Paul Grimm, MD

  • “I want parents to feel empowered and comfortable.”

I come from a rural background as a physician treating farmers; I speak very plainly and I think that makes people feel more comfortable to talk openly with me. Often times people are afraid to speak about their concerns. I try to start the conversation by listening to patients and families, paying attention to their concerns.

Some patients I care for over the course of their life, and I develop close relationships with the entire family. Occasionally I'll get invited to a Quinceañera, which is really meaningful. These are amazing families that do whatever it takes to give their children the best chance at a great life. Instead of telling families what to do, I try to be their coach. Parents know their child better than anyone else. I want them to feel empowered and comfortable to make their own decisions.



Work and Education

Professional Education

University of Saskatchewan College of Medicine, Saskatoon, Canada, 05/31/1981


University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, 06/30/1982


Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 06/30/1985

Winnipeg Children's Hospital, Winnipeg, Canada, 06/30/1986


Dalhousie University Residency Training, Nova Scotia, Halifax, Canada, 06/30/1988

UCLA Health Sciences, Los Angeles, CA, 06/30/1991

Board Certifications

Pediatric Nephrology, American Board of Pediatrics

Conditions Treated


Kidney Transplant

All Publications

Defining systolic blood pressure normative values in hospitalized pediatric patients: a single center experience. Pediatric research Uber, A. M., Han, J., Grimm, P., Montez-Rath, M. E., Chaudhuri, A. 2024


Normative blood pressure (BP) values and definition of hypertension (HTN) in children in outpatient setting cannot be reliably used for inpatient therapy initiation. No normative exists to describe HTN in hospitalized pediatric populations. We aimed to study the prevalence of hypertension and produce normative BP values in hospitalized children.Cross sectional observational study of all children hospitalized on acute care floors, 2 and <18 years age, at Stanford Children's Hospital, from Jan-01-2014 to Dec-31-2018. Cohort included 7468 hospital encounters with a total of 118,423 automated, oscillometric, BPs measured in the upper extremity during a hospitalization of >24hours.Overall prevalence of HTN, defined by outpatient guidelines, was 12-48% in boys and 6-39% in girls, stage 1 systolic HTN in 12-38% of boys and 6-31% of girls, stage 2 systolic HTN in 3-10% of boys and 1-8% of girls. Centile curves were derived demonstrating overall higher BP reading for hospitalized patients compared to the outpatient setting.Higher blood pressures are anticipated during hospitalization. Thresholds provided by the centile curves generated in this study may provide the clinician with some guidance on how to manage hospitalized pediatric patients based on clinical circumstances.Hospitalized children have higher blood pressures compared to patients in the ambulatory setting, hence outpatient normative blood pressure values cannot be reliably used for inpatient therapy initiation. No normative exists to describe hypertension in hospitalized pediatric populations. The thresholds provided by the centile curves generated in this study may provide the clinician with some guidance on how to manage hospitalized pediatric patients based on clinical circumstances.

View details for DOI 10.1038/s41390-024-03059-w

View details for PubMedID 38326477

View details for PubMedCentralID 6784751

Angiotensin-II Use for Refractory Hypotension in an Infant With Bilateral Renal Agenesis. Pediatrics Razdan, S., Davis, A. S., Tidmarsh, G., Hintz, S. R., Grimm, P. C., Chock, V. Y. 2023


Infants with congenital bilateral renal agenesis are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality, despite substantial and continuing advances in fetal and neonatal therapeutics. Infants with bilateral renal agenesis may episodically develop severe hypotension that can be refractory to traditional vasopressors. Synthetic angiotensin-II has been successfully used in adult and a few pediatric patients with refractory hypotension but has not been extensively studied in infants. We describe the use of angiotensin-II in treating refractory hypotension in a premature infant with congenital bilateral renal agenesis admitted to the NICU. Within 48 hours, he no longer required other vasopressors. Subsequently, angiotensin-II was gradually weaned and discontinued over 10 days and the patient was ultimately discharged from the hospital. This case demonstrates that angiotensin-II may be a helpful agent to treat refractory hypotension in infants with bilateral renal agenesis.

View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2023-062128

View details for PubMedID 38098437

Relationship between epa level of supervision with their associated subcompetency milestone levels in pediatric fellow assessment. BMC medical education Mink, R. B., Carraccio, C. L., Herman, B. E., Weiss, P., Turner, D. A., Stafford, D. E., McGann, K. A., Kesselheim, J., Hsu, D. C., High, P. C., Fussell, J. J., Curran, M. L., Chess, P. R., Sauer, C., Pitts, S., Myers, A. L., Mahan, J. D., Dammann, C. E., Aye, T., Schwartz, A. 2023; 23 (1): 720


Entrustable Professional Activities (EPA) and competencies represent components of a competency-based education framework. EPAs are assessed based on the level of supervision (LOS) necessary to perform the activity safely and effectively. The broad competencies, broken down into narrower subcompetencies, are assessed using milestones, observable behaviors of one's abilities along a developmental spectrum. Integration of the two methods, accomplished by mapping the most relevant subcompetencies to each EPA, may provide a cross check between the two forms of assessment and uncover those subcompetencies that have the greatest influence on the EPA assessment.We hypothesized that 1) there would be a strong correlation between EPA LOS ratings with the milestone levels for the subcompetencies mapped to the EPA; 2) some subcompetencies would be more critical in determining entrustment decisions than others, and 3) the correlation would be weaker if the analysis included only milestones reported to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME).In fall 2014 and spring 2015, the Subspecialty Pediatrics Investigator Network asked Clinical Competency Committees to assign milestone levels to each trainee enrolled in a pediatric fellowship for all subcompetencies mapped to 6 Common Pediatric Subspecialty EPAs as well as provide a rating for each EPA based upon a 5-point LOS scale.One-thousand forty fellows were assessed in fall and 1048 in spring, representing about 27% of all fellows. For each EPA and in both periods, the average milestone level was highly correlated with LOS (rho range 0.59-0.74; p<0.001). Correlations were similar when using a weighted versus unweighted milestone score or using only the ACGME reported milestones (p>0.05).We found a strong relationship between milestone level and EPA LOS rating but no difference if the subcompetencies were weighted, or if only milestones reported to the ACGME were used. Our results suggest that representative behaviors needed to effectively perform the EPA, such as key subcompetencies and milestones, allow for future language adaptations while still supporting the current model of assessment. In addition, these data provide additional validity evidence for using these complementary tools in building a program of assessment.

View details for DOI 10.1186/s12909-023-04689-0

View details for PubMedID 37789289

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10548580

Immunosuppression and recurrence free parental donor kidney transplant in patient with previous graft loss secondary to recurrent FSGS using prospective a/b T cell, CD19 depleted haploidentical parental stem cell transplant Grimm, P., Wong, C., Goldstein-Fuchs, D., Chaudhuri, A., James, G., Boyd, D., Good, J., Woo, M., Gallo, A., Bertaina, A. SPRINGER. 2023: 2332
Entrustable professional activities as an assessment and educational tool in pediatric nephrology Mahan, J., Samuels, J., Symons, J., Neu, A., Grimm, P., Mink, R., Hermann, B., Schwartz, A., Warshaw, B., George, R. SPRINGER. 2023: 2481-2482
HLA-DR/DQ Single Molecule Eplet Mismatch And Formation Of De Novo Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies After Kidney Transplantation In Children Sigurjonsdottir, V., Piburn, K., Grimm, P., Zhang, B. M. WILEY. 2023
Cystatin C and Creatinine Concentrations are Uninformative Biomarkers of Sarcopenia: A Cross-Sectional NHANES Study. Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation Shah, L. N., Leonard, M. B., Ziolkowski, S. L., Grimm, P., Long, J. 2023


Differences in creatinine and cystatin C-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFRDiff = eGFRCr - eGFRCysC) may reflect differences in muscle mass. We sought to determine if eGFRDiff (1) reflects lean mass, (2) identifies sarcopenic individuals beyond estimates based on age, BMI, and sex; and (3) demonstrates associations differently in those with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD).This cross-sectional study included 3,754 participants, ages 20-85 years, with creatinine and cystatin C concentration levels, and DXA scans from NHANES data (1999 to 2006). DXA appendicular lean mass index (ALMI) estimated muscle mass. Non-race-based CKD EPI equations estimated GFR using creatinine (eGFRCr), cystatin C (eGFRCysC), and both biomarkers (eGFRCysC&Cr). CKD was defined as eGFRCysC&Cr < 60 mL/min/1.73m2. ALMI sex-specific T-scores (compared with young adult) < -2.0 defined sarcopenia. In estimating ALMI, we compared the coefficient of determination (R2) values from: 1) eGFRDiff, 2) clinical characteristics (age, BMI, and sex), and 3) clinical characteristics plus eGFRDiff. Using logistic regression, we evaluated each model's C-statistic to diagnose sarcopenia.eGFRDIFF was negatively and weakly associated with ALMI (No CKD: R2 = 0.006, p-value 0.002; CKD: R2 = 0.001, p-value 0.9). Clinical characteristics explained most of the variation in ALMI (No CKD: R2 = 0.851, CKD: R2 = 0.828), and provided strong discrimination of sarcopenia (No CKD C-statistic: 0.950; CKD C-statistic: 0.943). Adding eGFRDiff improved the R2 by 0.025, and the C-statistic by 0.003. Tests for interaction between eGFRDiff and CKD were not significant (all p-values > 0.05).Although eGFRDiff has statistically significant associations with ALMI and sarcopenia in univariate analyses, multivariate analyses demonstrate that eGFRDiff does not capture more information beyond routine clinical characteristics (age, BMI, and sex).

