Irene Loe, MD

  • Irene Marilyn Loe

Work and Education

Professional Education

University of Missouri Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, 05/15/1997


University of California - San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 06/30/1998


University of California - San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 06/30/2000


Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, 04/30/2005

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, 06/30/2007

University of California - San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 12/31/2003

Board Certifications

Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics

All Publications

Receipt of Behavioral Therapy in Preschool-Age Children with ADHD and Coexisting Conditions: A DBPNet Study. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Mittal, S., Bax, A., Blum, N. J., Shults, J., Barbaresi, W., Cacia, J., Deavenport-Saman, A., Friedman, S., LaRosa, A., Loe, I. M., Tulio, S., Vanderbilt, D., Harstad, E., DBPNet Steering Committee, DBPNet Steering Committee 2023


OBJECTIVE: Practice guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics and Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics recommend evidence-based behavioral therapy (BT) as first-line treatment for preschool-age children with ADHD, prior to medication initiation. Thus, this study's objective is to present the frequency of physician-documented receipt of BT in preschool-age children with ADHD prior to medication initiation and to determine factors associated with receipt BT receipt.METHODS: This retrospective medical record review was conducted across 7 Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network (DBPNet) sites. Data were abstracted for children <72 months old seen by a DBP clinician and initiated on ADHD medication between 1/1/2013-7/1/2017. From narrative text of the medical records, BT receipt was coded as: parent training in behavior management (PTBM), Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), other, or did not receive.RESULTS: Of the 497 children in this study; 225 children (45%) had reported receipt of any BT prior to ADHD medication initiation, with 15.9% (n = 79) receiving PTBM. Children with co-existing diagnoses of ASD or disruptive behavior disorder were more likely to receive BT than children without co-existing conditions (59.3% vs 69.0% vs 30.6%). There was significant site variability in reported receipt of BT, ranging from 22.4% to 74.1%, and sex and insurance were not associated with BT rates.CONCLUSION: The percentage of children with documented receipt of any BT, and particularly PTBM, was low across all sites and co-existing conditions. These findings highlight the universal need to increase receipt of evidence-based BT for all young children with ADHD.

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000001216

View details for PubMedID 37751569

Do Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms Moderate Medication Response in Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? A DBPNet Study. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Blum, N. J., Shults, J., Barbaresi, W., Bax, A., Cacia, J., Deavenport-Saman, A., Friedman, S., Loe, I. M., Mittal, S., Vanderbilt, D., LaRosa, A., Harstad, E. 2023; 44 (7): e447-e454


This study aimed to determine whether parent ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity or externalizing symptoms (EXT) or internalizing symptoms (INT) moderate response to stimulants (STIM) and alpha-2 adrenergic agonists (A2As) in preschool ADHD.Health records for children treated with medication for ADHD and with parent rating scale data available (N = 309; age <72 months) were reviewed at 7 Developmental-Behavioral Pediatric Research Network sites. Severity of ADHD was defined as the number of ADHD symptoms occurring often or very often on DSM-IV-based parent rating scales. EXT or INT from standardized rating scales were categorized as T score <60, 60 to <70, or 70. Ordinal logistic regression models predicting response to medication were calculated.The median (interquartile range) age at ADHD diagnosis was 59 (54-65) months. One hundred eighty-three participants had ADHD symptom severity, and 195 had EXT or INT data. ADHD severity was not associated with medication response. Both EXT and INT were associated with medication response but with significant medication class by EXT/INT interactions. Children with higher EXT were less likely to respond to STIM, with percentage of nonresponders for T-score categories <60, 60 to <70, and 70 being 3.6%, 25.7%, and 33.3% (p = 0.016) and, for A2As, being 60%, 50%, and 33.3% (p = 0.55), respectively. A similar pattern was observed for INT categories: STIM 19.4%, 22.5%, and 50.0% (p = 0.002) and A2As 42.3%, 30%, and 42.3% (p = 0.48), respectively.For preschool ADHD, low ratings of EXT or INT are associated with a high likelihood of response to STIM. By contrast, response rates to STIM and A2As are more similar for children with high levels of EXT or INT.

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000001209

View details for PubMedID 37696030

Adverse Effects of -2 Adrenergic Agonists and Stimulants in Preschool-Age ADHD: A DBPNet Study. The Journal of pediatrics Loe, I. M., Blum, N. J., Shults, J., Barbaresi, W., Bax, A., Cacia, J., Deavenport-Saman, A., Friedman, S., LaRosa, A., Mittal, S., Vanderbilt, D., Harstad, E. 2023


To characterize and compare the type and frequency of a range of common and uncommon adverse effects (AE) associated with -2 adrenergic agonist (A2A) and stimulant treatment of ADHD at preschool-age. To evaluate the impact of age on common AE.Retrospective electronic medical record review of children <72 months of age (N=497) evaluated at outpatient developmental-behavioral pediatric (DBP) practices at 7 US academic medical centers within the Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network (DBPNet). Data on AE were abstracted for children who had treatment initiated by DBP with an A2A or stimulant medication between January 2013 and July 2017; follow-up was complete by February 2019.A2A and stimulants had distinctive AE profiles. A2A compared with stimulants had a higher proportion with daytime sleepiness and headaches; stimulants had significantly higher proportions for most other AE, including moodiness/irritability, difficulty with sleep, appetite suppression, stomachaches, skin picking/repetitive behaviors, withdrawn behavior, and weight loss. Younger age was associated with disruptive behavior and difficulty with sleep.Stimulants had a higher rate of most AE compared with A2A. AE profiles, together with efficacy, should inform clinical decision-making. Prospective randomized clinical trials are needed to fully compare efficacy and AE profiles of A2A and stimulants.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2023.01.004

View details for PubMedID 36649794

How We Learn Helplessness from (and Actively Cope with) Institutionalized Racism. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Fogler, J., Perrin, H., Loe, I. 2022; 43 (6): 370-372

