Julianne Mendoza, MD

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Work and Education

Professional Education

Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 05/31/2002


Stanford University Anesthesiology Residency, Stanford, CA, 06/30/2009

UCLA General Surgery Residency, Los Angeles, CA, 06/30/2004


Stanford University Pediatric Anesthesia Fellowship, Palo Alto, CA, 07/31/2010

Board Certifications

Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology

Pediatric Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology



All Publications

Intraoperative continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill pediatric liver transplant recipients; a case series Furukawa, L. K., Wolke, O. N., Gallo, A., Sutherland, S., Mendoza, J. WILEY. 2023
Amplified inferior outcomes for infant pediatric liver transplant candidates and recipients at low volume centers Stoltz, D., Bozhilov, K., Gallo, A., Kirchner, V., Lum, G., Mendoza, J., Esquivel, C., Bonham, A. WILEY. 2023
Activated 4-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate as a Hemostatic Adjunct for Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study. Anesthesia and analgesia Navaratnam, M., Mendoza, J. M., Zhang, S., Boothroyd, D., Maeda, K., Kamra, K., Williams, G. D. 2022


BACKGROUND: Prothrombin complex concentrates are an emerging "off-label" therapy to augment hemostasis after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but data supporting their use for neonatal cardiac surgery are limited.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed neonates undergoing open heart surgery with first-time sternotomy between May 2014 and December 2018 from a hospital electronic health record database. Neonates who received activated 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (a4FPCC) after CPB were propensity score matched (PSM) to neonates who did not receive a4FPCC (control group). The primary efficacy outcome was total volume (mL/kg) of blood products transfused after CPB, including the first 24 hours on the cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU). The primary safety outcome was the incidence of 7- and 30-day postoperative thromboembolism. Secondary outcomes included 24 hours postoperative chest tube output, time to extubation, duration of CVICU stay, duration of hospital stay, 30-day mortality, and incidence of acute kidney injury on postoperative day 3. We used linear regression modeling on PSM data for the primary efficacy outcome. For the primary safety outcome, we tested for differences using McNemar test on PSM data. For secondary outcomes, we used linear regression, Fisher exact test, or survival analyses as appropriate, with false discovery rate-adjusted P values.RESULTS: A total of 165 neonates were included in the final data analysis: 86 in the control group and 79 in the a4FPCC group. After PSM, there were 43 patients in the control group and 43 in the a4FPCC group. We found a statistically significant difference in mean total blood products transfused for the a4FPCC group (47.5 mL/kg) compared with the control group (63.7 mL/kg) for PSM patients (adjusted difference, 15.3; 95% CI, 29.4-1.3; P = .032). We did not find a statistically significant difference in 7- or 30-day thromboembolic rate, postoperative chest tube output, time to extubation, incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), or 30-day mortality between the groups. The a4FPCC group had a significantly longer length of intensive care unit stay (32.9 vs 13.3 days; adjusted P = .049) and hospital stay (44.6 vs 24.1 days; adjusted P = .049) compared with the control group.CONCLUSIONS: We found that the use of a4FPCC as a hemostatic adjunct for post-CPB bleeding in neonatal cardiac surgery was associated with a decrease in mean total blood products transfused after CPB without an increased rate of 7- or 30-day postoperative thromboembolism. Our findings suggest that a4FPCCs can be considered as part of a hemostasis pathway for refractory bleeding in neonatal cardiac surgery.