View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jrn.2023.01.012

View details for PubMedID 36796503

Sequential Stem Cell-Kidney Transplantation in Schimke Immuno-osseous Dysplasia Reply NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Bertaina, A., Grimm, P. C., Weinberg, K. 2022; 387 (9): 860
Sequential Stem Cell-Kidney Transplantation in Schimke Immuno-osseous Dysplasia. Reply. The New England journal of medicine Bertaina, A., Grimm, P. C., Weinberg, K. 2022; 387 (9): 860

View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMc2209527

View details for PubMedID 36053526

Malnutrition and immune cell subsets in children undergoing kidney transplantation. Pediatric transplantation Shaw, B. I., Lee, H., Ettenger, R., Grimm, P., Reed, E. F., Sarwal, M., Stempora, L., Warshaw, B., Zhao, C., Martinez, O. M., MacIver, N. J., Kirk, A. D., Chambers, E. T. 2022


BACKGROUND: Malnutrition, including obesity and undernutrition, among children is increasing in prevalence and is common among children on renal replacement therapy. The effect of malnutrition on the pre-transplant immune system and how the pediatric immune system responds to the insult of both immunosuppression and allotransplantation is unknown. We examined the relationship of nutritional status with post-transplant outcomes and characterized the peripheral immune cell phenotypes of children from the Immune Development of Pediatric Transplant (IMPACT) study.METHODS: Ninety-eight patients from the IMPACT study were classified as having obesity, undernutrition, or normal nutrition-based pre-transplant measurements. Incidence of infectious and alloimmune outcomes at 1-year post-transplantation was compared between nutritional groups using Gray's test and Fine-Gray subdistribution hazards model. Event-free survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups. Differences in immune cell subsets between nutritional groups over time were determined using generalized estimating equations accounting for the correlation between repeated measurements.RESULTS: We did not observe that nutritional status was associated with infectious or alloimmune events or event-free survival post-transplant. We demonstrated that children with obesity had distinct T-and B-cell signatures relative to those with undernutrition and normal nutrition, even when controlling for immunosuppression. Children with obesity had a lower frequency of CD8 Tnaive cells 9-month post-transplant (p<.001), a higher frequency of CD4 CD57+PD1- T cells, and lower frequencies of CD57-PD1+ CD8 and CD57-PD1- CD8 T cells at 12-month transplant (p<.05 for all).CONCLUSIONS: Children with obesity have distinct immunophenotypes that may influence the tailoring of immunosuppression.

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.14371

View details for PubMedID 35938682

Improving Quality of Care and Outcomes for Pediatric Patients With End-stage Kidney Disease: The Importance of Pediatric Nephrology Expertise. JAMA Leonard, M. B., Grimm, P. C. 2022; 328 (5): 427-429

View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2022.11603

View details for PubMedID 35916864

Improving Quality of Care and Outcomes for Pediatric Patients With End-stage Kidney Disease The Importance of Pediatric Nephrology Expertise JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Leonard, M. B., Grimm, P. C. 2022; 328 (5): 427-429
Patterns in Tacrolimus Variability and Association with De Novo Donor-Specific Antibody Formation in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN Piburn, K. H., Sigurjonsdottir, V. K., Indridason, O. S., Maestretti, L., Patton, M. V., McGrath, A., Palsson, R., Gallo, A., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P. C. 2022


High tacrolimus intrapatient variability has been associated with inferior graft outcomes in patients with kidney transplants. We studied baseline patterns of tacrolimus intrapatient variability in pediatric patients with kidney transplants and examined these patterns in relation to C1q-binding de novo donor-specific antibodies.All tacrolimus levels in participants who underwent kidney-only transplantation at a single pediatric center from 2004 to 2018 (with at least 12-month follow-up, followed until 2019) were analyzed to determine baseline variability. Intrapatient variability was defined using the coefficient of variation (SD/mean 100%) of all samples in a 6-month moving window. Routine de novo donor-specific antibody measurements were available for a subgroup of patients transplanted in 2010-2018. Cox proportional hazards models using tacrolimus intrapatient variability as a time-varying variable were used to examine the association between intrapatient variability and graft outcomes. The primary outcome of interest was C1q-binding de novo donor-specific antibody formation.Tacrolimus intrapatient variability developed a steady-state baseline of 30% at 10 months post-transplant in 426 patients with a combined 31,125 tacrolimus levels. Included in the outcomes study were 220 patients, of whom 51 developed C1q-binding de novo donor-specific antibodies. De novo donor-specific antibody formers had higher intrapatient variability, with a median of 38% (interquartile range, 28%-48%) compared with 28% (interquartile range, 20%-38%) for nondonor-specific antibody formers (P<0.001). Patients with high tacrolimus intrapatient variability (coefficient of variation >30%) had higher risk of de novo donor-specific antibody formation (hazard ratio, 5.35; 95% confidence interval, 2.45 to 11.68). Patients in the top quartile of tacrolimus intrapatient variability (coefficient of variation >41%) had the strongest association with C1q-binding de novo donor-specific antibody formation (hazard ratio, 11.81; 95% confidence interval, 4.76 to 29.27).High tacrolimus intrapatient variability was strongly associated with de novo donor-specific antibody formation.

View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.16421221

View details for PubMedID 35882506

Sequential Stem Cell-Kidney Transplantation in Schimke Immuno-osseous Dysplasia. The New England journal of medicine Bertaina, A., Grimm, P. C., Weinberg, K., Parkman, R., Kristovich, K. M., Barbarito, G., Lippner, E., Dhamdhere, G., Ramachandran, V., Spatz, J. M., Fathallah-Shaykh, S., Atkinson, T. P., Al-Uzri, A., Aubert, G., van der Elst, K., Green, S. G., Agarwal, R., Slepicka, P. F., Shah, A. J., Roncarolo, M. G., Gallo, A., Concepcion, W., Lewis, D. B. 2022; 386 (24): 2295-2302


Lifelong immunosuppression is required for allograft survival after kidney transplantation but may not ultimately prevent allograft loss resulting from chronic rejection. We developed an approach that attempts to abrogate immune rejection and the need for post-transplantation immunosuppression in three patients with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia who had both T-cell immunodeficiency and renal failure. Each patient received sequential transplants of alphabeta T-cell-depleted and CD19 B-cell-depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cells and a kidney from the same donor. Full donor hematopoietic chimerism and functional ex vivo T-cell tolerance was achieved, and the patients continued to have normal renal function without immunosuppression at 22 to 34 months after kidney transplantation. (Funded by the Kruzn for a Kure Foundation.).

View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa2117028

View details for PubMedID 35704481

Early versus Late Ureteral Stent Removal in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients. McGrath, A., Maestretti, L., Samreth, S., Sheth, K., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A., Gallo, A. WILEY. 2022: 706
Baseline Trends in Tacrolimus Intrapatient Variability in Pediatric and Young Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients. Piburn, K., Maestretti, L., Patton, M. V., McGrath, A. M., Indridason, O. S., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P., Sigurjonsdottir, V. WILEY. 2022: 697
HLA-DR/DQ Single Molecule Eplet Mismatch and Formation of De Novo Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies After Kidney Transplantation in Children. Sigurjonsdottir, V. K., Piburn, K., Grimm, P. C., Zhang, B. M. WILEY. 2022: 380
Evaluating the Risk and Benefit of Once Daily Delayed Release Mycophenolate in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients. Maestretti, L., McGrath, A., Fong, A., Brubaker, A., Gallo, A., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A. WILEY. 2022: 1084-1085
Evaluating the risk and benefit of once daily delayed release mycophenolate in pediatric kidney transplant recipients Maestretti, L., McGrath, A., Fong, A., Brubaker, A., Gallo, A., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A. WILEY. 2022
Complement-binding donor specific anti-HLA antibodies: Biomarker for immunologic risk stratification in pediatric kidney transplantation recipients Sigurjonsdottir, V., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P. WILEY. 2022
Early versus late ureteral stent removal in pediatric kidney transplant recipients McGrath, A., Maestretti, L., Samreth, S., Sheth, K., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A., Gallo, A. WILEY. 2022
High tacrolimus intrapatient variability is associated with inferior graft outcomes in pediatric and young adult kidney transplant recipients Piburn, K., Maestretti, L., Patton, M. V., McGrath, A., Indridason, O. S., Gallo, A., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P. C., Sigurjonsdottir, V. K. WILEY. 2022
Increasing and normalizing the discussion of pregnancy prevention for female pediatric kidney transplant recipients on the fetal toxic medication, Mycophenolate McGrath, A., Beadles, A., Maestretti, L., Baquir, J., Alonzo, R., Fong, A., Patton, M., Stone, M., Barnes, A., Samreth, S., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A. WILEY. 2022
Sequential hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) followed by kidney transplant-3 children who received ABT-cell/CD19 B-cell depleted HSCT followed by kidney transplant from same parental donor are rejection free and immunosuppression free with donor specific tolerance > 1year post kidney transplant Grimm, P., Lewis, D. B., Al-Uzri, A., Fathallah-Shaykh, S., Shah, A., Agarwal, R., Weinberg, K. I., Gallo, A., Concepcion, W., Bertaina, A. WILEY. 2022
Complement-Binding Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies: Biomarker for Immunologic Risk Stratification in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation Recipients. Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation Sigurjonsdottir, V. K., Purington, N., Chaudhuri, A., Zhang, B. M., Fernandez-Vina, M., Palsson, R., Kambham, N., Charu, V., Piburn, K., Maestretti, L., Shah, A., Gallo, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C. 2022; 35: 10158


Antibody-mediated rejection is a common cause of early kidney allograft loss but the specifics of antibody measurement, therapies and endpoints have not been universally defined. In this retrospective study, we assessed the performance of risk stratification using systematic donor-specific antibody (DSA) monitoring. Included in the study were children who underwent kidney transplantation between January 1, 2010 and March 1, 2018 at Stanford, with at least 12-months follow-up. A total of 233 patients were included with a mean follow-up time of 45 (range, 9-108) months. Median age at transplant was 12.3years, 46.8% were female, and 76% had a deceased donor transplant. Fifty-two (22%) formed C1q-binding de novo donor-specific antibodies (C1q-dnDSA). After a standardized augmented immunosuppressive protocol was implemented, C1q-dnDSA disappeared in 31 (58.5%). Graft failure occurred in 16 patients at a median of 54 (range, 5-83) months, of whom 14 formed dnDSA. The 14 patients who lost their graft due to rejection, all had persistent C1q-dnDSA. C1q-binding status improved the individual risk assessment, with persistent; C1q binding yielding the strongest independent association of graft failure (hazard ratio, 45.5; 95% confidence interval, 11.7-177.4). C1q-dnDSA is more useful than standard dnDSA as a noninvasive biomarker for identifying patients at the highest risk of graft failure.

