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Julia Noel, MD

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Specialties

Otolaryngology

Work and Education

Professional Education

University of California San Diego School of Medicine Registrar, La Jolla, CA, 6/3/2013

Internship

Stanford University General Surgery Residency, Stanford, CA, 06/20/2014

Residency

Stanford University Otolaryngology Residency, Stanford, CA, 6/30/2018

Fellowship

Stanford University Endocrine Surgery Fellowship, Stanford, CA, 6/30/2019

Board Certifications

Otolaryngology, American Board of Otolaryngology

All Publications

In Response to 'Routine Preoperative Laryngoscopy for Thyroid Surgery is Not Necessary Without Risk Factors'. Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association Walgama, E., Sinclair, C. F., Chen, A., Davies, L., Noel, J., Orloff, L. A., Shindo, M., Sigston, E., Stack Jr, B. C., Terris, D. J., Randolph, G. W. 2020

Abstract

none.

View details for DOI 10.1089/thy.2020.0042

View details for PubMedID 32228150

Laryngeal Evaluation during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Transcervical Laryngeal Ultrasonography. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Noel, J. E., Orloff, L. A., Sung, K. 2020: 194599820922984

Abstract

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has quickly become a global pandemic since its initial outbreak in China in late 2019. Institutions are faced with the challenge of upholding the standard of care while maintaining safety for health care personnel and patients. Due to the common performance of aerosol-generating endoscopic procedures in the upper respiratory tract, otolaryngologists are at uniquely high risk for potential infection. When possible, alternative diagnostic and treatment strategies should be pursued. For patients suspected of having functional laryngeal abnormalities, transcervical laryngeal ultrasound provides a rapid and noninvasive evaluation of vocal fold motion to inform decisions about safety of feeding, airway, and progression of care.

View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599820922984

View details for PubMedID 32340541

Recognizing Persistent Disease in Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and Association with Lymph Node Yield and Ratio. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Noel, J. E., Orloff, L. A. 2019: 194599819886123

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To establish the association between lymph node yield and ratio in neck dissection for well-differentiated thyroid cancer and risk for persistent postoperative disease.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing lymphadenectomy for thyroid carcinoma.SETTING: Tertiary referral center.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Included patients underwent central and/or lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma at our institution between 1994 and 2015. They were divided into a persistent disease group with biochemical and structural disease (49 patients) and a disease-free group with no disease after a minimum 2 years of follow-up (175 patients). Demographic characteristics, adjuvant therapy, tumor, and lymph node features were compared.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the groups. The mean nodal yield of patients with central and lateral neck persistence was significantly lower than that of patients remaining disease free (4.8 vs. 11.9: odds ratio [OR] 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.8; P<.001; 14.8 vs. 31.0: OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94; P<.001, respectively). Nodal ratio was higher in patients with persistence in the central and lateral neck (74.2% vs 29.4%: OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08; P < .001; 54.2% vs 19.8%: OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12; P < .001, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: Lower lymph node yield and higher node ratio from cervical lymph node dissections are associated with persistent disease and have potential applications in surgical adequacy.

View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599819886123

View details for PubMedID 31661359

Radioactive iodine in differentiated thyroid cancer: a national database perspective. Endocrine-related cancer Orosco, R., Hussain, T., Noel, J. E., Chang, D., Dosiou, C., Mittra, E., Divi, V., Orloff, L. 2019

Abstract

Radioactive iodine (RAI) is a key component in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. RAI has been recommended more selectively in recent years as guidelines evolve to reflect risks and utility in certain patient subsets. In this study we sought to evaluate the survival impact of radioactive iodine in specific thyroid cancer subgroups. Nationwide retrospective cohort study of patients using the National Cancer Database (NCDB) from 2004-2012 and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1992-2009 examining patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with or without RAI. Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality (NCDB and SEER), and cancer-specific mortality (SEER). Cox multivariate survival analyses were applied to each dataset, and in 135 patient subgroups based on clinical and non-clinical parameters. A total of 199,371 NCDB and 77,187 SEER patients were identified. RAI was associated with improved all-cause mortality (NCDB: RAI hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, P<0.001; SEER: HR 0.64, P<0.001); and cancer-specific mortality (SEER: HR 0.82, P=0.029). Iodine therapy showed varied efficacy within each subgroup. Patients with high-risk disease experienced the greatest benefit in all-cause mortality, followed by intermediate-risk, then low-risk subgroups. Regarding cancer-specific mortality, radioactive iodine therapy was protective in high-risk patients, but did not achieve statistical significance in most intermediate-risk subgroups. Low-risk T1a subgroups demonstrated an increased likelihood of cancer-specific mortality with iodine therapy. The efficacy of RAI in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer varies by disease severity. A negative cancer-specific survival association was identified in patients with T1a disease. These findings warrant further evaluation with prospective studies.