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000001084

View details for PubMedID 35880794

Association of Coexisting Conditions, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Choice, and Likelihood of Improvement in Preschool-Age Children: A Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network Study. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology Deavenport-Saman, A., Vanderbilt, D. L., Harstad, E., Shults, J., Barbaresi, W., Bax, A., Cacia, J., Friedman, S., LaRosa, A., Loe, I., Mittal, S., Blum, N. 2022


Objectives: To determine whether conditions coexisting with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool-age children are associated with choice of stimulants or alpha-2 adrenergic agonists (A2As) and/or likelihood of improvement in ADHD symptoms. Methods: A retrospective electronic health record review of 497 children from 7 Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network (DBPNet) sites. Children were <72 months when treated with medication for ADHD from January 1, 2013 to July 1, 2017. We abstracted coexisting conditions, initial medication prescribed, and whether the medication was associated with improvement in symptoms. Analysis of improvement was adjusted for clustering by clinician and site. Results: The median (interquartile range) child age at the time of initiation of ADHD medication was 62 (54-67) months. The most common coexisting conditions included language disorders (40%), sleep disorders (28%), disruptive behavior disorders (22.7%), autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 21.8%), and motor disorders (19.9%). No coexisting conditions were present in 17.1%; 1 in 36.8%, 2 in 26.8%, and 3 in 19.3%. Stimulants were initially prescribed for 322 (64.8%) and A2A for 175 (35.2%) children. Children prescribed stimulants were more likely to have no coexisting conditions than those prescribed A2A (22.3% vs. 7.4%; p<0.001). Coexisting ASD and sleep disorder were associated with increased likelihood of starting A2As versus stimulants (p<0.0005; p=0.002). The association between medication treatment and improvement varied by number of coexisting conditions for 0, 1, 2, or 3, respectively (84.7%, 73.8%, 72.9%, 64.6%; p=0.031). Children with 3 coexisting conditions were less likely to respond to stimulants than children with no coexisting conditions (67.4% vs. 79.9%; p=0.037). Conclusions: Among preschool-age children with ADHD, those with 3 coexisting conditions were less likely to respond to stimulants than those with no coexisting conditions. This was not found for A2A, but further research is needed as very few children with no coexisting conditions were treated with A2A.

View details for DOI 10.1089/cap.2022.0009

View details for PubMedID 35787014

Disproportionate Representation of Children of Color and Parents with Disabilities in the Child Welfare System: The Intersection of Race/Ethnicity, Immigration Status, and Disability. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Loe, I. M., Buysse, C. A., deBlank, M., Kirshbaum, M., Augustyn, M. 2021


An almost 5-year-old girl is referred to a developmental-behavioral clinician for developmental evaluation because of language and learning concerns. Her developmental screening in the primary pediatrics office showed scores concerning for delays in communication, social-emotional, gross, and fine motor domains. Her mother has concerns about her language. Her mother's primary language is Spanish, but the patient and her siblings speak primarily English. She speaks in short phrases and sentences with grammatical errors. Her mother understands approximately 75% of what she says, and strangers understand approximately 50%. She uses gestures and facial expression, is social and friendly, demonstrates pretend play, and plays well with her siblings and other children her age. She has occasional meltdowns, but there are no other major behavioral concerns. She feeds herself with utensils and is able to dress herself. She toilet trained recently, at about age 4.5 years.She did not receive early intervention before age 3 years and had no previous evaluations. She did not attend preschool or child care. Her mother reported that they were referred to the school district twice, but she had trouble requesting the evaluation.She lives with her parents and 2 brothers. The patient's parents immigrated to the United States from Mexico 7 years ago. They are both farm workers, and extended family members are in Mexico. On reviewing family history, the clinician learns that the patient's mother had trouble learning and attended school until she was 12 years old. She did not receive extra help at school. The child's mother said that she forgets things and "has trouble with reading and writing fast." The patient's 10-year-old brother has an individualized education plan and is in a substantially separate classroom. He has inclusion activities of recess, art, and music. He receives speech-language therapy and academic support for reading and writing. The patient's mother becomes tearful and shares that Child Protective Services was notified because of her inability to request the school evaluation, but a case was not opened.Developmental evaluation reveals expressive language at a 33-month-old level and receptive language at a 39-month-old level. Cognitive testing shows extremely low verbal comprehension, borderline visual spatial skills, and fluid reasoning in the low average range. Working memory and processing speed fall in the borderline range. The clinician learns at a follow-up visit that the patient's mother was evaluated by state disability services and has mild intellectual disability.What is your next step in management? What feedback or resources would you provide to the pediatric clinician and family?

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000989

View details for PubMedID 34232145

Responding to Discriminatory Patient Requests. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Moore, R., Loe, I. M., Whitgob, E., Cowden, J. D., Nyp, S. S. 2021


CASE: Julia is a 13-year-old White adolescent girl who was referred for psychological counseling given concerns related to mood, nonadherence, and adjustment secondary to her new diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. The family lives in a rural town located several hours from the academic medical center where she was diagnosed. After several months on a waitlist, the family was contacted to schedule a telehealth appointment with a predoctoral psychology trainee. When the scheduler informed the mother that her daughter would be scheduled with Ms. Huang, the mother abruptly stopped the conversation stating, "I do not want to waste everyone's time" and initially declined the appointment offered. When the scheduler asked about her hesitance, the mother disclosed previous interactions with doctors at the hospital who were "not born in the United States" that she felt were "textbook" (e.g., smiling even when discussing a new chronic medical condition) and "hard to understand" (i.e., because of different dialect/accent). The mother shared that she found these experiences to be stressful and felt the interactions had negatively affected Julia's care. When informed about the length of the waitlist for another clinician, the mother agreed to initiate services with the trainee.The supervising psychologist shared the mother's concerns and comments with Ms. Huang. After discussion, Ms. Huang agreed to provide intervention services, "as long as the family was willing." During the initial telehealth sessions, Ms. Huang primarily focused on building rapport and strengthening the therapeutic alliance with the family. During this time, Julia's mother was reluctant to incorporate suggested parent management strategies at home. Julia also made minimal improvement in her medical management (i.e., A1c levels remained high), had difficulty using behavioral coping strategies, and experienced ongoing mood symptoms (i.e., significant irritability, sleep difficulties, and depressive symptoms). Ms. Huang began to wonder whether the family's resistance and inability to implement recommendations were in some part because of the family's initial concerns and reluctance to engage in therapy with her as a clinician.Should Ms. Huang address the previously identified concerns with the patient and her family? What should be considered when determining how to approach this situation to ensure provision of both the best care for this patient and support for this trainee?