View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006294

View details for PubMedID 36729967

Evolution of Thromboelastography Parameters During Pediatric Liver Transplantation Damian, M. I., Tawfik, D., Mendoza, J., Gallo, A., Esquivel, C. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: S452-S453
Neurologic complications in en bloc pediatric heart-liver transplants Pan, J., Bensen, R., Ebel, N., Mendoza, J., Ma, M., Hollander, S., Gallo, A., Esquivel, C. O., Bonham, A. WILEY. 2022
Quality improvement project to safely expedite liver biopsy in pediatric acute liver failure Mendoza, J., Ebel, N. H., Josephs, S., Wolke, O., Depper, J., Bonham, C. A., Damian, M. A., Esquivel, C. O., Gallo, A. WILEY. 2022
Re-transplantation in pediatric liver transplant: Indicators of intra-operative mortality Brubaker, A., Mendoza, J., Bonham, C. A., Damian, M. A., Esquivel, C. O., Gallo, A. E. WILEY. 2022
Underutilized technical variant liver grafts show equal graft survival to whole liver grafts in pediatric liver transplantation Stoltz, D., Bonham, A., Lum, G., Ebel, N., Mendoza, J., Esquivel, C., Gallo, A. WILEY. 2022
Neurologic complications in en bloc pediatric heart-liver transplants Pan, J., Bensen, R., Ebel, N., Mendoza, J., Ma, M., Hollander, S., Gallo, A., Esquivel, C., Bonham, A. WILEY. 2022: 80
Anesthesia for Long QT Syndrome CURRENT ANESTHESIOLOGY REPORTS Babb, A., Mendoza, J. 2021
Pre-operative fasting times for clear liquids at a tertiary children's hospital; what can be improved? Anesthesia and pain medicine Schmidt, A. R., Fehr, J., Man, J., D'Souza, G., Wang, E., Claure, R., Mendoza, J. 2021


Background: The goal of preoperative fasting is to prevent pulmonary aspiration during general anesthesia. Fasting times are often prolonged leading to patient discomfort and risk for adverse events. This retrospective quality improvement survey evaluated effective nil-per-os (NPO) times and causes for prolonged NPO times with the aim to suggest improvement strategies by a newly founded fasting task force.Methods: Data from all electronic anesthesia records from 2019 at our institution were reviewed for fasting times. Our NPO instructions follow American Society of Anesthesiology guidelines and are calculated based on the patient's arrival time (90 min before operating room [OR] time). Primary outcome was the effective NPO time for clear liquids, secondary outcomes were incidence of delays and the parental compliance with the NPO instructions. Data are presented as median (interquartile range).Results: In total 9,625 cases were included in the analysis. NPO time was documented in 72.1% with a median effective NPO time of 7:13 h (7:36). OR in room times were documented in 72.8%, 2,075 (29.5%; median time 0:10 h [0:21]) were earlier and 4,939 (70.5%; median time 0:29 h [0:54]) were later than scheduled. Parental NPO compliance showed a median deviation for clear liquid intake of 0:55 h (8:30).Conclusions: This study revealed that effective NPO times were longer than current ASA guidelines. Contributing causes include case delays and parental non-compliance to NPO instructions. Thus, task force recommendations include change NPO instruction calculations to scheduled OR time versus arrival time, and encourage parents to give their child clear liquids at the instructed time.

View details for DOI 10.17085/apm.21025

View details for PubMedID 34289299

Eliminating International Normalized Ratio Threshold for Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Acute Liver Failure. Clinical transplantation Lee, A., Mendoza, J., Brubaker, A. L., Stoltz, D. J., McKenzie, R., Bonham, C. A., Esquivel, C. O., Gallo, A. E. 2020


INTRODUCTION: Transfusion protocols are not well-studied for pediatric patients with acute liver failure (ALF). This study evaluates the utility of an international normalized ratio (INR)-based transfusion threshold for these patients.METHODS: Forty-four ALF pediatric patients from 2009 to 2018 were reviewed and divided into two groups: (1) a threshold group including patients between 2009-2015 who were transfused for an INR above 3.0, per institutional policy (n=30), and (2) a post-threshold group including patients after 2015 through 2018 who were transfused based on clinical judgment (n=14). Preoperative INRs, preoperative transfusions, intraoperative transfusions, early reoperation, renal function, graft function and deaths were compared.RESULTS: Liver failure severity was similar between threshold and post-threshold groups. Threshold patients had a lower average INR prior to transplantation, 2.8 (range 1.8-3.8) versus 4.4 (range 2.1-9.0), respectively (p=0.01). Twenty-six threshold patients (87%) received preoperative FFP compared to seven post-threshold patients (50%, p=0.0088). Two threshold patients (7%) received preoperative cryoprecipitate compared to five post-threshold patients (36%, p=0.014). The incidence of pre-transplant bleeding, operative transfusions and one-year patient and graft survival did not differ significantly.CONCLUSION: Clinical judgment versus an INR-based threshold for transfusions did not increase perioperative complications in children with ALF.

