., Shaw, R. J. 2006; 47 (4): 353-355

View details for Web of Science ID 000238767900013

View details for PubMedID 16844896

Acute stress disorder among parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care nursery PSYCHOSOMATICS Shaw, R. J., Deblois, T., Ikuta, L., Ginzburg, K., Fleisher, B., Koopman, C. 2006; 47 (3): 206-212


The authors examined the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) in parents of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Forty parents were assessed after the birth of their infants. Parents completed self-report measures of ASD, parental stress, family environment, and coping style: 28% of parents developed symptoms of ASD. ASD was associated with female gender, alteration in parental role, family cohesiveness, and emotional restraint. Family environment and parental coping style are significantly associated with the development of trauma symptoms. Results from this study suggest potential interventions to help minimize psychological distress in parents.

View details for Web of Science ID 000237226100003

View details for PubMedID 16684937

Practice patterns in pediatric consultation-liaison psychiatry - A national survey PSYCHOSOMATICS Shaw, R. J., Wamboldt, M., Bursch, B., Stuber, M. 2006; 47 (1): 43-49


The purpose of this survey was to describe the current status of pediatric consultation-liaison (C-L) services in the United States. A total of 144 pediatric C-L programs were surveyed, with a response rate of 33%. Financial and staffing constraints were cited as common problems; 61% of programs reported an increase in consultation requests over the past 5 years, however, 30% of services reported a decrease in funding. Collection rates for professional billings average 30%; 57% of services reported an increase in clinical service demands at the expense of teaching and liaison activities. Discussion includes recommendations based on the results of the survey.

View details for Web of Science ID 000234270000005

View details for PubMedID 16384806

Medical posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Times Shaw RJ, Bernard R 2006; 23: 25-38
A typology of non-adherence in pediatric renal transplant recipients PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Shaw, R. J., Palmer, L., Blasey, C., Sarwal, M. 2003; 7 (6): 489-493


We reviewed 112 pediatric renal transplant recipients to document the rate of medication non-adherence (NA) and to examine the relationships between NA, comorbid psychiatric illness, and the outcome variables of acute and chronic rejection and graft loss. A total of 32.5% of subjects had clinically significant NA with treatment based on review of serum immunosuppressant levels. NA was found to be significantly related to acute and chronic rejection, and graft loss (p < 0.001). NA was also related to the presence of comorbid psychiatric illness (p < 0.001). Logistic regression indicated that NA was a significant predictor for acute and chronic rejection, while psychiatric illness predicted graft loss. Adolescents had significantly higher rates of NA as well as shorter intervals between transplant date and onset of NA when compared with child patients (p < 0.001). Physician ratings of the primary reasons for NA suggested that lack of parental supervision and parent-child conflict were the major factors related to NA.

View details for Web of Science ID 000186500400014

View details for PubMedID 14870900

Treatment of feeding disorders in children with Down Syndrome Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Shaw RJ, Garcia M, Thorn M, Farley CA 2003; 8: 105-117
A comparison of clinical ratings with vocal acoustic measures of flat affect and alogia JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH Alpert, M., Shaw, R. J., Pouget, E. R., Lim, K. O. 2002; 36 (5): 347-353


In this report we compare clinical ratings of flat affect and alogia with objective measures of the patient's speech prosody and productivity. Thirty schizophrenic patients were evaluated with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the St. Hans Rating Scale for extra pyramidal side effects. Their speech was recorded and analyzed acoustically for measures of prosody and productivity. Correlations between pairs of SANS items and acoustic measures (e.g. Vocal Inflection and Fundamental Frequency Variance) were weak. The SANS item and global ratings were strongly related. Ratings of bradykinesia overlapped with the SANS ratings but not with the acoustic measures. The SANS ratings appear to be derived from global impressions, with diffuse confounding of flat affect with alogia, and with bradykinesia. Acoustic analysis has the potential to provide objective measures that may help develop operational definitions of these constructs and enhance clinical assessment.

View details for Web of Science ID 000178254700010

View details for PubMedID 12127603

Pseudologia fantastica associated with pervasive developmental disorder PSYCHIATRY-INTERPERSONAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES Teaford, T., Shaw, R. J., Reiss, A., Lotspeich, L. 2002; 65 (2): 165-171


This case study describes the association of Pseudologia Fantastica (PF) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) in a 14-year-old girl. PF is seen in a number of diagnostic entities, but has not previously been reported in PDD spectrum disorders. Treatment implications are discussed along with a formulation of the psychological and cognitive functions of PF in a person with a PDD diagnosis.