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000971

View details for PubMedID 34034293

Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Telephone Medication Management at Developmental-Behavioral Pediatric Network Sites. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Harstad, E., Shults, J., Barbaresi, W., Bax, A., Cacia, J., Deavenport-Saman, A., Friedman, S., LaRosa, A., Loe, I., Mittal, S., Vanderbilt, D., Blum, N. 2021


OBJECTIVE: To understand developmental-behavioral pediatricians' (DBPs') use of clinic versus telephone encounters for preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication management. Understanding use of telephone encounters for pharmacologic management of ADHD in preschoolers may inform care for children with ADHD.METHODS: DBP investigators within Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network abstracted data from medical records of 503 children aged younger than 72 months treated for ADHD with medication by a DBP clinician between January 1, 2013, and July 1, 2017, across 7 sites. We abstracted data about medication treatment episodes (defined as start and end/change of a specific type, dose, and frequency of ADHD medication) and encounter type (clinic vs telephone). We present descriptive statistics related to encounter types and chi2 analyses to compare frequencies across reasons for the end of treatment episode and across sites.RESULTS: The study included 503 participants with a total of 1734 treatment episodes. The initial medication was started via a clinic encounter 85.9% of the time and via telephone encounters 14.1% of the time. When evaluating reasons for end of treatment episode, decreases in dose/frequency of medication were less common for clinic versus telephone encounters (27% vs 73%; p < 0.001) and adding an additional medication was more common at clinic versus telephone encounters (64% vs 36% p < 0.001). Sites varied significantly in frequency of telephone encounters, ranging from 16.9% to 68.9% (mean 45.7%).CONCLUSION: Telephone encounters were used for pharmacologic management of ADHD in preschoolers to varying degrees across 7 DBP sites. These findings suggest that telephone management serves an important role in ADHD care.

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000919

View details for PubMedID 33929397

2-Adrenergic Agonists or Stimulants for Preschool-Age Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. JAMA Harstad, E. n., Shults, J. n., Barbaresi, W. n., Bax, A. n., Cacia, J. n., Deavenport-Saman, A. n., Friedman, S. n., LaRosa, A. n., Loe, I. M., Mittal, S. n., Tulio, S. n., Vanderbilt, D. n., Blum, N. J. 2021


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed in approximately 2.4% of preschool-age children. Stimulants are recommended as first-line medication treatment. However, up to 25% of preschool-age children with ADHD are treated with 2-adrenergic agonist medications, despite minimal evidence about their efficacy or adverse effects in this age range.To determine the frequency of reported improvement in ADHD symptoms and adverse effects associated with 2-adrenergic agonists and stimulant medication for initial ADHD medication treatment in preschool-age children.Retrospective electronic health record review. Data were obtained from health records of children seen at 7 outpatient developmental-behavioral pediatric practices in the Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network in the US. Data were abstracted for 497 consecutive children who were younger than 72 months when treatment with an 2-adrenergic agonist or stimulant medication was initiated by a developmental-behavioral pediatrician for ADHD and were treated between January 1, 2013, and July 1, 2017. Follow-up was complete on February 27, 2019.2-Adrenergic agonist vs stimulant medication as initial ADHD medication treatment.Reported improvement in ADHD symptoms and adverse effects.Data were abstracted from electronic health records of 497 preschool-age children with ADHD receiving 2-adrenergic agonists or stimulants. Median child age was 62 months at ADHD medication initiation, and 409 children (82%) were males. For initial ADHD medication treatment, 2-adrenergic agonists were prescribed to 175 children (35%; median length of 2-adrenergic agonist use, 136 days) and stimulants were prescribed to 322 children (65%; median length of stimulant use, 133 days). Improvement was reported in 66% (95% CI,57.5%-73.9%) of children who initiated 2-adrenergic agonists and 78% (95% CI, 72.4%-83.4%) of children who initiated stimulants. Only daytime sleepiness was more common for those receiving 2-adrenergic agonists vs stimulants (38% vs 3%); several adverse effects were reported more commonly for those receiving stimulants vs 2-adrenergic agonists, including moodiness/irritability (50% vs 29%), appetite suppression (38% vs 7%), and difficulty sleeping (21% vs 11%).In this retrospective review of health records of preschool-age children with ADHD treated in developmental-behavioral pediatric practices, improvement was noted in the majority of children who received 2-adrenergic agonists or stimulants, with differing adverse effect profiles between medication classes. Further research, including from randomized clinical trials, is needed to assess comparative effectiveness of 2-adrenergic agonists vs stimulants.

View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2021.6118

View details for PubMedID 33946100

Racism as an Adverse Childhood Experience: An Interactive Workshop to Train Pediatricians to Address Racism in Clinical Care. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Loe, I. M., Froehlich, T. E., Edrees, H. H., Spinks-Franklin, A. 2021


The objective of this study was to address critical gaps in pediatric medical education by developing and evaluating an interactive educational workshop on racism as an adverse childhood experience (ACE).A team of developmental-behavioral pediatrics professionals used a best-practice curriculum development model of Kern's 6 steps to develop the workshop curriculum. Based on a targeted needs assessment, goals and objectives to address the topics of race and racism in clinical practice were developed. A variety of educational strategies (e.g., audience polls, videos, didactic presentations, experiential activities, and peer-guided case-based discussion and practice) were used to appeal to varied learning styles. Selection of strategies was guided by self-determination theory, an adult learning model that addresses the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The workshop was implemented at 2 national pediatric meetings and evaluated using participant polls and written program evaluation.The workshop curriculum was well-received. Participants endorsed improvements in comfort level in talking about race/racism and demonstrated a significant change in preparation or comfort level for skills-based activities, including counseling families and offering resources to address experiences with racism, postworkshop. Participants endorsed intent to change clinical practice by discussing the issues of race and indicated a desire to receive additional training.An interactive educational workshop on racism as an ACE was effective in improving pediatric professionals' comfort level and self-rated skills. Desire for a longer educational session suggests receptivity to longitudinal approaches. Replication and refinement of the educational workshop could clarify effective components of this approach. We advocate for longitudinal training curricula that incorporate observable behavior change and skills to increase and further evaluate the impact. Health care provider education and training to implement antiracism efforts in clinical encounters with patients and families can serve as an entry point to the complex process of addressing racism at multiple levels in health care.