View details for DOI 10.3389/ti.2021.10158

View details for PubMedID 35992747

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9386741

Low dose rabbit antithymocyte globulin is non-inferior to higher dose in low-risk pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) Sigurjonsdottir, V. K., Maestretti, L., McGrath, A., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A., Jonsdottir, U., Grimm, P. C., Chaudhuri, A. 1800


BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no consensus among pediatric kidney transplant centers regarding the use and regimen for immunosuppressive induction therapy.METHODS: In this single center, retrospective cohort study, pediatric kidney transplant recipients transplanted between 1 May 2013 and 1 May 2018 with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induction were included. We stratified patients based on immunological risk, with high risk defined as those with repeat transplant, preformed donor specific antibody, current panel-reactive antibodies>20%, 0 antigen match and/or African-American heritage. Outcome of interest was the incidence of biopsy proven acute rejection by 1year.RESULTS: A total of 166 patients met inclusion criteria. Age of patients was 12years (11 mo-21 y), (median, range), 21.5% received a living donor transplant and 50.6% were female. Low-immunologic-risk patients were divided into 2 groups, those who received the lower cumulative rATG dose of3.5mg/kg (n=52) versus the higher cumulative dose of>3.5mg/kg (n=47). The median total dose in the lower dose group was 3.1 (IQR 0.3) and 4.4 (IQR 0.8) in the higher dose group, P<0.001. Rejection rate did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups (7/52 vs. 6/47). None in the lower dose group developed BK nephropathy versus 3 in the higher dose group. Graft loss due to BK nephropathy occurred in 1 patient in the higher dose group. Graft loss in the whole cohort at 12months was a rare event (n=1) with 99.5% graft survival and 100% patient survival.CONCLUSIONS: Reduced rATG dosing (3.5mg/kg) when compared to higher dosing (>3.5mg/kg) is safe and effective in low-risk pediatric kidney transplant recipients without increasing risk of rejection. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-021-05407-y

View details for PubMedID 35006359

Complement-Binding Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies: Biomarker for Immunologic Risk Stratification in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation Recipients Transpl Int, Sigurjonsdottir, V. K. 2022; 35

View details for DOI 10.3389/ti.2021.10158

Design and Methods of the Validating Injury to the Renal Transplant Using Urinary Signatures (VIRTUUS) Study in Children. Transplantation direct Kumar, J., Contrepois, K., Snyder, M., Grimm, P. C., Moudgil, A., Smith, J. M., Bobrowski, A. E., Verghese, P. S., Hooper, D., Ingulli, E., Lestz, R., Weng, P., Reason, J. L., Blydt-Hansen, T. D., Suthanthiran, M., Keating, B., Amaral, S. 2021; 7 (12): e791


Lack of noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to reliably detect early allograft injury poses a major hindrance to long-term allograft survival in pediatric kidney transplant recipients.Methods: Validating Injury to the Renal Transplant Using Urinary Signatures Children's Study, a North American multicenter prospective cohort study of pediatric kidney transplant recipients, aims to validate urinary cell mRNA and metabolite profiles that were diagnostic and prognostic of acute cellular rejection (ACR) and BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) in adult kidney transplant recipients in Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-4. Specifically, we are investigating: (1) whether a urinary cell mRNA 3-gene signature (18S-normalized CD3epsilon, CXCL10 mRNA, and 18S ribosomal RNA) discriminates biopsies with versus without ACR, (2) whether a combined metabolite profile with the 3-gene signature increases sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis and prognostication of ACR, and (3) whether BKV-VP1 mRNA levels in urinary cells are diagnostic of BKVN and prognostic for allograft failure.Results: To date, 204 subjects are enrolled, with 1405 urine samples, including 144 biopsy-associated samples. Among 424 urine samples processed for mRNA, the median A260:280 ratio (RNA purity) was 1.91, comparable with Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-4 (median 1.82). The quality control failure rate was 10%. Preliminary results from urine supernatant showed that our metabolomics platform successfully captured a broad array of metabolites. Clustering of pool samples and overlay of samples from various batches demonstrated platform robustness. No study site effect was noted.Conclusions: Multicenter efforts to ascertain urinary biomarkers in pediatric kidney transplant recipients are feasible with high-quality control. Further study will inform whether these signatures are discriminatory and predictive for rejection and infection.

View details for DOI 10.1097/TXD.0000000000001244

View details for PubMedID 34805493

Functional Immune Tolerance Induced By Sequential Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Solid Organ Transplantation Bertaina, A., Barbarito, G., Ramachandran, V. V., Kristovich, K., Lippner, E., Fathallah-Shaykh, S., Al-Uzri, A., Shah, A. J., Aubert, G., Slepicka, P., Oppizzi, L., Agarwal, R., Roncarolo, M., Gallo, A., Concepcion, W., Weinberg, K. I., Parkman, R., Lewis, D. B., Grimm, P. C. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2021: 1818-+
Racial Disparities in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation under the New Kidney Allocation System in the United States. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN Krissberg, J., Kaufmann, M., Gupta, A., Bendavid, E., Stedman, M., Cheng, X., Tan, J., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A. 2021


Background and Objectives: In December 2014, the Kidney Allocation System (KAS) was implemented to improve equity in access to transplantation, but preliminary studies in children show mixed results. Thus, we aimed to assess how the 2014 KAS policy change affected racial/ethnic disparities in pediatric kidney transplantation access and related outcomes. Design, setting, participants, and measurements: A retrospective cohort study of children <18 years of age active on the kidney transplant list from 2008 to 2019 using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Log-logistic accelerated failure time models were used to determine time from first activation on the transplant list and time on dialysis to deceased-donor transplant, each with KAS era or race/ethnicity as the exposure of interest. We used logistic regression to assess odds of delayed graft function. Log-rank tests assessed time to graft loss within racial/ethnic groups across KAS eras. Results: All children experienced longer wait times from activation to transplantation post-KAS. In univariable analysis, Black or Hispanic children or other children of color experienced longer times from activation to transplant compared to White children in the both eras; this finding was largely attenuated after multivariable analysis (time ratio 1.16, (95% CI 1.01-1.32); 1.13 (1.00-1.28); 1.17 (0.96-1.41) post-KAS, respectively). Multivariable analysis also showed that racial/ethnic disparities in time from dialysis initiation to transplantation in the pre-KAS era was mitigated in the post-KAS era. There were no disparities in odds of delayed graft function. Black or Hispanic children experienced longer times with a functioning graft in the post-KAS era. Conclusions: No racial/ethnic disparities from activation to deceased donor transplantation were seen before or after implementation of KAS in multivariable analysis, while time on dialysis to transplantation and odds of short-term graft loss improved in equity after KAS, without compromising disparities in delayed graft function.

View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.06740521

View details for PubMedID 34670797

Profound neonatal lactic acidosis and renal tubulopathy in a patient with glycogen storage disease type IX2 secondary to a de novo pathogenic variant in PHKA2. Molecular genetics and metabolism reports Morales, J. A., Tise, C. G., Narang, A., Grimm, P. C., Enns, G. M., Lee, C. U. 2021; 27: 100765


The phenotype of individuals with glycogen storage disease (GSD) IX appears to be highly variable, even within subtypes. Features include short stature, fasting hypoglycemia with ketosis, hepatomegaly, and transaminitis. GSD IX2 is caused by hemizygous pathogenic variants in PHKA2, and results in deficiency of the phosphorylase kinase enzyme, particularly in the liver. Like other GSDs, GSD IX2 can present with hypoglycemia and post-prandial lactic acidosis, but has never been reported in a newborn, nor with lactic acidosis as the presenting feature. Here we describe the clinical presentation and course of a newborn boy with profound neonatal lactic and metabolic acidosis, renal tubulopathy, and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) diagnosed with GSD IX2 through exome sequencing. Review of the literature suggests this case represents an atypical and severe presentation of GSD IX2 and proposes expansion of the phenotype to include neonatal lactic acidosis and renal tubulopathy.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ymgmr.2021.100765

View details for PubMedID 34277355

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8261893

Corneal cystine crystal deposition: Online medical education can significantly improve knowledge, competence and confidence diagnosing and treating ocular manifestations of nephrotic cystinosis Trier, S., Aboulsaoud, P., Maeglin, J., Cherqui, S., Grimm, P., Bishop, R. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2021
Profound neonatal lactic acidosis and renal tubulopathy in a patient with glycogen storage disease type IXa2 secondary to a de novo pathogenic variant in PHKA2 MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM REPORTS Morales, J., Tise, C. G., Narang, A., Grimm, P. C., Enns, G. M., Lee, C. U. 2021; 27
SEQUENTIAL HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION IN SCHIMKE IMMUNO-OSSEOUS DYSPLASIA: TOWARDS A MODEL FOR ESTABLISHING FUNCTIONAL IMMUNE TOLERANCE FOR SOLID ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION Bertaina, A., Grimm, P., Kristovich, K., Barbarito, G., Lippner, E., Fathallah-Shaykh, S., Al-Uzri, A., van der Elst, K., Agarwal, R., Selpicka, P., Shah, A., Weinberg, K., Parkman, R., Roncarolo, M., Gallo, A., Conception, W., Lewis, D. ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2021: S136
Relationship between antithymocyte globulin, T cell phenotypes, and clinical outcomes in pediatric kidney transplantation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Shaw, B. I., Lee, H., Chan, C., Ettenger, R., Grimm, P., Pearl, M., Reed, E. F., Robien, M. A., Sarwal, M., Stempora, L., Warshaw, B., Zhao, C., Martinez, O. M., Kirk, A. D., Chambers, E. T. 2020

View details for DOI 10.1111/ajt.16263

View details for Web of Science ID 000568268300001

Relationship between antithymocyte globulin, T cell phenotypes, and clinical outcomes in pediatric kidney transplantation. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons Shaw, B. I., Lee, H. J., Chan, C., Ettenger, R., Grimm, P., Pearl, M., Reed, E. F., Robien, M. A., Sarwal, M., Stempora, L., Warshaw, B., Zhao, C., Martinez, O. M., Kirk, A. D., Chambers, E. T. 2020


Depletional induction using antithymocyte globulin (ATG) reduces rates of acute rejection in adult kidney transplant recipients, yet little is known about its effects in children. Using a longitudinal cohort of 103 patients in the Immune Development in Pediatric Transplant (IMPACT) study, we compared T cell phenotypes after ATG or non-ATG induction. We examined the effects of ATG on the early clinical outcomes of alloimmune events (development of de novo donor specific antibody and/or biopsy proven rejection) and infection events (viremia/viral infections). Long-term patient and graft outcomes were examined using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. After ATG induction, although absolute counts of CD4 and CD8 T cells were lower, patients had higher percentages of CD4 and CD8 memory T cells with a concomitant decrease in frequency of nave T cells compared to non-ATG induction. In adjusted and unadjusted models, ATG induction was associated with increased early event-free survival, with no difference in long-term patient or allograft survival. Decreased CD4+ nave and increased CD4+ effector memory T cell frequencies were associated with improved clinical outcomes. Though immunologic parameters are drastically altered with ATG induction, long-term clinical benefits remain unclear in pediatric patients.