View details for DOI 10.1111/ctr.13819

View details for PubMedID 32037570

Eliminating INR Thresholds for Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Fulminant Hepatic Failure Lee, A., Brubaker, A., Stoltz, D., McKenzie, R., Esquivel, C., Mendoza, J., Gallo, A. WILEY. 2020: 7172
The impact of intraoperative thromboelastography and blood product utilization during pediatric liver transplantation in a single center Ruiz, R., Lee, H., Mendoza, J., Burgis, J. C., Damian, M., Esquivel, C. O., Jeng, M. WILEY. 2019
Reporting of Perioperative Adverse Events by Pediatric Anesthesiologists at a Tertiary Children's Hospital: Targeted Interventions to Increase the Rate of Reporting. Anesthesia and analgesia Williams, G. D., Muffly, M. K., Mendoza, J. M., Wixson, N. n., Leong, K. n., Claure, R. E. 2017


Incident reporting systems (IRSs) are important patient safety tools for identifying risks and opportunities for improvement. A major IRS limitation is underreporting of incidents. Perioperative anesthesia IRSs have been established at multiple pediatric institutions and a national pediatric anesthesia IRS for perioperative serious adverse events (SAEs) is maintained by Wake Up Safe (WUS), a patient safety organization dedicated to pediatric anesthesia quality improvement. A confidential, electronic, perioperative IRS was instituted at our tertiary children's hospital, which is a WUS member. The primary study aim was to increase the rate of incident reporting by anesthesiologists at our institution through a series of interventions. The secondary aim was to characterize our reporting behavior relative to national practice by referencing SAE data from WUS.Perioperative adverse events reported over a 71-month period (November 2010 to September 2016) were categorized and the monthly reporting rates determined. Effects of 6 interventions targeted to increase the reporting rate were analyzed using control charts. Intervention 5 involved interviewing pediatric anesthesiologists to ascertain incident reporting barriers and motivators. A key driver diagram was developed and used to guide an improvement initiative. Incidents that fulfilled WUS criteria for SAEs were identified and categorized. SAE reporting rates over a 27-month period for 12 WUS member institutions were determined.2689 perioperative adverse events were noted in 1980 of 72,384 anesthetics. Mean monthly adverse event case rate was 273 (95% confidence interval, 250-297) per 10,000 anesthetics. A subgroup involving 54,469 cases had 529 SAEs in 440 anesthetics; a mean monthly SAE case rate of 80 (95% confidence interval, 69-91) per 10,000 anesthetics. Cardiac, respiratory, and airway events predominated. Relative to WUS peer members, our institution is a high-reporting outlier. The rate of incident reporting per 10,000 anesthetics was sustainably increased from 149 35 to 387 73 (mean SD) after implementing mandatory IRS data entry and Intervention 5 quality improvement initiative. Barriers to reporting included concern for punitive repercussions, feelings of incompetence, poor education about what constitutes an event, lack of feedback, and the perception that reporting had no value. These were addressed by IRS education, cultivation of a culture of safety where reporting is encouraged, reporter feedback, and better inclusion of anesthesiologists in patient safety work.Electronic mandatory IRS data entry and an initiative to understand and address reporting barriers and motivators were associated with sustained increases in the adverse event reporting rate. These strategies to minimize underreporting enhance IRS value for learning and may be generalizable.

View details for PubMedID 28678071

Perioperative management of pediatric en-bloc combined heart-liver transplants: a case series review. Paediatric anaesthesia Navaratnam, M., Ng, A., Williams, G. D., Maeda, K., Mendoza, J. M., Concepcion, W., Hollander, S. A., Ramamoorthy, C. 2016; 26 (10): 976-986