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000984

View details for PubMedID 34191762

Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. JAMA pediatrics Loe, I. M., Kakar, P. A., Sanders, L. M. 2020

View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.2218

View details for PubMedID 32777021

Envisioning an Inclusive, Antiracist Society: How Do We Raise America's Children as the Next Generation of Antiracists? Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Loe, I. M. 2020

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000845

View details for PubMedID 32649592

School Readiness in Preschoolers With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Pediatrics Perrin, H. T., Heller, N. A., Loe, I. M. 2019


OBJECTIVE: To compare school readiness in preschoolers with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using a comprehensive framework. We hypothesized that preschoolers with ADHD symptoms have higher odds of school readiness impairment.METHODS: Children ages 4 to 5 years (n = 93) were divided into 2 groups on the basis of presence of ADHD symptoms (ADHD group, n = 45; comparison group, n = 48). School readiness was assessed through 10 component measures, including direct assessments and standardized questionnaires, regarding 5 school readiness domains: physical well-being and motor development, social and emotional development, approaches to learning, language, and cognition and general knowledge. Analysis of covariance compared group mean scores on component measures. Domain impairment was defined as score 1 SD from the test population mean in the unfavorable direction on 1 measure in the domain. School readiness impairment was defined as impairment in 2 of 5 domains. Logistic regression predicted impairment within domains and overall readiness.RESULTS: The ADHD group demonstrated significantly worse mean scores on 8 of 10 component measures and greater odds of impairment in all domains except for cognition and general knowledge. Overall, 79% of the ADHD group and 13% of the comparison group had school readiness impairment (odds ratio 21, 95% confidence interval 5.67-77.77, P < .001).CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers with ADHD symptoms are likely to have impaired school readiness. We recommend early identification of school readiness impairment by using a comprehensive 5-domain framework in children with ADHD symptoms paired with targeted intervention to improve outcomes.

View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-0038

View details for PubMedID 31331986

Predicting text reading skills at age 8years in children born preterm and at term. Early human development Borchers, L. R., Bruckert, L., Travis, K. E., Dodson, C. K., Loe, I. M., Marchman, V. A., Feldman, H. M. 2019; 130: 8086


BACKGROUND: Children born preterm are at risk for developing reading difficulties and for decrements in other cognitive skills compared to children born at term.AIMS: To assess how domains of function, often negatively impacted by preterm birth, predict reading development in children born preterm and at term.STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal descriptive cohort study.SUBJECTS: Preterm (n=48; gestational age 22-32weeks, 30 males) and term (n=41, 18 males) participants were assessed at age 6years on a battery of verbal and non-verbal cognitive skills and reassessed at age 8 using the Gray Oral Reading Tests-5. Linear regressions assessed the contributions of phonological awareness, language, executive function, and non-verbal IQ at age 6 to reading outcome at age 8.RESULTS: Children born preterm had lower scores than children born at term on all measures (Cohen's d from 0.46 to 1.08, all p<.05). Phonological awareness and language abilities predicted reading in both groups (accounting for 19.9% and 25.0% of variance, respectively, p<.001). Birth group did not moderate the association. By contrast, the association between executive function and non-verbal intelligence and reading outcome was moderated by birth group (interaction accounted for 3.9-6.7% of variance, respectively, p<.05). Positive predictions to reading from executive function and non-verbal IQ were found only in children born preterm.CONCLUSIONS: Non-verbal cognitive skills improved the prediction of reading outcome only in the preterm group, suggesting that reading decrements represent a component of global deficits. These findings have implications for evaluation of children born preterm at school entry and treatment of reading difficulties.

View details for PubMedID 30708270

Behavior problems and executive function impairments in preterm compared to full term preschoolers. Early human development Loe, I. M., Heller, N. A., Chatav, M. 2019; 130: 8795


BACKGROUND: Children born preterm (PT) are at high risk for behavior problems and deficits in executive function (EF), a set of cognitive processes that guide goal-directed behaviors. Behavior differences have been found as early as 2years in PT children; EF differences have been found in infancy. Whether behavior problems and EF deficits co-occur at young ages has not been fully investigated.AIMS: To determine whether (1) PT children have more behavior problems and EF impairment than full term (FT) children and (2) larger proportions of PT children show behavior problems or EF impairments.DESIGN/METHODS: PT (34wks, n=82) and FT (n=79) preschoolers (mean age 4.4years) completed an EF battery. Parents completed rating scales of behavior problems and EF skills. Mean scores and proportions with impairment were compared between groups. Logistic regression predicting to impairment defined odds ratios for PT/FT groups.RESULTS: PT compared to FT had more problems on most behavior and EF scales and poorer EF scores on all tasks and greater proportion with impairments on most behavior scales, all EF ratings, and all EF tasks, p<.05. PT had elevated odds for impaired performance-based EF, parent-rated EF and CBCL scores compared to FT, p<.05. Within the PT group, EF impairments were twice as common as behavior impairment.CONCLUSIONS: We recommend early identification of EF impairments in PT children. Future research should evaluate whether EF impairments serve as better early markers for later functional difficulties compared to behavior problems, as well as targets for intervention.