View details for DOI 10.1111/ajt.16263

View details for PubMedID 33480466

Peri-transplant aminophylline in pediatric kidney transplant recipients of donation after brain death: a double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) Haskin, O., Shih, W., Wong, C. J., Axelrod, D. M., Grimm, P. C. 2020


BACKGROUND: During kidney transplantation, the transplanted kidney undergoes ischemia reperfusion injury, with adenosine being a major mediator. This study aimed to assess whether aminophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, improves early graft function and reduces incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) and slow graft function (SGF).METHODS: Single center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Pediatric patients admitted for renal transplantation from donation after brain death donors were randomized into a treatment arm receiving aminophylline and a placebo arm receiving normal saline infusions. Primary outcome was estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 5days post-transplant. Secondary outcomes were rates of DGF/SGF and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels.RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were randomized to aminophylline and 27 to placebo. There was no difference in day 5 eGFR, rate of DGF/SGF, or urine NGAL/Creatinine level between aminophylline vs. placebo arm (eGFR 67.3938.9ml/min/1.73m2 vs. 80.4852.1ml/min/1.73m2p=0.32; DGF/SGF 5/23 (21.7%) vs. 3/27 (11.1%) p=0.31; urine NGAL/creatinine 300.5ng/mg IQR 105.5-1464.5ng/mg vs. 425.4ng/mg IQR 140.3-1126.2ng/mg, p=0.95; respectively). At 12months, there was 100% patient survival and 98% graft survival. eGFR at 12months was similar between the two arms.CONCLUSIONS: There was no benefit in peri-transplant aminophylline administration. Our results are limited by small sample size, since sample calculations were based on primary outcome of day 5 eGFR and low rate of DGF/SGF, which may have precluded us from demonstrating efficacy. Further clinical studies are necessary to determine any benefit of aminophylline in kidney transplant recipients, particularly from high-risk donors.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-020-04561-z

View details for PubMedID 32418145

Obesity and Terminally Differentiated T Cells in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation Shaw, B. I., Lee, H., Chan, C., Ettenger, R. B., Grimm, P., Reed, E. F., Sarwal, M., Stempora, L., Warshaw, B., Martinez, O. M., Kirk, A. D., Chambers, E. T. WILEY. 2020: 1012
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antibodies are Associated with Younger Age and Renal Dysfunction in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation Pearl, M., Chambers, E. T., Kirk, A., Garro, R., Warshaw, B. L., Grimm, P., Ettenger, R., Reed, E. WILEY. 2020: 47576
Improving Vaccination Rates for Influenza and Pneumococcal Disease in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients McGrath, A. M., Baquir, J., Maestretti, L., James, G., DiNello, K., Patton, M., Fong, A., Gallo, A., Sigurjonsdottir, V., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A. WILEY. 2020: 101819
Transition from Youth to Adult Care of Kidney Transplant Recipients: Single Center Experience Ganesan, L., McGrath, A., Dahl, K., Dinello, K., Fong, A., Maestretti, L., Patton, M., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A. WILEY. 2020: 101516
Daily Immunosuppression to Combat Compliance in Adolescent Kidney Transplant Brubaker, A. L., McGrath, A., Maestretti, L., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P. C., Gallo, A. WILEY. 2020: 1015
Safety and Efficacy of Low Dose Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin in Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients Sigurjonsdottir, V. K., Maestretti, L., McGrath, A., Gallo, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A. WILEY. 2020: 914
High Intra-Patient Variability of Tacrolimus in Pediatric and Adolescent Renal Transplant Recipients is Associated with Worse Graft Outcomes Piburn, K., Maestretti, L., Shetty, R., Patton, M. V., McGrath, A., Concepcion, W., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P. C., Sigurjonsdottir, V. K. WILEY. 2020: 478
A beta T-Cell/CD19 B-Cell Depleted Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation: A New Platform for Curing Rare and Monogenic Disorders Bertaina, A., Bacchetta, R., Lewis, D. B., Grimm, P. C., Shah, A. J., Agarwal, R., Concepcion, W., Czechowicz, A., Bhatia, N., Lahiri, P., Weinberg, K. I., Parkman, R., Porteus, M., Roncarolo, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S288
Ureterostomy as an alternative to ileal conduits in pediatric kidney transplantation. Clinical transplantation Brubaker, A. L., Wu, H., Lee, A., Vuong, P., Stoltz, D. J., Chaudhuri, A., James, G., Grimm, P. C., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A. E. 2020: e13777


INTRODUCTION: Urinary diversion in pediatric renal transplant candidates with bladders not amenable to primary reconstruction can be achieved by pre-transplant ileal conduit creation. We performed cutaneous ureterostomies to limit pre-transplant surgery, protect the peritoneum for dialysis, transplant patients sooner, and preserve ureter length for future surgical reconstruction.METHODS: We compared four pediatric transplant recipients with ureterostomies to four recipients with ileal conduits from 2009-2017.RESULTS: All patients with ileal conduits developed at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) within one year of transplant and three of four patients had recurrent UTIs within the first year. Two patients required ileal conduit revisions for redundant conduits and recurrent UTIs. Of the four ureterostomy patients, two patients had UTIs within one year of transplant. Two patients developed ureterostomy strictures requiring revision at the fascial level; one was associated with a UTI.CONCLUSION: In our small case series, ureterostomy allowed for a single operative intervention with preservation of ureter length for later reconstruction. Ureterostomy is safe and recurrent UTI may be lower in the ureterostomy group. Long-term evaluation of ureterostomy for urinary diversion in pediatric kidney transplant is warranted.

View details for DOI 10.1111/ctr.13777

View details for PubMedID 31904131

Two infants with bilateral renal agenesis who were bridged by chronic peritoneal dialysis to kidney transplantation. Pediatric transplantation Sheldon, C. R., Kim, E. D., Chandra, P., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A., Su, S., Grimm, P. C., Alexander, S. R., Wong, C. J. 2019: e13532


Bilateral renal agenesis is associated with severe oligohydramnios and was considered incompatible with postnatal life due to severe pulmonary hypoplasia. The use of renal replacement therapy was limited by significant morbidity and mortality associated with dialysis in very young infants with major pulmonary pathology. In the United States, there is a tremendous controversy about whether or not the use of prenatal amniotic fluid infusions provides a benefit to fetuses with bilateral renal agenesis. One of the critical issues identified is that there are, as yet, no children reported who had achieved long-term survival. Previous reports all indicated these children died shortly after birth or after unsuccessful peritoneal dialysis. We present two infants with a prenatal diagnosis of bilateral renal agenesis whose mothers elected to undergo prenatal amnioinfusions. One was born at 28weeks with a birthweight of 1230g and the other born at 34weeks with a birthweight of 1940g. We present the details of both cases, with initial management on chronic peritoneal dialysis, which started shortly after birth, as a bridge to living related kidney transplants.

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.13532

View details for PubMedID 31259459

De novo complement-activating donor-specific antibodies in pediatric renal transplant recipients are highly responsive to therapy Sigurjonsdottir, V., Zhang, B. M., Vina, M., Chaudhuri, A., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A., Grimm, P. WILEY. 2019
Ureterostomy may be a superior alternative to ileal conduits in pediatric kidney transplantation Brubaker, A. L., Vuong, P., Stoltz, D. J., Grimm, P. C., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A. WILEY. 2019
NK Cells Are Associated with Alloimmune Failure in Transplanted Children. Chambers, E. T., Martinez, O., Robien, M., Chan, C., Ettenger, R., Grimm, P., Lee, H., Reed, E., Stempora, L., Sarwal, M., Warshaw, B., Zhao, C., Kirk, A. D. WILEY. 2019: 339
Living or deceased donor kidney transplantation in children CURRENT OPINION IN PEDIATRICS Sigurjonsdottir, V., Grimm, P. 2019; 31 (2): 23236
Undernutrition is Associated with Impaired T Cell Protective Immunity in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation. Chambers, E. T., Chan, C., Ettenger, R., Grimm, P., Reed, E., Sarwal, M., Stempora, L., Warshaw, B., Zhao, C., Martinez, O., Kirk, A. WILEY. 2019: 373
De Novo Complement-Activating Donor Specific Antibodies in Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients Are Highly Responsive to Therapy. Sigurjonsdottir, V., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P. WILEY. 2019: 49091
De Novo Complement-Activating Donor Specific Antibodies in Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients Are Highly Responsive to Therapy Sigurjonsdottir, V., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P. WILEY. 2019: 106465
Antithymocyte Globulin is Associated with Mature T Cell Phenotypes and Decreased Risk of Non-EBV Infections in Transplanted Children. Shaw, B. I., Stempora, L., Chan, C., Ettenger, R. B., Grimm, P. C., Lee, H., Reed, E. F., Sarwal, M. M., Warshaw, B. L., Zhao, C., Martinez, O. M., Kirk, A. D., Chambers, E. T. WILEY. 2019: 46667
Living or deceased donor kidney transplantation in children. Current opinion in pediatrics Sigurjonsdottir, V. K., Grimm, P. C. 2019


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for children with end-stage renal disease. In this review, we discuss the factors affecting the selection of the appropriate donor to ensure the best possible short and long-term outcomes.RECENT FINDINGS: Outcomes of pediatric renal transplantation from living donors are superior to those obtained from deceased donors. Despite this, the rate of living donor kidney transplantation has declined over the last decade. Living donation is considered to be safe but long-term outcomes, especially for parents who are often young donors, are not well understood. Living donation can also cause a financial impact to the donor and family. Barriers to living donation must be sought and defeated. Deceased donor organs are now the primary source of kidneys. How the risk of extended time on dialysis must be weighed against the improved outcomes that may accrue from better matching is controversial. Increasing the donor pool may be accomplished by reassessing sources that are currently avoided, such as donation after cardiac death and infant kidneys transplanted en bloc.SUMMARY: The pediatric nephrologist must balance waiting for the highest quality kidney against the need for the shortest possible waiting time.