View details for DOI 10.1530/ERC-19-0292

View details for PubMedID 31443087

Intraoperative Corticosteroids for Voice Outcomes among Patients Undergoing Thyroidectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Noel, J. E., Kligerman, M. P., Megwalu, U. C. 2018; 159 (5): 81116
KTP-laser-assisted endoscopic management of glomus tympanicum tumors: A case series. Ear, nose, & throat journal Noel, J. E., Sajjadi, H. 2018; 97 (12): 399402

Abstract

Endoscopic technology is widely used in rhinology and anterior skull base surgery, but it has been less quickly incorporated into otologic practice. The design of the instrumentation forces surgeons to work one-handed and limits depth perception. Nevertheless, endoscopy also offers wide fields of view and access to spaces that are typically difficult to visualize. Its advantages have broadened the type and extent of operations that can be performed via the ear canal. We describe a method of endoscopic resection of glomus tympanicum tumors in 5 adults who had undergone endoscopic or endoscopy- assisted resection. A successful resection was achieved in all patients-exclusively via the ear canal in 4 of them. A KTP laser was used to address the tumor's vascular supply. Attachment of a neonatal feeding tube to the endoscope for use as a suction catheter obviated the need to repeatedly switch instruments while using the laser. At a minimum of 12 months of follow-up, all patients were free of recurrence. Postoperative audiometry detected no significant adverse hearing outcomes in any patient. We conclude that the minimally invasive endoscopic transcanal approach is a feasible technique for addressing middle ear tumors. We have also developed a method that allows surgeons constant use of the KTP laser to resect a glomus tympanicum tumor.

View details for PubMedID 30540890

KTP-laser-assisted endoscopic management of glomus tympanicum tumors: A case series ENT-EAR NOSE & THROAT JOURNAL Noel, J. E., Sajjadi, H. 2018; 97 (12): 399402
Porcine small intestine submucosal grafts improve remucosalization and progenitor cell recruitment to sites of upper airway tissue remodeling INTERNATIONAL FORUM OF ALLERGY & RHINOLOGY Nayak, J. V., Rathor, A., Grayson, J. W., Bravo, D. T., Velasquez, N., Noel, J., Beswick, D. M., Riley, K. O., Patel, Z. M., Cho, D., Dodd, R. L., Thamboo, A., Choby, G. W., Walgama, E., Harsh, G. R., Hwang, P. H., Clemons, L., Lowman, D., Richman, J. S., Woodworth, B. A. 2018; 8 (10): 116268

View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.22156

View details for Web of Science ID 000446274900013

Intraoperative Corticosteroids for Voice Outcomes among Patients Undergoing Thyroidectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Noel, J. E., Kligerman, M. P., Megwalu, U. C. 2018: 194599818793414

Abstract

Objective To determine if a preoperative dose of intravenous corticosteroids reduces the risk of postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and improves subjective voice outcomes among patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Data Sources PubMed, Cochrane database, and EMBASE. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids with placebo on voice outcomes in thyroid surgery were extracted with standardized search criteria. Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. With random effects models, trial data were pooled to determine the overall rate of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy as well as secondary outcomes of adverse events, including wound infection and hyperglycemia. Results Four studies with a total of 517 patients met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was 5.78%. There was no difference in the rate of palsy between the corticosteroid and placebo groups (risk ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.34-1.44). There was also no difference between the groups in regard to wound infection, healing, or hyperglycemia. Conclusions Preoperative corticosteroids do not appear to reduce the risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy following thyroid surgery. There is insufficient evidence to assess its effect on subjective voice outcomes. More robust randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of perioperative steroids in improving voice outcomes after thyroidectomy.