View details for PubMedID 30708271

Executive Function in Relation to White Matter in Preterm and Full Term Children FRONTIERS IN PEDIATRICS Loe, I. M., Adams, J. N., Feldman, H. M. 2019; 6
Impact of Chronic Medical Conditions on Academics of Children in the Child Welfare System FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH Whitgob, E. E., Loe, I. 2018; 6
It Is Just Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderor Is It? Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics Won, D. C., Guilleminault, C., Koltai, P. J., Quo, S. D., Stein, M. T., Loe, I. M. 2017; 38 (2): 169-172


Carly is a 5-year-old girl who presents for an interdisciplinary evaluation due to behaviors at school and home suggestive of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent report of preschool teacher concerns was consistent with ADHD. Psychological testing showed verbal, visual-spatial, and fluid reasoning IQ scores in the average range; processing speed and working memory were below average. Carly's behavior improved when her mother left the room, and she was attentive during testing with a psychologist. Tests of executive function (EF) skills showed mixed results. Working memory was in the borderline range, although scores for response inhibition and verbal fluency were average. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and EF difficulties were elevated.Carly's parents recently separated; she now lives with her mother and sees her father on weekends. Multiple caregivers with inconsistent approaches to discipline assist with child care while her mother works at night as a medical assistant. Family history is positive for ADHD and learning problems in her father. Medical history is unremarkable. Review of systems is significant for nightly mouth breathing and snoring, but no night waking, bruxism, or daytime sleepiness. She has enlarged tonsils and a high-arched palate on physical examination.At a follow-up visit, parent rating scales are consistent with ADHD-combined type; teacher rating scales support ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type. Snoring has persisted. A sleep study indicated obstructive sleep apnea. After adenotonsillectomy, Carly had significant improvement in ADHD symptoms. She developed recurrence of behavior problems 1 year after the surgery.

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000386

View details for PubMedID 28079611

The Effect of Bilingual Exposure on Executive Function Skills in Preterm and Full-Term Preschoolers. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics Loe, I. M., Feldman, H. M. 2016; 37 (7): 548-556


To evaluate the effects of bilingual exposure on executive function (EF) skills, measured by parent-rating and performance-based instruments, in preterm and full-term preschoolers.Children age 3 to 5 years (mean 4.4) born preterm (PT; n = 82) and full term (FT; n = 79) had monolingual (PT-M, n = 51; FT-M, n = 53) or bilingual (PT-B, n = 31; FT-B, n = 26) language exposure. Groups were similar in age, gender and race, but PT children had lower socioeconomic status (SES) than FT children. Parents completed a language questionnaire and diary and a standardized parent rating of EF skills. Children completed EF tasks that tap response inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. ANCOVA and logistic regression examined effects on EF of birth group (PT/FT), language status (M/B), and birth group by language status interaction, controlling for age and SES.Compared to children born FT, children born PT had significantly higher parent-rated EF scores and poorer performance on all but one EF task, both indicating more EF problems. No main effects of language status and no birth group by language status interactions were significant.PT status was clearly associated with poorer EF skills, similar to many other studies. In this sample, bilingual exposure conferred neither an advantage nor disadvantage in the FT and PT group. This information may prove useful in counseling families of both PT and FT children about the impact of bilingual exposure on their children's cognitive skills.

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000318

View details for PubMedID 27355886

Complementary assessments of executive function in preterm and full-term preschoolers CHILD NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Loe, I. M., Chatav, M., Alduncin, N. 2015; 21 (3): 331-353


Executive functions (EFs) are interrelated cognitive processes that have been studied in relation to behavior, attention, academic achievement, and developmental disorders. Studies of EF skills assessed through parent report and performance-based measures show correlations between them ranging from none to modest. Few studies have examined the relationship between EF skills measured through parent report and performance-based measures in relation to adaptive function. The present study included preschool children born preterm as a population at high risk for EF impairments. Preschool children (N = 149) completed a battery of EF tasks that assess working memory, response inhibition, idea generation, and attention shifting or cognitive flexibility. Parents reported on children's EF and adaptive skills. Preterm children showed more parent-rated and performance-based EF impairments than did full-term children. The combined use of either parent report or performance-based measures resulted in the identification of a large number of children at risk for EF impairment, especially in the preterm group. Both parent report and performance-based EF measures were associated with children's adaptive function. EF skills are measurable in young child'ren, and we suggest that EF skills may serve as targets for intervention to improve functional outcomes. We recommend the use of both parent report and performance-based measures to characterize children's EF profiles and to customize treatment.

View details for DOI 10.1080/09297049.2014.906568

View details for Web of Science ID 000355109100005

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4240749

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and Children and Youth With Special Health Care Needs JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL PEDIATRICS Feldman, H. M., Buysse, C. A., Hubner, L. M., Huffman, L. C., Loe, I. M. 2015; 36 (3): 207-217


The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was designed to (1) decrease the number of uninsured Americans, (2) make health insurance and health care affordable, and (3) improve health outcomes and performance of the health care system. During the design of ACA, children in general and children and youth with special health care needs and disabilities (CYSHCN) were not a priority because before ACA, a higher proportion of children than adults had insurance coverage through private family plans, Medicaid, or the State Children's Health Insurance Programs (CHIP). ACA benefits CYSHCN through provisions designed to make health insurance coverage universal and continuous, affordable, and adequate. Among the limitations of ACA for CYSHCN are the exemption of plans that had been in existence before ACA, lack of national standards for insurance benefits, possible elimination or reductions in funding for CHIP, and limited experience with new delivery models for improving care while reducing costs. Advocacy efforts on behalf of CYSHCN must track implementation of ACA at the federal and the state levels. Systems and payment reforms must emphasize access and quality improvements for CYSHCN over cost savings. Developmental-behavioral pediatrics must be represented at the policy level and in the design of new delivery models to assure high quality and cost-effective care for CYSHCN.