View details for PubMedID 30762703

When does vesicoureteral reflux in pediatric kidney transplant patients need treatment? Pediatric transplantation Wu, H., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C. 2018: e13299


PURPOSE: The treatment of VUR in children with UTI has changed significantly, due to studies showing that antibiotic prophylaxis does not decrease renal scarring. As children with kidney transplants are at higher risk for UTI, we investigated if select patients with renal transplant VUR could be managed without surgery.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 patients with VUR into their renal grafts were identified, and 319 patients underwent transplantation from 2006 to 2016. The cause for the detection of the VUR, treatment, and graft function was reviewed.RESULTS: Six boys and 12 girls were identified, 13 of whom had grade 3 or 4 VUR into the renal graft. Nine patients presented with hydronephrosis or abnormal renal biopsy: eight were successfully managed with antibiotic prophylaxis and bladder training, one developed UTI and underwent Dx/HA subureteric injection. Nine patients presented with recurrent febrile UTI, only one was successfully managed without surgery. Only 2 of 9 (22%) patients who underwent Dx/HA injection had resolution of their reflux. Of the remaining seven, five required open ureteral reimplantation (two for obstruction), one lost the graft due to rejection, and one had significant hydronephrosis. eGFR was similar between the hydronephrosis, UTI, and abnormal renal biopsy groups at all times.CONCLUSION: Patients with transplant VUR and recurrent febrile UTI are more likely to require surgical therapy, but the complication and failure rate for Dx/HA injection is significant. Patients with transplant VUR without febrile UTI can be successfully managed with bladder training and temporary antibiotic prophylaxis.

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.13299

View details for PubMedID 30324753

Superior Hypertension Management in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Patients After Native Nephrectomy. Transplantation Brubaker, A. L., Stoltz, D. J., Chaudhuri, A., Maestretti, L., Grimm, P. C., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A. E. 2018; 102 (7): 117278


BACKGROUND: Native nephrectomy in pediatric kidney transplant recipients is performed for multiple indications. Posttransplant hypertension requiring medical management is common, and the effect of native nephrectomy on posttransplant hypertension is poorly studied. Our aim is to evaluate the impact of native nephrectomy on posttransplant hypertension.METHODS: One hundred thirty-six consecutive pediatric kidney transplant recipients from 2007 to 2012 were studied at a single institution and divided into 2 groups: no nephrectomy and native nephrectomy (unilateral and bilateral nephrectomy). Antihypertensive medication use was evaluated before nephrectomy/transplant, at discharge from transplant and at 1, 3, and 5 years posttransplant.RESULTS: In a bivariate analysis, nephrectomy was associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of patients requiring antihypertensive medication at the time of discharge (27.3%) and 1 year posttransplant (10.7%) as compared with patients without nephrectomy (71.7%, and 50%, respectively, P < 0.05). This trend toward reduction in antihypertensive medication in the nephrectomy group as compared with the no nephrectomy group persisted at 3 (18.6% versus 43.2%) and 5 years (19.7% versus 37.5%) posttransplant. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that patients without native nephrectomy had higher odds of requiring antihypertensive medication at the time of discharge (3.3) and 1 year (5.2) as compared with patients who underwent native nephrectomy (P = 0.036 and P = 0.013, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: Native nephrectomy reduces the odds of needing antihypertensive medication after transplant. The impact of native nephrectomy is crucial to the comprehensive management of pediatric transplant recipients where medication compliance is challenging and lifelong hypertension is known to negatively impact cardiovascular health.

View details for PubMedID 29953422

Superior Hypertension Management in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Patients After Native Nephrectomy TRANSPLANTATION Brubaker, A. L., Stoltz, D. J., Chaudhuri, A., Maestretti, L., Grimm, P. C., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A. E. 2018; 102 (7): 117278
Assessment and Outcomes of Medication Nonadherence in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients: Results from the IMPACT Study. Dokras, A., Pearl, M., Peipert, J., Grimm, P., Warshaw, B., Chambers, E., Kirk, A., Ettenger, R. WILEY. 2018: 33839
17q12 DELETION: A COMMON CAUSE OF KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT ABNORMALITIES IDENTIFIED PRENATALLY? Hudgins, L., Richardson, A., Homeyer, M., Grimm, P., Blumenfeld, Y., Hintz, S. WILEY. 2018: 14991500
T cell Phenotypes Predict Infectious Risk in Transplanted Children. Chambers, E. T., Ettenger, R., Lee, H., Chan, C., Stempora, L., Warshaw, B., Grimm, P., Reed, E. F., Sarwal, M., Kirk, A. WILEY. 2018: 476
Multiplexed Immunofluorescence to Investigate the Immune Response to BK Virus in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients. Fajardo, C., Grimm, P., Kambham, N., Nolan, G., Samusik, N., Maltzman, J. WILEY. 2018: 833
Ethical Considerations Concerning Amnioinfusions for Treating Fetal Bilateral Renal Agenesis OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Sugarman, J., Anderson, J., Baschat, A. A., Beutler, J., Bienstock, J. L., Bunchman, T. E., Desai, N. M., Gates, E., Goldberg, A., Grimm, P. C., Henry, L., Jelin, E. B., Johnson, E., Hertenstein, C. B., Mastroianni, A. C., Mercurio, M. R., Neu, A., Nogee, L. M., Polzin, W. J., Ralston, S. J., Ramus, R. M., Singleton, M., Somers, M. G., Wang, K. C., Boss, R. 2018; 131 (1): 13034


Congenital bilateral renal agenesis has been considered a uniformly fatal condition. However, the report of using serial amnioinfusions followed by the live birth in 2012 and ongoing survival of a child with bilateral renal agenesis has generated hope, but also considerable controversy over an array of complex clinical and ethical concerns. To assess the ethical concerns associated with using serial amnioinfusions for bilateral renal agenesis, we assembled a multidisciplinary group to map the ethical issues relevant to this novel intervention. The key ethical issues identified were related to 1) potential risks and benefits, 2) clinical care compared with innovation compared with research, 3) counseling of expectant parents, 4) consent, 5) outcome measures, 6) access and justice, 7) conflicts of interest, 8) effects on clinicians, 9) effects on institutions, and 10) long-term societal implications. These ethical issues should be addressed in conjunction with systematic efforts to examine whether this intervention is safe and effective. Future work should capture the experiences of expectant parents, women who undergo serial amnioinfusions, those born with bilateral renal agenesis and their families as well as clinicians confronted with making difficult choices related to it.

View details for PubMedID 29215523

Persistent C4d and antibody-mediated rejection in pediatric renal transplant patients PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION South, A. M., Maestretti, L., Kambham, N., Grimm, P. C., Chaudhuri, A. 2017; 21 (7)

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.13035

View details for Web of Science ID 000412845900020

Persistent C4d and antibody-mediated rejection in pediatric renal transplant patients. Pediatric transplantation South, A. M., Maestretti, L., Kambham, N., Grimm, P. C., Chaudhuri, A. 2017; 21 (7)


Pediatric renal transplant recipient survival continues to improve, but ABMR remains a significant contributor to graft loss. ABMR prognostic factors to guide treatment are lacking. C4d staining on biopsies, diagnostic of ABMR, is associated with graft failure. Persistent C4d+ on follow-up biopsies has unknown significance, but could be associated with worse outcomes. We evaluated a retrospective cohort of 17 pediatric renal transplant patients diagnosed with ABMR. Primary outcome at 12months was a composite of 50% reduction in eGFR, transplant glomerulopathy, or graft failure. Secondary outcome was the UPCR at 12months. We used logistic and linear regression modeling to determine whether persistent C4d+ on follow-up biopsy was associated with the outcomes. Forty-one percent reached the primary outcome at 12months. Persistent C4d+ on follow-up biopsy occurred in 41% and was not significantly associated with the primary outcome, but was significantly associated with the secondary outcome (estimate 0.22, 95% CI 0.19-0.25, P<.001), after controlling for confounding factors. Persistent C4d+ on follow-up biopsies was associated with a higher UPCR at 12months. Patients who remain C4d+ on follow-up biopsy may benefit from more aggressive or prolonged ABMR treatment.