View details for Web of Science ID 000176500400007

View details for PubMedID 12108140

Acute stress disorder following ventilation PSYCHOSOMATICS Shaw, R. J., Robinson, T. E., Steiner, H. 2002; 43 (1): 74-76

View details for Web of Science ID 000174337000014

View details for PubMedID 11927764

Linguistic analysis to assess medically related posttraumatic stress symptoms PSYCHOSOMATICS Shaw, R. J., Harvey, J. E., Nelson, K. L., Gunary, R., Kruk, H., Steiner, H. 2001; 42 (1): 35-40


The authors examined the presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 20 patients requiring ventilation after acute respiratory distress. The subjects completed a semistructured interview about their ventilation experience that was subject to content and linguistic analysis. Subjects also completed two self-report measures to assess PTSS and socioemotional adjustment. Subjects who endorsed PTSS were more likely to use a narrative style suggesting emotional involvement in their recall of the stressful event. The authors indicate that the presence of PTSS is a common consequence of traumatic medical experiences and that denial of distress may be an adaptive short-term coping strategy.

View details for Web of Science ID 000166369100006

View details for PubMedID 11161119

Case study: Treatment adherence in a 13-year-old deaf adolescent male Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Shaw RJ, Palmer L, Hyte H, Yorgin P, Sarwal M 2001; 6 (4): 551-562
The mere exposure effect in patients with schizophrenia SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN Marie, A., Gabrieli, J. D., Vaidya, C., Brown, B., Pratto, F., Zajonc, R. B., Shaw, R. J. 2001; 27 (2): 297-303


The mere exposure effect refers to the development of an emotional preference for previously unfamiliar material because of frequent exposure to that material. This study compared schizophrenia subjects (n = 20) to normal controls (n = 21) to determine whether implicit memory, as demonstrated by the mere exposure effect, was intact. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated a normal preference for both verbal and visual materials seen earlier relative to novel materials, despite impaired performance on a recognition task for explicit memory using similar materials. Previous studies of schizophrenia subjects have shown a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory on verbal tasks. We found a similar dissociation demonstrated by normal functioning on an implicit memory task and impaired functioning on an explicit memory task. Potential implications of these findings are discussed with regard to treatment and rehabilitation.

View details for Web of Science ID 000168512400013

View details for PubMedID 11354596

Treatment adherence in adolescents: Development and psychopathology Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Shaw RJ 2001; 6: 137-150
Prosody and lexical accuracy in flat affect schizophrenia PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH Alpert, M., Rosenberg, S. D., Pouget, E. R., Shaw, R. J. 2000; 97 (2-3): 107-118


To test the hypothesis that flat affect in schizophrenia involves a motor-expressive deficiency, but not an emotional deficiency, we compared the acoustic properties of speech that are used to express emotion with the emotional content of the words. DSM-III-R schizophrenic patients were divided into flat (N=20) and non-flat affect (N=26) groups on the basis of rating-scale scores. Twenty normal subjects also were included. Subjects were recorded on audio tape as they described a happy and a sad experience for about 10 min. The recordings were analyzed acoustically for fluency and for two types of prosody: inflection and emphasis. Words from transcriptions of the recordings were sorted by content analysis software into psychologically meaningful categories; we compared 'pleasure' and 'distress' word categories. Patients with flat affect spoke with less inflection, and were less fluent. However, they were similar to the other groups in the rate at which they used 'pleasure' words to describe happy experiences and 'distress' words to describe sad experiences. The behavioral deficiency in flat affect appears to be restricted to reduced activity in communicative motor channels. Other aspects of emotion processing seem intact.

View details for Web of Science ID 000166779600003

View details for PubMedID 11166083

Case study: Suprasellar germinoma presenting with psychotic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Mordecai, D., Shaw, R. J., Fisher, P. G., Mittelstadt, P. A., Guterman, T., Donaldson, S. S. 2000; 39 (1): 116-119


This case describes a 13-year-old boy who had a suprasellar germinoma involving the bilateral basal ganglia. His presenting symptoms included left-sided weakness, diabetes insipidus, a decline in academic functioning as well as psychotic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. His neuroradiological findings and clinical symptoms lend support to the potential role of the basal ganglia in psychotic and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology.

View details for Web of Science ID 000084518400024

View details for PubMedID 10638075

Case study: selective mutism in an immigrant child Child Psychology and Psychiatry Zelenko M, Shaw RJ 2000; 5 (4): 555-562
The relationship between affect expression and affect recognition in schizophrenia SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH Shaw, R. J., Dong, M., Lim, K. O., Faustman, W. O., Pouget, E. R., Alpert, M. 1999; 37 (3): 245-250


To examine the relationship between affect expression and affect recognition, we assessed 30 clinically stable, medicated schizophrenic inpatients. Affect expression was assessed using both a standard clinical rating scale (SANS) and a computerized acoustic voice analysis (VOXCOM). Affect recognition was assessed using the Florida Affect Battery (FAB). The schizophrenics' performance on the FAB was impaired, indicating broad deficits in affect recognition (p<0.05). There were no significant correlations between measures of affect expression and affect recognition, suggesting that the expressive impairment in schizophrenia is not related to their ability to discern emotions in others. SANS Inappropriate Affect, however, was negatively correlated with facial affect recognition (p = 0.001), suggesting that raters' impression of inappropriate affect may indicate a failure in the process of affect attunement.