View details for PubMedID 25793891

Sensory processing in preterm preschoolers and its association with executive function EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Adams, J. N., Feldman, H. M., Huffman, L. C., Loe, I. M. 2015; 91 (3): 227-233


Symptoms of abnormal sensory processing have been related to preterm birth, but have not yet been studied specifically in preterm preschoolers. The degree of association between sensory processing and other domains is important for understanding the role of sensory processing symptoms in the development of preterm children.To test two related hypotheses: (1) preterm preschoolers have more sensory processing symptoms than full term preschoolers and (2) sensory processing is associated with both executive function and adaptive function in preterm preschoolers.Cross-sectional study.Preterm children (34weeks of gestation; n=54) and full term controls (37weeks of gestation; n=73) ages 3-5years.Sensory processing was assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. Executive function was assessed with (1) parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool version and (2) a performance-based battery of tasks. Adaptive function was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II.Preterm preschoolers showed significantly more sensory symptoms than full term controls. A higher percentage of preterm than full term preschoolers had elevated numbers of sensory symptoms (37% vs. 12%). Sensory symptoms in preterm preschoolers were associated with scores on executive function measures, but were not significantly associated with adaptive function.Preterm preschoolers exhibited more sensory symptoms than full term controls. Preterm preschoolers with elevated numbers of sensory symptoms also showed executive function impairment. Future research should further examine whether sensory processing and executive function should be considered independent or overlapping constructs.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.01.013

View details for Web of Science ID 000352042600011

View details for PubMedID 25706317

Impact of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine Wusthoff, C. J., Loe, I. M. 2015; 20 (1): 52-57


Bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND) is the constellation of neurologic sequelae following milder degrees of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia than are associated with kernicterus. Clinically, BIND may manifest after the neonatal period as developmental delay, cognitive impairment, disordered executive function, and behavioral and psychiatric disorders. However, there is controversy regarding the relative contribution of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia versus other risk factors to the development of later neurodevelopmental disorders in children with BIND. In this review, we focus on the empiric data from the past 25 years regarding neurodevelopmental outcomes and BIND, including specific effects on developmental delay, cognition, speech and language development, executive function, and the neurobehavioral disorders, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.siny.2014.12.003

View details for PubMedID 25585889

Executive function mediates effects of gestational age on functional outcomes and behavior in preschoolers. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics Loe, I. M., Feldman, H. M., Huffman, L. C. 2014; 35 (5): 323-333


To investigate the role of executive function (EF) skills, measured by parent-rating and performance-based instruments, as mediators of the effects of gestational age (GA) on functional outcomes and behavior symptoms in preterm (PT) and full-term (FT) preschoolers.Children born PT (n = 70; mean GA, 29.6 weeks; mean birth weight, 1365 g) were compared to children born FT (n = 79) on composite measures of EF (using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and a performance-based EF battery), adaptive function, prereading skills, and behavior symptoms. For the entire sample, mediation analyses examined the effect of GA on the outcomes with EF as mediator.Compared to children born FT, children born PT had significantly higher parent-rated EF scores and lower performance-based EF scores, both indicating more problems; furthermore, children born PT had lower adaptive function and prereading scores and more problematic behavior. GA contributed to adaptive function, prereading skills, and behavior symptoms for all children. EF acted as a mediator of GA for all 3 outcomes; different patterns emerged for parent-rated and performance-based EF evaluations. For adaptive function, both EF measures significantly mediated the effects of GA; for prereading skills, only performance-based EF was significant; for behavior symptoms, only parent-rated EF was significant.We propose standard assessment of EF, using both parent-rating and performance-based EF measures, in young PT children and other children at the risk of EF impairments. EF skills are measurable, mediate important functional outcomes, and may serve as intervention targets.

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000063

View details for PubMedID 24906034

Executive function is associated with social competence in preschool-aged children born preterm or full term. Early human development Alduncin, N., Huffman, L. C., Feldman, H. M., Loe, I. M. 2014; 90 (6): 299-306


Executive function (EF), defined as higher-order cognitive processes used in planning and organizing actions and emotions, is often impaired in children born preterm. Few studies have assessed social competence, the processes and resources required to meet social demands and achieve social goals, in children born preterm. The relations between EF and social competence in preterm and full term preschoolers have not been well characterized.To characterize social competence and assess the relationship between EF and social competence in preschool-aged children born preterm or full term.Cross-sectional study.Study subjects had a history of preterm birth (34weeks of gestation) and birth weight <2500g (n=70). Controls were born full term (37weeks) (n=79).Children completed a battery of EF tasks; a mean age-adjusted z-score for the battery was generated for each child. Parents rated child EF on one scale and child social competence on two standardized scales.Compared to full term children, preterm children showed a lower mean EF battery z-score, poorer parent-rated EF, and poorer scores on the two social competence scales. In hierarchical multiple regression models, EF battery z-score and parent-rated EF made independent contributions to both measures of social competence. Preterm birth explained additional variance for one measure of social competence.Standard assessment of EF skills and social competence in young preschool children, including children born preterm, may identify at-risk children for long-term social difficulties and may also provide targets for intervention.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.02.011

View details for PubMedID 24661446

Attention and Internalizing Behaviors in Relation to White Matter in Children Born Preterm JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL PEDIATRICS Loe, I. M., Lee, E. S., Feldman, H. M. 2013; 34 (3): 156-164


Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique that provides quantitative characterization of white matter tracts in the brain. This study used DTI to examine the degree of association between parent-rated scores of attention, internalizing behaviors including anxiety symptoms, and externalizing behaviors and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) in children born preterm.Participants were aged 9 to 16 years; 25 were born at <36 weeks of gestation (mean = 28.6 wk, birth weight = 1191 g) and 20 were full term. The authors analyzed the results using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, a technique that generates a skeleton representing the core of white matter tracts throughout the brain. The authors examined the correlations between behavior scores and FA of (1) the whole skeleton and (2) the specific regions of interest.In preterm children, scores on attention and internalizing behavior scales were each associated with whole skeleton FA and several regions of interest; unfavorable scores were consistently associated with lower FA. Externalizing behaviors were not associated with whole skeleton FA, but significant associations were found within a few regions of interest. The network of significant regions for attention and internalizing symptoms was widely distributed and overlapping. In full-term children, no associations of FA and behavior were significant.Attention and internalizing behaviors in preterm children were associated with FA in a widely distributed overlapping network of white matter tracts, suggesting common underlying neurobiology. DTI contributes to understanding individual differences in attention and behavior characteristics in children born preterm.