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.13035

View details for PubMedID 28833936

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5645786

Ferumoxytol Is Not Retained in Kidney Allografts in Patients Undergoing Acute Rejection. Molecular imaging and biology Aghighi, M., Pisani, L., Theruvath, A. J., Muehe, A. M., Donig, J., Khan, R., Holdsworth, S. J., Kambham, N., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C., Daldrup-Link, H. E. 2017


To evaluate whether ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect allograft rejection in pediatric kidney transplant patients.The USPIO ferumoxytol has a long blood half-life and is phagocytosed by macrophages. In an IRB-approved single-center prospective clinical trial, 26 pediatric patients and adolescents (age 10-26years) with acute allograft rejection (n=5), non-rejecting allografts (n=13), and normal native kidneys (n=8) underwent multi-echo T2* fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) MRI after intravenous injection (p.i.) of 5mg Fe/kg ferumoxytol. T2* relaxation times at 4h p.i. (perfusion phase) and more than 20h p.i. (macrophage phase) were compared with biopsy results. The presence of rejection was assessed using the Banff criteria, and the prevalence of macrophages on CD163 immunostains was determined based on a semi-quantitative scoring system. MRI and histology data were compared among patient groups using t tests, analysis of variance, and regression analyses with a significance threshold of p<0.05.At 4h p.i., mean T2* values were 6.61.5ms for native kidneys and 3.9ms for one allograft undergoing acute immune rejection. Surprisingly, at 20-24h p.i., one rejecting allograft showed significantly prolonged T2* relaxation times (37.0ms) compared to native kidneys (6.31.7ms) and non-rejecting allografts (7.60.1ms). Likewise, three additional rejecting allografts showed significantly prolonged T2* relaxation times compared to non-rejecting allografts at later post-contrast time points, 25-97h p.i. (p=0.008). Histological analysis revealed edema and compressed microvessels in biopsies of rejecting allografts. Allografts with and without rejection showed insignificant differences in macrophage content on histopathology (p=0.44).After ferumoxytol administration, renal allografts undergoing acute rejection show prolonged T2* values compared to non-rejecting allografts. Since histology revealed no significant differences in macrophage content, the increasing T2* value is likely due to the combined effect of reduced perfusion and increased edema in rejecting allografts.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-017-1084-8

View details for PubMedID 28411307

Superior Long-Term Hypertension Management in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients with Bilateral Native Nephrectomies Stoltz, D., Brubaker, A., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A. WILEY. 2017: 76263
Predicting severe pulmonary hypoplasia in lower urinary tract obstruction using fetal lung area Ruano, R., Dunn, T. N., Blumenfeld, Y. J., de la Penha, M. M., Koh, C. J., Angelo, J., Grimm, P., Hintz, S. R., Roth, D. R., Welty, S., Braun, M. C., Belfort, M. A. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2017: S102
Relationship Among Viremia/Viral Infection, Alloimmunity, and Nutritional Parameters in the First Year After Pediatric Kidney Transplantation. American journal of transplantation Ettenger, R., Chin, H., Kesler, K., Bridges, N., Grimm, P., Reed, E. F., Sarwal, M., Sibley, R., Tsai, E., Warshaw, B., Kirk, A. D. 2016


The Immune Development in Pediatric Transplantation (IMPACT) study was conducted to evaluate relationships among alloimmunity, protective immunity, immune development, physical parameters, and clinical outcome in children undergoing kidney transplantation. We prospectively evaluated biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) formation, viremia, viral infection, T cell immunophenotyping, and body mass index (BMI)/weight Z scores in the first year posttransplantation in 106 pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Outcomes were excellent with no deaths and 98% graft survival. Rejection and dnDSAs occurred in 24% and 22%, respectively. Pretransplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serologies and subsequent viremia were unrelated to BPAR or dnDSA. Viremia occurred in 73% of children (EBV, 34%; CMV, 23%; BMK viremia, 23%; and JC virus, 21%). Memory lymphocyte phenotype at baseline was not predictive of alloimmune complications. Patients who developed viral infection had lower weight (-2.1) (p = 0.028) and BMI (-1.2) (p = 0.048) Z scores at transplantation. The weight difference persisted to 12 months compared with patients without infection (p = 0.038). These data indicate that there is a high prevalence of viral disease after pediatric kidney transplantation, and underweight status at transplantation appears to be a risk factor for subsequent viral infection. The occurrence of viremia/viral infection is not associated with alloimmune events.

View details for DOI 10.1111/ajt.14169

View details for PubMedID 27989013

Prospecitive T cell Immunophenotyping Identifies Different Mechanisms Asscoaited with Biopsy Proven Rejection vs. Donor Specific Antibody : A Report from the IMPACT Study Consortium Ettenger, R., Chin, H., Kesler, K., Warshaw, B., Grimm, P., Tsai, E., Sarwal, M., Kirk, A. SPRINGER. 2016: 1936
Low Pre- and Post-Transplant BMI and Weight are Associated with Viremia/Viral Infection and T cell exhaustion in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation in the First Post-Transplant Year : A Report from the IMPACT Study Consortium. Ettenger, R., Chin, H., Kesler, K., Grimm, P., Warshaw, B., Reed, E., Sarwal, M., Kirk, A. SPRINGER. 2016: 193536
Theophylline Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing in Children Following Congenital Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Journal of clinical pharmacology Frymoyer, A., Su, F., Grimm, P. C., Sutherland, S. M., Axelrod, D. M. 2016; 56 (9): 1084-1093


Children undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) frequently develop acute kidney injury due to renal ischemia. Theophylline, which improves renal perfusion via adenosine receptor inhibition, is a potential targeted therapy. However, children undergoing cardiac surgery and CPB commonly have alterations in drug pharmacokinetics. To help understand optimal aminophylline (salt formulation of theophylline) dosing strategies in this population, a population-based pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) from 71 children (median age: 5 months [90% range: 1 week - 10 years]) who underwent cardiac surgery requiring CPB and received aminophylline as part of a previous randomized controlled trial. A one-compartment model with linear elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Weight scaled via allometry was a significant predictor of clearance and volume. In addition, allometric scaled clearance increased with age implemented as a power maturation function. Compared to prior reports in non-cardiac children, theophylline clearance was markedly reduced across age. Applying the final population pharmacokinetic model, optimized empiric dosing regimens were developed via Monte Carlo simulations. Doses 50-75% lower than those recommended in non-cardiac children were needed to achieve target serum concentrations of 5-10 mg/L. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

View details for DOI 10.1002/jcph.697

View details for PubMedID 26712558

Transplant immuno-diagnostics: crossmatch and antigen detection PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY South, A. M., Grimm, P. C. 2016; 31 (6): 897-905


Identifying and monitoring donor-directed anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies are a rapidly evolving area of solid organ transplantation. Donor-specific antibodies dictate pre-transplant donor choice and donor-recipient matching and underlie much acute and chronic allograft rejection and loss. The evolution of available technology has driven this progress. Early, labor-intensive, whole-cell assays based on complement-dependent cytotoxicity suffered from poor sensitivity and specificity, technical challenges and lack of precision. Sequential improvement in assay performance included anti-human immunoglobulin-enhanced, complement-dependent cytotoxicity techniques followed by cell-based flow cytometry. However, variable specificity and sensitivity inherent in cell-based testing continued to limit flow cytometry. The introduction of solid-phase assays led to a second revolution in histocompatibility testing with the use of purified antigens bound to artificial surfaces rather than whole cells. These techniques augmented sensitivity and specificity to detect even low-titer antibodies to previously undetected antigens. Identification of complement-activating antibodies is being introduced, but current technology is in the developmental stage. While the detection of alloantibodies has improved dramatically, our comprehension of their importance remains imperfect. Variability in methodology and a lack of standardization limits the clinical application of these tests. In spite of the hurdles that remain, antibody-mediated rejection has become a key target to improve graft survival.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-015-3145-z

View details for Web of Science ID 000374579700003

View details for PubMedID 26139577

Nox2 and Cyclosporine-Induced Renal Hypoxia TRANSPLANTATION Djamali, A., Wilson, N. A., Sadowski, E. A., Zha, W., Niles, D., Hafez, O., Dorn, J. R., Mehner, T. R., Grimm, P. C., Hoffmann, F. M., Zhong, W., Fain, S. B., Reese, S. R. 2016; 100 (6): 1198-1210


We hypothesized that nicotinamide adenosine diphosphate oxidase 2 (Nox2) plays an important role in cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced chronic hypoxia.We tested this hypothesis in Fisher 344 rats, C57BL/6 J wild type and Nox2-/- mice, and in liver transplant recipients with chronic CsA nephrotoxicity. We used noninvasive molecular imaging (blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging) and molecular diagnostic tools to assess intrarenal oxygenation and perfusion, and the molecular phenotype of CsA nephrotoxicity.We observed that chemical and genetic inhibition of Nox2 in rats and mice resulted in the prevention of CsA-induced hypoxia independent of regional perfusion (blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, pimonidazole, HIF-1). Nicotinamide adenosine diphosphate oxidase 2 knockout was also associated with decreased oxidative stress (Nox2, HIF-1, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxynonenal), and fibrogenesis (-smooth muscle actin, picrosirius red, trichrome, vimentin). The molecular signature of chronic CsA nephrotoxicity using transcriptomic analyses demonstrated significant changes in 40 genes involved in injury repair, metabolism, and oxidative stress in Nox2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analyses of kidney biopsies from liver transplant recipients with chronic CsA nephrotoxicity showed significantly greater Nox2, -smooth muscle actin and picrosirius levels compared with controls.These studies suggest that Nox2 is a modulator of CsA-induced hypoxia upstream of HIF-1 and define the molecular characteristics that could be used for the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity.