Combined heart and liver transplantation (CHLT) in the pediatric population involves a complex group of patients, many of whom have palliated congenital heart disease (CHD) involving single ventricle physiology.The purpose of this study was to describe the perioperative management of pediatric patients undergoing CHLT at a single institution and to identify management strategies that may be used to optimize perioperative care.We did a retrospective database review of all patients receiving CHLT at a children's hospital between 2006 and 2014. Information collected included preoperative characteristics, intraoperative management, blood transfusions, and postoperative morbidity and mortality.Five pediatric CHLTs were performed over an 8-year period. All patients had a history of complex CHD with multiple sternotomies, three of whom had failing Fontan physiology. Patient age ranged from 7 to 23 years and weight from 29.5 to 68.5 kg. All CHLTs were performed using an en-bloc technique where both the donor heart and liver were implanted together on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The median operating room time was 14.25 h, median CPB time was 3.58 h, and median donor ischemia time was 4.13 h. Patients separated from CPB on dopamine, epinephrine, and milrinone infusions and two required inhaled nitric oxide. All patients received a massive intraoperative blood transfusion post CPB with amounts ranging from one to three times the patient's estimated blood volume. The patient who required the most transfusions was in decompensated heart and liver failure preoperatively. Four of the five patients received an antifibrinolytic agent as well as a procoagulant (prothrombin complex concentrate or recombinant activated Factor VII) to assist with hemostasis. There were no 30-day thromboembolic events detected. Postoperatively the median length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and stay to hospital discharge was 4, 8, and 37 days, respectively. All patients are alive and free from allograft rejection at this time.Combined heart and liver transplantation in the pediatric population involves a complex group of patients with unique perioperative challenges. Successful management starts with thorough preoperative planning and communication and involves strategies to deal with massive intraoperative hemorrhage and coagulopathy in addition to protecting and supporting the transplanted heart and liver and meticulous surgical technique. An integrated multidisciplinary team approach is the cornerstone for successful outcomes.

View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.12950

View details for PubMedID 27402424

In vitro evaluation of a novel system for monitoring surgical hemoglobin loss. Anesthesia and analgesia Konig, G., Holmes, A. A., Garcia, R., Mendoza, J. M., Javidroozi, M., Satish, S., Waters, J. H. 2014; 119 (3): 595-600


Accurate measurement of intraoperative blood loss is an important clinical variable in managing fluid resuscitation and avoiding unnecessary transfusion of blood products. In this study, we measured surgical blood loss using a tablet computer programmed with a unique algorithm modeled after facial recognition technology. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and performance of the system on surgical laparotomy sponges in vitro.Whole blood samples of premeasured hemoglobin (Hb) and volume were reconstituted from units of human packed red blood cells and plasma and distributed across surgical laparotomy sponges. Normal saline was added to simulate the presence of varying levels of hemodilution and/or irrigation use. Soaked sponges from 4 different manufacturers were scanned using the Triton System with Feature Extraction Technology (Gauss Surgical, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) under 3 different ambient light conditions in an operating room. Accuracy of Hb loss measurement was evaluated relative to the premeasured values using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Correlations between studied variables and measurement bias were analyzed using nonparametric tests.The overall mean percent error for measure of Hb loss for the Triton System was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2%-16.4%). A strong positive linear correlation between the premeasured and actual Hb masses was noted across the full range of intraoperative lighting conditions, including (A) high (r = 0.95 [95% CI, 0.93-0.96]), (B) medium (r = 0.94 [95% CI, 0.93-0.96]), and (C) low (r = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.87-0.93]) mean ambient light intensity. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias of 0.01 g [95% CI, -0.03 to 0.06 g] of Hb per sponge between the 2 measures. The corresponding lower and upper limits of agreement were -1.16 g (95% CI, -1.21 to -1.12 g) per sponge and 1.19 g (95% CI, 1.15-1.24 g) per sponge, respectively. Measurement bias of estimated blood loss and Hb mass using the new system were not associated with the volume of saline used to reconstitute the samples (P = 0.506 and P = 0.469, respectively), suggesting that the system is robust under a wide range of sponge saturation conditions.Mobile blood loss monitoring using the Triton system is accurate in assessing Hb mass on surgical sponges across a range of ambient light conditions, sponge saturation, saline contamination, and initial blood Hb. Utilization of this tool could significantly improve the accuracy of blood loss estimates.

View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000198

View details for PubMedID 24806138

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4139457