View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182842122

View details for PubMedID 23572166

Effects of early language, speech, and cognition on later reading: a mediation analysis. Frontiers in psychology Durand, V. N., Loe, I. M., Yeatman, J. D., Feldman, H. M. 2013; 4: 586-?


This longitudinal secondary analysis examined which early language and speech abilities are associated with school-aged reading skills, and whether these associations are mediated by cognitive ability. We analyzed vocabulary, syntax, speech sound maturity, and cognition in a sample of healthy children at age 3 years (N = 241) in relation to single word reading (decoding), comprehension, and oral reading fluency in the same children at age 9-11 years. All predictor variables and the mediator variable were associated with the three reading outcomes. The predictor variables were all associated with cognitive abilities, the mediator. Cognitive abilities partially mediated the effects of language on reading. After mediation, decoding was associated with speech sound maturity; comprehension was associated with receptive vocabulary; and oral fluency was associated with speech sound maturity, receptive vocabulary, and syntax. In summary, all of the effects of language on reading could not be explained by cognition as a mediator. Specific components of language and speech skills in preschool made independent contributions to reading skills 6-8 years later. These early precursors to later reading skill represent potential targets for early intervention to improve reading.

View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00586

View details for PubMedID 24027549

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3759794

White matter microstructure on diffusion tensor imaging is associated with conventional magnetic resonance imaging findings and cognitive function in adolescents born preterm DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE AND CHILD NEUROLOGY Feldman, H. M., Lee, E. S., Loe, I. M., Yeom, K. W., Grill-Spector, K., Luna, B. 2012; 54 (9): 809-814


Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to evaluate white matter architecture after preterm birth. The goals were (1) to compare white matter microstructure in two cohorts of preterm- and term-born children; and (2) within preterm groups, to determine if sex, gestational age, birthweight, white matter injury score from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or IQ was associated with DTI measures.Participants (n=121; 66 females, 55 males) were aged 9 to 16 years. They comprised 58 preterm children (site 1, n=25; and site 2, n=33) born at less than 36 weeks' gestation (mean 29.4 wks; birthweight 1289g) and 63 term children (site 1, n=40; site 2, n=23) born at more than 37 weeks' gestation. DTI was analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics. Diffusion measures were fractional anisotropy, axial, radial, and mean diffusivity.In no region of the white matter skeleton was fractional anisotropy lower in the preterm group at either site. Within the preterm groups, fractional anisotropy was significantly associated with white matter injury score, but not sex, gestational age, or birthweight. At site 1, fractional anisotropy was associated with IQ.DTI contributes to understanding individual differences after preterm birth but may not differentiate a relatively high-functioning group of preterm children from a matched group of term-born children.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04378.x

View details for PubMedID 22803787

Oculomotor Assessments of Executive Function in Preterm Children JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Loe, I. M., Luna, B., Bledsoe, I. O., Yeom, K. W., Fritz, B. L., Feldman, H. M. 2012; 161 (3): 427-?


To use objective, nonverbal oculomotor tasks to assess executive function and infer the neural basis of impairments in preterm children.Cross-sectional study of preterm children age 9-16 years (n = 69; mean gestational age 29 weeks) and full-term controls (n = 43). Tasks assessed sensorimotor function (reflexive prosaccades); resistance to peripheral distracters (fixation); response inhibition, response preparation, and execution of a voluntary saccade (antisaccades); and spatial working memory (memory-guided saccades). Group differences were analyzed using ANOVA. We used linear regression to analyze the contributions of age, sex, gestational age, and white matter category to task performance.Preterm children did not differ from controls on basic sensorimotor function, response inhibition, and working memory. Compared with controls, preterm children showed greater susceptibility to peripheral distracters (P = .008) and were slower to initiate an inhibitory response (P = .003). Regression models showed contributions of age and white matter category to task performance.Preterm children show intact basic sensorimotor function and demonstrate difficulties in processes underlying executive control, including increased distractibility and prolonged response preparation. These limitations may reflect specific neural abnormalities in fronto-subcortical executive control of behavior.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.02.037

View details for PubMedID 22480696

Executive function skills are associated with reading and parent-rated child function in children born prematurely EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Loe, I. M., Lee, E. S., Luna, B., Feldman, H. M. 2012; 88 (2): 111-118


Preterm children are at risk for executive function (EF) problems, which have been linked to behavior and learning problems in full term children. In this study, we examine the relationship between EF and functional outcomes in preterm children.To evaluate (1) EF skills of 9- to 16-year-old children born across the spectrum of gestational age (GA), (2) relationship of degree of prematurity to EF skills, and (3) contributions of EF skills to two functional outcomes - reading scores and parent-rated child function.Preterm children <36 weeks gestation (n=72) were compared to full term children (n=42) of similar age, gender and SES, on measures of EF, reading, and parent-ratings of child function. Multiple regression models evaluated contributions to EF skills and functional outcomes.Compared to full term controls, preterm children had poorer EF performance on a complex planning and organization task and did not increase planning time as task difficulty increased. Their spatial memory capacity was not different. GA contributed to EF skills, but was mediated by IQ. EF contributed to the variance in reading skills but did not add to the variance in reading when IQ was considered. EF skills significantly contributed to the variance in parent-rated child function, but IQ did not.EF skills contribute to measures of functional outcome in this high-risk population. The use of EF skills as an early marker for learning and functional problems and as a target for intervention in children born preterm warrants future study.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.07.018

View details for PubMedID 21849240

Update on Environmental Risk Factors for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder CURRENT PSYCHIATRY REPORTS Froehlich, T. E., Anixt, J. S., Loe, I. M., Chirdkiatgumchai, V., Kuan, L., Gilman, R. C. 2011; 13 (5): 333-344