View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0000000000001137

View details for Web of Science ID 000377126600011

View details for PubMedID 26950727

Low Pretransplant BMI/Weight and Changes in Posttransplant T Cell Exhaustion Levels Are Associated with Viremia/Viral Infection in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation in the First Post-Transplant-Year A Report from the IMPACT Study Consortium. Ettenger, R., Chin, H., Grimm, P., Kesler, K., Reed, E., Sarwal, M., Warshaw, B., Tsai, E., Kirk, A. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2016: 750
A PRAGMATIC TRIAL OF DELAYED-RELEASE CYSTEAMINE BITARTRATE IN CHILDREN LESS THAN 6 YEARS OLD WITH CYSTINOSIS Langman, C. B., Greenbaum, L., Grimm, P., Elenberg, E., Deschenes, G., Niaudet, P., Morin, D., Checani, G. OXFORD UNIV PRESS. 2016: 33031
DELAYED RELEASE CYSTEAMINE IN NEPHROPATHIC CYSTINOSIS PATIENTS AFTER RENAL TRANSPLANT: A SUBGROUP ANALYSIS Grimm, P., Langman, C., Cochat, P., Morin, D., Cornelissen, E., Deschenes, G., Elenberg, E., Greenbaum, L., Niaudet, P., Checani, G. OXFORD UNIV PRESS. 2016: 1569
Cysteamine in renal transplantation: A report of two patients with nephropathic cystinosis and the successful re-initiation of cysteamine therapy during the immediate post-transplant period. Pediatric transplantation Berryhill, A., Bhamre, S., Chaudhuri, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C. 2016; 20 (1): 141-145


Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare disorder causing the accumulation of intracellular cystine crystals in tissues. The damage to the proximal tubules of the kidneys results in Fanconi syndrome, and patients with cystinosis experience the progression of chronic kidney disease, resulting in the need for kidney transplantation. Treatment of cystinosis with cysteamine has proven to be effective; however, it has many gastrointestinal side effects that are concerning for transplant specialists during the immediate post-transplant period. Transplant specialists routinely discontinue cysteamine therapy for up to six weeks to ensure proper immunosuppressant absorption. This practice is worrisome because it communicates the acceptability of lapses of cysteamine treatment to patients. It may be better to re-initiate cysteamine therapy shortly after transplantation while the patient is followed more closely by the transplant team. This report presents two pediatric patients with nephropathic cystinosis who successfully restarted cysteamine therapy in the immediate post-transplant period without issue in regard to immunosuppression absorption or gastrointestinal side effects. These cases challenge current practice of discontinuing cysteamine therapy during kidney transplantation, and immediate re-initiation of cysteamine therapy in cystinosis patients post-transplant should be considered.

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12617

View details for PubMedID 26477696

Small pediatric deceased donors for pediatric renal transplant recipients PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P., Concepcion, W. 2016; 20 (1): 7-10

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12646

View details for Web of Science ID 000371420800002

View details for PubMedID 26916965

A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Aminophylline to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury in Children Following Congenital Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Pediatric critical care medicine Axelrod, D. M., Sutherland, S. M., Anglemyer, A., Grimm, P. C., Roth, S. J. 2016; 17 (2): 135-143


Acute kidney injury occurs commonly in children following congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Aminophylline, a methylxanthine nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, has been effective in the management of acute kidney injury in certain populations. This study sought to determine whether postoperative administration of aminophylline attenuates acute kidney injury in children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Single-center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.Tertiary center, pediatric cardiovascular ICU.A total of 144 children after congenital heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Seventy-two patients were randomized to receive aminophylline and 72 patients received placebo. Study drug was administered every 6 hours for 72 hours.The primary outcome variable was the development of any acute kidney injury, defined by the serum creatinine criteria of the Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes. Secondary outcomes included the development of severe acute kidney injury, time between cardiovascular ICU admission and first successful extubation, percent fluid overload, total fluid balance, urine output, bioelectrical impedance, and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. The unadjusted rate and severity of acute kidney injury were not different between groups; 43 of 72 (60%) of the treatment group and 36 of 72 (50%) of the placebo group developed acute kidney injury (p = 0.32). Stage 2/3 acute kidney injury occurred in 23 of 72 (32%) of the treatment group and 15 of 72 (21%) of the placebo group (p = 0.18). Secondary outcome measures also demonstrated no significant difference between treatment and placebo groups. Aminophylline administration was safe; no deaths occurred in either group, and rates of adverse events were similar (14% in the treatment group vs 18% in the placebo group; p = 0.30).In this placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, we found no effect of aminophylline to prevent acute kidney injury in children recovering from cardiac surgery performed with cardiopulmonary bypass. Future study of preoperative aminophylline administration to prevent acute kidney injury may be warranted.

View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000612

View details for PubMedID 26669642

Pediatric deceased donor renal transplantation: An approach to decision making I. Pediatric kidney allocation in the USA: The old and the new PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Chaudhuri, A., Gallo, A., Grimm, P. 2015; 19 (7): 776-784


Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for children with end-stage renal disease. More than 50% of children receive a deceased donor renal transplant. Marked disparity between the number of children on the renal transplant wait list and the supply has prompted numerous advances to increase supply as well as maximize the utility of donor organs. Allocation of deceased donor kidneys is based on several criteria. The organ allocation system policy is continually evaluated and changed incrementally to optimize allocation. We, in the United Sates, are in the process of transitioning into a new kidney allocation system to enhance post-transplant survival benefit, increase utilization of donated kidneys, and increase transplant access for biologically disadvantaged candidates. This review will provide a brief overview of the organ sharing system in the United States, compare the "old" and the "new" allocation system, and discuss the considerations for the pediatric nephrologist while accepting a deceased donor kidney for a particular pediatric patient.

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12569

View details for Web of Science ID 000362580100024

View details for PubMedID 26426316

Pediatric deceased donor renal transplantation: An approach to decision making II. Acceptability of a deceased donor kidney for a child, a snap decision at 3 AM PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Chaudhuri, A., Gallo, A., Grimm, P. 2015; 19 (7): 785-791


Allocation of deceased donor kidneys is based on several criteria; however, the final decision to accept or reject the offered kidney is made by the potential recipient's transplant team (surgeon/nephrologist). Several considerations including assessment of the donor quality, the HLA match between the donor and the recipient, several recipient factors, the geographical location of the recipient, and the organ all affect the decision of whether or not to finally accept the organ for a particular recipient. This decision needs to be made quickly, often on the spot. Maximizing the benefit from this scarce resource raises difficult ethical issues. The philosophies of equity and utility are often competing. This article will discuss the several considerations for the pediatric nephrologist while accepting a deceased donor kidney for a particular pediatric patient.

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12582

View details for Web of Science ID 000362580100025

View details for PubMedID 26426405

Limited Variation in BK Virus T-Cell Epitopes Revealed by Next-Generation Sequencing. Journal of clinical microbiology Sahoo, M. K., Tan, S. K., Chen, S. F., Kapusinszky, B., Concepcion, K. R., Kjelson, L., Mallempati, K., Farina, H. M., Fernndez-Via, M., Tyan, D., Grimm, P. C., Anderson, M. W., Concepcion, W., Pinsky, B. A. 2015; 53 (10): 3226-3233


BK virus (BKV) infection and end-organ disease remains a formidable challenge to the hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and kidney transplant fields. As BKV-specific treatments are limited, immunologic-based therapies may be a promising and novel therapeutic option for transplant recipients with persistent BKV infection. Here, we describe a whole-genome, deep sequencing methodology and bioinformatics pipeline that identifies BKV variants across the genome and at BKV-specific HLA-A2, HLA-B0702, and HLA-B08 restricted CD8 T-cell epitopes. BKV whole genomes were amplified using long-range PCR with four inverse primer sets and fragmentation libraries were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM. An error model and variant calling algorithm were developed to accurately identify rare variants. 65 samples from 18 pediatric HCT and kidney recipients with quantifiable BKV DNAemia underwent whole-genome sequencing. Limited genetic variation was observed. The median number of amino acid variants identified per sample was 8 (range 2-37, interquartile range 10), with the majority of variants (77%) detected at a frequency of less than 5%. When normalized for length, there was no statistical difference in the median number of variants across all genes. Similarly, the predominant virus population within samples harbored T-cell epitopes similar to the reference BKV strain that was matched for BKV genotype. Despite the conservation of epitopes, low-level variants in T-cell epitopes were detected in 77.7% (14/18) of patients. Understanding epitope variation across the whole genome provides insight into the virus-immune interface and may help guide the development of protocols for novel immunologic-based therapies.

View details for DOI 10.1128/JCM.01385-15

View details for PubMedID 26202116

Whether or not to accept a deceased donor kidney offer for a pediatric patient PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY Chaudhuri, A., James, G., Grimm, P. 2015; 30 (9): 1529-1536


The expansion of the number of children on the deceased donor renal transplant waitlist has far outstripped the supply of organs in most countries, leading to numerous adjustments to increase supply and to maximize the utility of donor organs. The system for organ allocation varies by country based on local laws, priorities, and resources. Adjustments are made to optimize allocation, enhance post-transplant survival benefit, decrease unequal transplant access, and optimize utilization of donated kidneys. Allocation of deceased donor kidneys is based on several criteria; however, the final decision to accept or reject the offered kidney is made by the potential recipient's transplant team (surgeon/nephrologist). Several considerations including assessment of the donor quality, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match between the donor and the recipient, numerous recipient factors, the geographical location of the recipient, and the organ all affect the decision to accept the organ or not for a particular recipient. This decision must be made quickly, often on the spot. Maximizing the benefit from this scarce resource raises difficult ethical issues. The philosophies of equity and utility are often competing. In this manuscript, we highlight a representative case that helps to focus on important issues for the pediatric nephrologist to consider while making the decision to accept a deceased donor kidney offer for a particular pediatric patient.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-015-3139-x

View details for Web of Science ID 000359745600019

View details for PubMedID 26130248

Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM REPORTS Atwal, P. S., Macmurdo, C., Grimm, P. C. 2015; 4: 4648


Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods.