View details for Web of Science ID 000080871500005

View details for PubMedID 10403196

The pediatric psychiatric pretransplant evaluation Child Psychology and Psychiatry Shaw RJ, Taussig HN 1999; 4: 353-365
The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine practice guidelines for psychiatric consultation in the general medical setting PSYCHOSOMATICS Bronheim, H. E., Fulop, G., Kunkel, E. J., Muskin, P. R., Schindler, B. A., Yates, W. R., Shaw, R., Steiner, H., Stern, T. A., Stoudemire, A. 1998; 39 (4): S8-S30


This practice guideline seeks to provide guidance to psychiatrists who regularly evaluate and manage patients with medical illnesses. The guideline is intended to delineate the knowledge base, professional expertise, and integrated clinical approach necessary to effectively manage this complex and diverse patient population. This guideline was drafted by a work group consisting of psychiatrists with clinical and research expertise in the field, who undertook a comprehensive review of the literature. The guideline was reviewed by the executive council of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine and revised prior to final approval. Some of the topics discussed include qualifications of C-L consultants, patient assessment, psychiatric interventions (e.g., psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy), medicolegal issues, and child and adolescent consultations.

View details for Web of Science ID 000075014800023

View details for PubMedID 9691717

Defense style and family environment CHILD PSYCHIATRY & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Thienemann, M., Shaw, R. J., Steiner, H. 1998; 28 (3): 189-198


Prospective observations of the defense styles of normal individuals suggest that the quality of the childhood family environment may influence the maturity of defense styles used in adulthood. In this study, 106 female adolescent psychiatric patients completed the Defense Style Questionnaire, and the Family Environment Scale (FES). Positive family characteristics such as cohesion and expressiveness, as measured by the FES, were correlated with the report of Mature Defenses. Negative family characteristics such as conflict were correlated with the report of Immature Defenses. Similar although weaker correlations were found after controlling for the effects of depression and defensiveness on the self-report measures.

View details for Web of Science ID 000072516800005

View details for PubMedID 9540242

The academy of psychosomatic medicine practice guidelines for psychiatric consultation in the general medical center Psychosomatics Bronheim H, Fulop G, Kunkel E, Muskin P, Schindler B, Yates W, Shaw RJ, Steiner H, Stern TA, Stoudemire A 1998; 39: S8-S30
Bulimia as a disturbance of narcissism: Self-esteem and the capacity to self-soothe ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Steinberg, B. E., Shaw, R. J. 1997; 22 (5): 699-710


A review of the literature on eating disorders reveals that, although psychodynamic formulations linking narcissistic dynamics--particularly difficulties with self-soothing--and eating disorders are common in the theoretical and clinical literature, little empirical work has attempted to substantiate this claim. In this study, 117 women completed the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Bulimia Test Revised and four scales that measure different components of narcissism (the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory, measuring self-esteem, the Self-Care Questionnaire, and two subscales of the Ego Functioning Assessment Questionnaire, measuring self-soothing). The four scales used to assess narcissism were all highly correlated with each other, indicating that they measure a similar construct. In addition, the eating-disorder measures were correlated with the measures of narcissism, suggesting that a relationship exists between bulimia and narcissism, as assessed using self-report instruments.

View details for Web of Science ID 000071341900012

View details for PubMedID 9347071

Temperament in juvenile eating disorders PSYCHOSOMATICS Shaw, R. J., Steiner, H. 1997; 38 (2): 126-131


Previous studies have suggested an association between temperament and eating disorder pathology. The purpose of this study was to differentiate on the basis of temperament among patients with anorexia, bulimia, and major depression. In this study, 101 adolescent girls completed the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (Self), a self-report measure that identifies nine dimensions of temperament. Significant differences were found between the diagnostic groups while controlling for disturbances in mood and defensiveness. Specific subscales differentiated the subjects with anorexia from those with bulimia. These data support the concept of using temperament to differentiate patients with related psychiatric syndromes.

View details for Web of Science ID A1997WL68300006

View details for PubMedID 9063043

Recognition of facial expression and emotional prosody in schizophrenia Shaw, R. J., Ringo, D. L., Dong, M., Lim, K. O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1996: 26868
Temperament as a correlate of adolescent defense mechanisms CHILD PSYCHIATRY & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Shaw, R. J., Ryst, E., Steiner, H. 1996; 27 (2): 105-114


The Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey, which assesses nine dimensions of temperament, and the Defense Style Questionnaire, used to assess defense mechanisms, were completed by 107 female adolescents. Temperament was found to be strongly correlated with defense style, particularly with immature defenses (p = 0.0001). The findings support the hypothesis that the biological dimension of temperament is correlated with specific defense mechanisms.

View details for Web of Science ID A1996VP57900004

View details for PubMedID 8936796