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobehavioral disorder affecting 5% to 10% of children. Although considered to be a highly familial disorder, ADHD heritability estimates of 60% to 80% highlight the considerable role that environmental factors may still play in disorder susceptibility. Proposed ADHD environmental risk factors include prenatal substance exposures, heavy metal and chemical exposures, nutritional factors, and lifestyle/psychosocial factors. This paper reviews the literature published in 2010 investigating the association between environmental risk factors and ADHD or related symptomatology. Sources of risk factor exposure and the proposed mechanism by which each exposure is linked to ADHD-related neurobehavioral changes are also reported. Methodologic limitations of the current literature are discussed, and guidelines for future study are proposed. An improved understanding of the role that environmental factors play in ADHD etiology is critical to future ADHD prevention efforts.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s11920-011-0221-3

View details for Web of Science ID 000294504200005

View details for PubMedID 21779823

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3277258

Behavior problems of 9-16 year old preterm children: Biological, sociodemographic, and intellectual contributions EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Loe, I. M., Lee, E. S., Luna, F., Feldman, H. M. 2011; 87 (4): 247-252


Preterm children are at risk for behavior problems. Studies examining contributions of intellectual and environmental factors to behavior outcomes in preterm children are mixed.(1) To identify the nature of maladaptive behaviors in preterm children age 9 to 16 years born across the spectrum of gestational age and birth weight (BW). (2) To examine contributions of BW as a biological factor, socioeconomic status as an environmental factor, and intelligence quotient (IQ) as indicative of intellectual ability to behavior outcomes.Using the Child Behavior Checklist, parent reports of behavior for 63 preterm children (gestational age 24 to <36 weeks) were compared to 29 full term children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic status. Multiple regression models evaluated effects of prematurity, socioeconomic status, and intellectual ability on behavioral symptom scores.Preterm children had higher total and internalizing problem scores compared to full term children. They also had lower IQ. BW was a significant predictor of total and internalizing behavior problems. Among the syndrome scales, anxious/depressed and attention problems were elevated. Socioeconomic status did not contribute to behavior scores. IQ contributed to total, but not to internalizing or externalizing, scores. IQ contributed to attention problems, but not to anxious/depressed scores.Preterm children had increased behavior problems, especially symptoms of inattention and anxiety. Lower BW predicted more behavior problems. IQ acted as a mediator between BW and attention scores, but not anxiety scores. These findings alert health care providers to assess anxiety in all preterm children regardless of intellectual ability and additional study on the influence of intellectual ability on behavioral outcomes in preterm children is needed.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.01.023

View details for PubMedID 21316875

Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Loe, I. M., Feldman, H. M., Yasui, E., Luna, B. 2009; 48 (4): 431-440


To evaluate cognitive control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using oculomotor tests of executive function.Cross-sectional study of children aged 8 to 13 years with ADHD (n = 26) and controls (n = 33) used oculomotor tasks to assess sensorimotor function (visually guided saccades), resistance to peripheral distractors (fixation), response inhibition (antisaccades), and spatial working memory (memory-guided saccades).All children had intact sensorimotor function and working memory. Children with ADHD showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. Increased interstimulus (IS) fixation periods on the antisaccade task were associated with improved performance and decreased reaction times on correct trials for controls but not for children with ADHD. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined and inattentive subtypes showed different patterns of reaction time as a function of IS periods.Response inhibition deficits in ADHD on oculomotor tasks are consistent with other studies. The failure of children with ADHD to use IS time to decrease response inhibition errors and reaction time suggests that IS time is not used to prepare a response. These findings highlight the importance of considering cognitive processing components affected by ADHD in addition to core behavioral symptoms, particularly in designing new treatment strategies.

View details for DOI 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819996da

View details for PubMedID 19238098

Early Histories of School-Aged Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder CHILD DEVELOPMENT Loe, I. M., Balestrino, M. D., Phelps, R. A., Kurs-Lasky, M., Chaves-Gnecco, D., Paradise, J. L., Feldman, H. M. 2008; 79 (6): 1853-1868


In a prospective study of developmental outcomes in relation to early-life otitis media, behavioral, cognitive, and language measures were administered to a large, diverse sample of children at 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9-11 years of age (N = 741). At 9-11 years of age, 9% of the children were categorized as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on parent report. Compared to the non-ADHD group, the ADHD group had higher (i.e., less favorable) scores on parent and teacher versions of the Child Behavior Checklist at all ages. Children in the ADHD group also had lower scores on cognitive and receptive language measures in preschool. The findings support the concept that ADHD is a cognitive as well as a behavioral disorder.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01230.x

View details for PubMedID 19037954

Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY Loe, I. M., Feldman, H. M. 2007; 32 (6): 643-654


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention. ADHD is also associated with increased use of school-based services, increased rates of detention and expulsion, and ultimately with relatively low rates of high school graduation and postsecondary education. Children in community samples who show symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity with or without formal diagnoses of ADHD also show poor academic and educational outcomes. Pharmacologic treatment and behavior management are associated with reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and increased academic productivity, but not with improved standardized test scores or ultimate educational attainment. Future research must use conceptually based outcome measures in prospective, longitudinal, and community-based studies to determine which pharmacologic, behavioral, and educational interventions can improve academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD.

View details for DOI 10.1093/jpepsy/jsl054

View details for Web of Science ID 000248086000003

View details for PubMedID 17569716

Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD AMBULATORY PEDIATRICS Loe, I. M., Feldman, H. M. 2007; 7 (1): 82-90


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention. ADHD is also associated with increased use of school-based services, increased rates of detention and expulsion, and ultimately with relatively low rates of high school graduation and postsecondary education. Children in community samples who show symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity with or without formal diagnoses of ADHD also show poor academic and educational outcomes. Pharmacologic treatment and behavior management are associated with reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and increased academic productivity, but not with improved standardized test scores or ultimate educational attainment. Future research must use conceptually based outcome measures in prospective, longitudinal, and community-based studies to determine which pharmacologic, behavioral, and educational interventions can improve academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD.

View details for Web of Science ID 000243950000004

View details for PubMedID 17261487