View details for PubMedID 30084304

Porcine small intestine submucosal grafts improve remucosalization and progenitor cell recruitment to sites of upper airway tissue remodeling. International forum of allergy & rhinology Nayak, J. V., Rathor, A., Grayson, J. W., Bravo, D. T., Velasquez, N., Noel, J., Beswick, D. M., Riley, K. O., Patel, Z. M., Cho, D., Dodd, R. L., Thamboo, A., Choby, G. W., Walgama, E., Harsh, G. R., Hwang, P. H., Clemons, L., Lowman, D., Richman, J. S., Woodworth, B. A. 2018

Abstract

BACKGROUND: To better understand upper airway tissue regeneration, the exposed cartilage and bone at donor sites of tissue flaps may serve as in vivo "Petri dishes" for active wound healing. The pedicled nasoseptal flap (NSF) for skull-base reconstruction creates an exposed donor site within the nasal airway. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether grafting the donor site with a sinonasal repair cover graft is effective in promoting wound healing.METHODS: In this multicenter, prospective trial, subjects were randomized to intervention (graft) or control (no graft) intraoperatively after NSF elevation. Individuals were evaluated at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postintervention with endoscopic recordings. Videos were graded (Likert scale) by 3 otolaryngologists blinded to intervention on remucosalization, crusting, and edema. Scores were analyzed for interrater reliability and cohorts compared. Biopsy and immunohistochemistry at the leading edge of wound healing was performed in select cases.RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were randomized to intervention and 26 to control. Subjects receiving the graft had significantly greater overall remucosalization (p = 0.01) than controls over 12 weeks. Although crusting was less in the small intestine submucosa (SIS) group, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). There was no overall effect on nasal edema (p = 0.2). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated abundant upper airway basal cell progenitors in 2 intervention samples, suggesting that covering grafts may facilitate tissue proliferation via progenitor cell expansion.CONCLUSION: This prospective, randomized, controlled trial indicates that a porcine SIS graft placed on exposed cartilage and bone within the upper airway confers improved remucosalization compared to current practice standards.

View details for PubMedID 29856526

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Maxillary Sinus. Clinical pediatrics Noel, J. E., Messner, A. H., Sidell, D. R. 2017; 56 (2): 184-186

View details for DOI 10.1177/0009922816645522

View details for PubMedID 27121594

Etiology of sinonasal inverted papilloma: A narrative review. World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery Wang, M. J., Noel, J. E. 2017; 3 (1): 5458

Abstract

Sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) is a benign and uncommon tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses with a tendency for recurrence and even malignant transformation. Though the morphology and clinical behavior of this lesion has been well described, its etiology remains controversial.Computerized searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar through May 2015. In this review, etiologic factors including human papilloma virus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cell cycle related proteins and angiogenic factors, occupational and environmental exposures, and chronic inflammation, will be discussed.Many studies indicate that HPV has been detected in a significant percentage of IP, while EBV has not been shown to be significantly associated. Certain cell cycle regulatory factors and angiogenic proteins contribute to the dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis, and facilitate migration and tumor invasion. Occupational exposures, such as welding and organic solvents, have been implicated, and smoking seems more critical to recurrence and dysplasia rather than initial IP occurrence. Chronic inflammation may also have a causative relationship with inverted papilloma, but the mechanism is unclear.Though etiology of sinonasal IP remains controversial, the studies reviewed here indicate a role for viral infection, cell cycle and angiogenic factors, environmental and occupational exposure, and chronic inflammation. Further study on etiologic factors is necessary for clinical guidance and therapeutic targets.

View details for PubMedID 29204580

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5683660

Variables associated with olfactory disorders in adults: A U.S. population-based analysis. World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery Noel, J., Habib, A. R., Thamboo, A., Patel, Z. M. 2017; 3 (1): 916

Abstract

Olfactory dysfunction is known to have significant social, psychological, and safety implications. Despite increasingly recognized prevalence, potential risk factors for olfactory loss have been arbitrarily documented and knowledge is limited in scale. The aim of this study is to identify potential demographic and exposure variables correlating with olfactory dysfunction.Cross-sectional analysis of the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 editions of the National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey was performed. The utilized survey reports from a nationally representative sample of about 5000 persons each year located in counties across the United States. There is an interview and physical examination component which includes demographic, socioeconomic, dietary, and health-related questions as well as medical, dental, physiologic measurements, and laboratory tests. 3594 adult respondents from 2011 to 2012 and 3708 respondents from 2013 to 2014 were identified from the above population-based database. The frequency of self-reported disorders as well as performance on odor identification testing was determined in relation to demographic factors, occupational or environmental exposures, and urinary levels of environmental and industrial compounds.In both subjective and objective analysis, smell disorders were significantly more common with increasing age. While the non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic Asian populations were less likely to report subjective olfactory loss, they, along with Hispanics, performed more poorly on odor identification than Caucasians. Those with limited education had a decreased prevalence of hyposmia. Women outperformed men on smell testing. Those reporting exposure to vapors were more likely to experience olfactory dysfunction, and urinary levels of manganese, 2-Thioxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, and 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid were lower among respondents with subjective smell disturbance. In odor detection, elevated serum levels of lead and urinary levels of 2,4 dichlorophenol were associated with anosmia and hyposmia, respectively.This study provides current, population-based data identifying demographic and exposure elements related to smell disturbances in U.S. adults. Age, race, gender, education, exposure to vapors, urinary levels of manganese, 2-Thioxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid, 2,4 dichlorophenol, and serum lead levels were all implicated in smell disturbance. Care should be taken in interpretation due to lack of consistency between subjective and objective measures of olfaction as well as limitations related to population-based data. Prospective trials are indicated to further elucidate these relationships.

View details for PubMedID 29204574

Repeat Imaging in Idiopathic Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: Is It Necessary? The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology Noel, J. E., Jeffery, C. C., Damrose, E. 2016; 125 (12): 1010-1014

Abstract

Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of patients presenting with unilateral vocal fold paresis or paralysis of unknown etiology. In those with idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis (iUVFP), there is no consensus regarding the need or timing of repeat imaging. This study seeks to establish the rate of delayed detection of alternate etiologies for these patients to determine if and when imaging should be repeated.Retrospective chart review was conducted identifying patients at our institution with vocal fold movement impairment between 1998 and 2014. Idiopathic paralysis was diagnosed if physical examination, laryngoscopy, and initial imaging excluded a cause. Demographic data, length of follow-up, and the presence of late lesions were noted. Time to detection was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method.Of 3210 patients reviewed, 207 had a diagnosis of iUVFP. Of these patients, 8 went on to develop alternate diagnoses, including pulmonary disease, skull-base and laryngeal neoplasms, and thyroid malignancy. In Kaplan-Meir analysis, 90% remained "idiopathic" at 5 years of follow-up. The mean time to detection was 27 months.Patients initially diagnosed with iUVFP may have an occult cause that later becomes evident. We recommend repeat imaging within 2 years after diagnosis, but this is likely unnecessary beyond 5 years.

View details for PubMedID 27670956

Use of Pedicled Nasoseptal Flap for Pathologic Oroantral Fistula Closure. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery Noel, J. E., Teo, N. W., Divi, V., Nayak, J. V. 2016; 74 (4): 704 e1-6

Abstract

Oroantral fistula (OAF) is a pathologic, epithelialized communication between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus. OAF most commonly results from posterior maxillary tooth or molar extraction owing to proximity of the dental roots to the maxillary antrum and the thinness of the adjacent antral floor. It also can arise secondary to implant and orthognathic surgeries, cyst and tumor removal, dental infection, trauma, or as a sequela of radiation therapy. Communications larger than 5mm are less likely to heal spontaneously and can epithelialize, forming an OAF. When locoregional flaps and grafts are not ideal or have failed, but primary OAF closure is mandated, surgical options are unclear. This report describes a novel method for autologous tissue flap coverage from the nasal septum, pedicled off the posterior septal artery, for successful extension to, and closure of, OAFs.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joms.2015.11.010

View details for PubMedID 26704432

Use of Pedicled Nasoseptal Flap for Pathologic Oroantral Fistula Closure JOURNAL OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY Noel, J. E., Teo, N. W., Divi, V., Nayak, J. V. 2016; 74 (4)
Successful Treatment of Multifocal Histiocytic Sarcoma Occurring after Renal Transplantation with Cladribine, High-Dose Cytarabine, G-CSF, and Mitoxantrone (CLAG-M) Followed by Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Case reports in hematology Tomlin, J., Orosco, R. K., Boles, S., Tipps, A., Wang, H., Husseman, J., Wieduwilt, M. 2015; 2015: 728260-?

Abstract

Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare, aggressive malignancy. Lesions previously called HS were typically non-Hodgkin lymphomas, not HS. As such, chemotherapy directed at lymphoid neoplasms was frequently successful, but it is unclear if these regimens are ideal for HS. We present a 33-year-old African gentleman who underwent sequential renal transplants for glomerulonephritis. He subsequently developed HS of the upper airway and multiple cutaneous sites. The patient received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) followed by salvage ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) but had continuous progression of cutaneous involvement. Cladribine, high-dose cytarabine, G-CSF, and mitoxantrone (CLAG-M) yielded a partial response with near resolution of disease. Ultimately, the patient achieved a complete remission after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. HS occurring after solid organ transplant raises the possibility of HS as a potential posttransplant malignancy. The use of CLAG-M has not been reported in HS. In this case, histiocyte-directed chemotherapy with CLAG-M was superior to lymphoma-directed regimens.

View details for DOI 10.1155/2015/728260

View details for PubMedID 26167311

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4475737

A Mouse Model of Otitis Media Identifies HB-EGF as a Mediator of Inflammation-Induced Mucosal Proliferation PLOS ONE Suzukawa, K., Tomlin, J., Pak, K., Chavez, E., Kurabi, A., Baird, A., Wasserman, S. I., Ryan, A. F. 2014; 9 (7)

Abstract

Otitis media is one of the most common pediatric infections. While it is usually treated without difficulty, up to 20% of children may progress to long-term complications that include hearing loss, impaired speech and language development, academic underachievement, and irreversible disease. Hyperplasia of middle ear mucosa contributes to the sequelae of acute otitis media and is of important clinical significance. Understanding the role of growth factors in the mediation of mucosal hyperplasia could lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions for this disease and its sequelae.From a whole genome gene array analysis of mRNA expression during acute otitis media, we identified growth factors with expression kinetics temporally related to hyperplasia. We then tested these factors for their ability to stimulate mucosal epithelial growth in vitro, and determined protein levels and histological distribution in vivo for active factors.From the gene array, we identified seven candidate growth factors with upregulation of mRNA expression kinetics related to mucosal hyperplasia. Of the seven, only HB-EGF (heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor) induced significant mucosal epithelial hyperplasia in vitro. Subsequent quantification of HB-EGF protein expression in vivo via Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein is highly expressed from 6 hours to 24 hours after bacterial inoculation, while immunohistochemistry revealed production by middle ear epithelial cells and infiltrating lymphocytes.Our data suggest an active role for HB-EGF in the hyperplasia of the middle ear mucosal epithelium during otitis media. These results imply that therapies targeting HB-EGF could ameliorate mucosal growth during otitis media, and thereby reduce detrimental sequelae of this childhood disease.

View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0102739

View details for Web of Science ID 000339418300086

View details for PubMedID 25033458

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4102546

Surgical Technique and Recurrence in Cholesteatoma: A Meta-Analysis AUDIOLOGY AND NEURO-OTOLOGY Tomlin, J., Chang, D., McCutcheon, B., Harris, J. 2013; 18 (3): 135-142

Abstract

Conflicting reports and surgeon opinions have contributed to a long-standing debate regarding the merits of the intact canal wall versus canal wall down approach to cholesteatoma. The objective of this analysis was to identify and synthesize available data concerning rates of recidivism after the two primary types of cholesteatoma surgery. PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration, and Google Scholar searches were performed and articles filtered based on predetermined exclusion criteria. Individually reported rates of recurrent and residual disease were extracted and recorded. Meta-analysis demonstrated a relative risk of 2.87 with a confidence interval of 2.45-3.37, confirming a significantly increased incidence of postoperative cholesteatoma when using an intact canal wall approach rather than a canal wall down approach. Next, rates of recidivism following the typical two-stage intact canal wall operation were compared with a single-stage canal wall down operation and found to be similar. In conclusion, we advocate that greater consideration should be given to the canal wall down procedure in initial surgical management and identify the need for further exploration of rates of recidivism after staged or second-look procedures.

View details for DOI 10.1159/000346140

View details for Web of Science ID 000322113000001

View details for PubMedID 23327931