View details for PubMedID 26937409

Quality of Life is Improved and Kidney Function Preserved in Patients with Nephropathic Cystinosis Treated for 2Years with Delayed-ReleaseCysteamine Bitartrate. journal of pediatrics Langman, C. B., Greenbaum, L. A., Grimm, P., Sarwal, M., Niaudet, P., Deschenes, G., Cornelissen, E. A., Morin, D., Cochat, P., Elenberg, E., Hanna, C., Gaillard, S., Bagger, M. J., Rioux, P. 2014; 165 (3): 528-533 e1


To determine the long-term effects of delayed-release cysteamine bitartrate (DR-CYS) based on our previous work that established the short-term noninferiority of DR-CYS every 12hours compared with immediate-release cysteamine bitartrate every 6hours.We conducted a prospective, controlled, open label, single-arm study of DR-CYS for 2years in 40 patients to assess efficacy in depletion of cystine in peripheral white blood cells, to assess the dose required to maintain white blood cell content of cystine <1nmol cystine/mg protein, to measure quality of life using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, change in estimated glomerular filtration rate, and change in height Z-score.Through 24months of study, the mean white blood cell content of cystine was always <1nmol cystine/mg protein, and the dose of DR-CYS decreased from 43.5-40.1mg/kg/d (P=.05), and the significant improvement in social function, school function, and in total function scores on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory remained. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was maintained and growth velocity was maintained at 24months compared with the baseline height Z-score.The use of a DR-CYS administered every 12hours to patients with cystinosis is of great benefit to their quality of life and to important biomarkers of disease control, when studied in a prospective, controlled fashion. We suggest that DR-CYS should be considered for substrate depletion in patients with cystinosis.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.05.013

View details for PubMedID 24948347

Immune cell function assay does not identify biopsy-proven pediatric renal allograft rejection or infection. Pediatric transplantation Ryan, C. M., Chaudhuri, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C. 2014; 18 (5): 446-452


Management of pediatric renal transplant patients involves multifactorial monitoring modalities to ensure allograft survival and prevent opportunistic infection secondary to immunosuppression. An ICFA, which utilizes CD4 T-cell production of ATP to assess immune system status, has been used to monitor transplant recipients and predict susceptibility of patients to rejection or infection. However, the validity of this assay to reflect immune status remains unanswered. In a two-yr retrospective study that included 31 pediatric renal transplant recipients, 42 patient blood samples were analyzed for immune cell function levels, creatinine, WBC (white blood cell) count, immunosuppressive drug levels, and viremia, concurrent with renal biopsy. T-cell ATP production as assessed by ICFA levels did not correlate with allograft rejection or with the presence or absence of viremia. ICFA levels did not correlate with serum creatinine or immunosuppressive drug levels, but did correlate with WBC count. The ICFA is unreliable in its ability to reflect immune system status in pediatric renal transplantation. Further investigation is necessary to develop methods that will accurately predict susceptibility of pediatric renal transplant recipients to allograft rejection and infection.

View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12295

View details for PubMedID 24930482

HLA and MICA Alloantibody Profi ling in Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients: Report From The Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children (CTOTC-02) Rao, P., Korin, Y., Warshaw, B., Sarwal, M., Tsai, E., Ettenger, R., Grimm, P., Ikle, D., Sledge, T., Kirk, A., Reed, E. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2014: 1213
HLA and MICA Alloantibody Profiling in Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients: Report From The Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children (CTOTC-02) Rao, P., Korin, Y., Warshaw, B., Sarwal, M., Tsai, E., Ettenger, R., Grimm, P., Ikle, D., Sledge, T., Kirk, A., Reed, E. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2014: 1213
Use of eculizumab and plasma exchange in successful combined liver-kidney transplantation in a case of atypical HUS associated with complement factor H mutation. Pediatric nephrology Tran, H., Chaudhuri, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C. 2014; 29 (3): 477-480


Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) evolves into end-stage renal failure in nearly half of affected patients and is associated with defective regulation of the alternative complement pathway. Patients with a complement factor H (CFH) mutation have a 30-100% risk of graft loss due to aHUS recurrence or graft thrombosis. Since CFH is produced predominantly by the liver, combined liver-kidney transplant is a curative treatment option. One major unexpected risk includes liver failure secondary to uncontrolled complement activation. We report a successful combined liver-kidney transplantation with perioperative plasma exchange and use of the humanized anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab.An 11-month-old female presented with oliguric renal failure after 3 weeks of flu-like symptoms in the absence of diarrhea. Following the identification of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in her stool, she was discharged home on peritoneal dialysis with a diagnosis of Shiga toxin-associated HUS. Three months later, she developed severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neurological involvement. aHUS was diagnosed and confirmed, and genetic testing revealed a mutation in CFH SCR20. Once donor organs became available, she received preoperative plasma exchange followed by eculizumab infusion with intra-operative fresh frozen plasma prior to combined liver-kidney transplant. At 19 months post-transplant, she continues to have excellent allograft and liver function without signs of disease recurrence.Perioperative use of eculizumab in conjunction with plasma exchange during simultaneous liver-kidney transplant can be used to inhibit terminal complement activity, thereby optimizing successful transplantation by reducing the risk of graft thrombosis.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-013-2630-5

View details for PubMedID 24221349

Initial Experience Using Aminophylline to Improve Renal Dysfunction in the Pediatric Cardiovascular ICU PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Axelrod, D. M., Anglemyer, A. T., Sherman-Levine, S. F., Zhu, A., Grimm, P. C., Roth, S. J., Sutherland, S. M. 2014; 15 (1): 21-27


To determine if aminophylline administration is associated with improved creatinine clearance and greater urine output in children with acute kidney injury in the cardiovascular ICU.Single-center retrospective cohort study.Pediatric cardiovascular ICU, university-affiliated children's hospital.Children with congenital or acquired heart disease in the cardiovascular ICU who received aminophylline to treat oliguric acute kidney injury and fluid overload.Patients received aminophylline after consultation with a pediatric nephrologist. Data were collected retrospectively over 7 days to assess if aminophylline was associated with improvement in creatinine clearance, urine output, and fluid overload.Thirty-one patients received 52 aminophylline courses. Over the 7-day study period, serum creatinine decreased from a mean of 1.130.91 to 0.870.83mg/dL (-0.05mg/dL/d, p < 0.001). A concomitant increase was seen in estimated glomerular filtration rate from a mean of 50.030.0 to 70.658.1mL/min/1.73 m (+3.66mL/min/1.73 m/d, p < 0.001). Average daily urine output increased by 0.22mL/kg/hr (p < 0.001), and fluid overload decreased on average by 0.42% per day in the 7-day study period (p = 0.005). Although mean furosemide dose increased slightly (0.12mg/kg/d, p = 0.01), hydrochlorothiazide dosing did not significantly change over the study period. There were no complications related to aminophylline administration.Our study suggests that aminophylline therapy may be associated with significantly improved renal excretory function and may augment urine output in children who experience oliguric acute kidney injury in the cardiovascular ICU. Additionally, we did not identify any aminophylline-related side effects in this high-risk cardiac population. Future prospective studies are necessary to confirm the safety profile and to ensure that the beneficial effects are independent of other clinical interventions.

View details for DOI 10.1097/01.pcc.0000436473.12082.2f

View details for PubMedID 24212284

BK Polyomavirus Subtype III in a Pediatric Renal Transplant Patient with Nephropathy. Journal of clinical microbiology Kapusinszky, B., Chen, S. F., Sahoo, M. K., Lefterova, M. I., Kjelson, L., Grimm, P. C., Kambham, N., Concepcion, W., Pinsky, B. A. 2013; 51 (12): 4255-4258


BK polyomavirus (BKV) is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. BKV subtype III is rarely identified and has not previously been associated with disease. Here we provide the whole-genome sequence of a subtype III BKV from a pediatric kidney transplant patient with polyomavirus-associated nephropathy.

View details for DOI 10.1128/JCM.01801-13

View details for PubMedID 24048534

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3838085

Extended Treatment of Patients with Cystinosis and CKD with RP103 Demonstrates Efficacy and Safety Langman, C. B., Rioux, P., Greenbaum, L., Deschenes, G., Grimm, P. C., Cochat, P., Morin, D., Niaudet, P., Corenelissen, E., Ellenberg, E. SPRINGER. 2013: 1363
Role of 24 Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring after Pediatric Renal Transplantation. 13th American Transplant Congress (ATC) Tran, H., KJELSON, L., Grimm, P., Chaudhuri, A. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2013: 151151
Conversion From Tacrolimus/Mycophenolic Acid to Tacrolimus/Leflunomide to Treat Cutaneous Warts in a Series of Four Pediatric Renal Allograft Recipients TRANSPLANTATION Lieuko Nguyen, L., McClellan, R. B., Chaudhuri, A., Alexander, S. R., Chen, S. F., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. 2012; 94 (5): 450-455


The challenge of immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplantation is to balance preventing rejection while avoiding infectious complications. A dermatological complication of immunosuppression is viral warts, which cause significant disfigurement and increase the risk of skin malignancy.We present three pediatric and adolescent renal allograft recipients with multiple, recalcitrant verrucae vulgares lesions and one patient with molluscum contagiosum who were switched from mycophenolate mofetil to leflunomide. Teriflunomide metabolite levels were carefully maintained between 50,000 and 100,000 ng/mL to balance its immunosuppressive and antiviral properties. No adverse events requiring discontinuation of leflunomide were encountered.Switching from mycophenolate mofetil to leflunomide successfully cleared verrucae vulgares and molluscum lesions in all four renal transplant patients.The ability to minimize and even resolve warts can improve quality of life by reducing risk of skin malignancies and emotional distress in solid organ transplant patients. Leflunomide is a potential therapeutic option for posttransplantation patients with skin warts because it serves both as an adjunct to the immunosuppressive regimen and an antiviral agent.

View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e318264351e

View details for Web of Science ID 000308668000012

View details for PubMedID 22960763

Rituximab treatment for recurrence of nephrotic syndrome in a pediatric patient after renal transplantation for congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Chaudhuri, A., Kambham, N., Sutherland, S., Grimm, P., Alexander, S., Concepcion, W., Sarwal, M., Wong, C. 2012; 16 (5): E183-E187


Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) of the Finnish type due to mutation in the NPHS-1 gene results in massive proteinuria due to structural abnormality in the glomerular slit diaphragm, and is usually refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Patients eventually require bilateral nephrectomy and renal replacement therapy, with transplantation being the ultimate goal. Post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome occurs in about 25% of children and is thought to be immune-mediated secondary to antibodies formed against the nephrin protein in renal allograft. Conventional therapy with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids with or without plasmapheresis often fails to achieve remission resulting in graft loss in 12-16%. There is limited experience with use of rituximab (RTX) in pediatric organ transplant recipients. We report the first case of post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome in a 4-yr-old child with CNS due to NPHS-1 mutation in whom CNI, corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide therapy was unsuccessful, but who achieved remission after depletion of B cells with RTX, associated with a decrease in the level of anti-nephrin antibodies. The child remains in remission 5 yr following treatment. Our experience suggests that activated B cells may play a pivotal role in the recurrence of nephrosis after renal transplantation in children with CNS.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2011.01519.x

View details for PubMedID 21672106

A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial with Delayed-Release Cysteamine Bitartrate in Nephropathic Cystinosis: Effectiveness on White Blood Cell Cystine Levels and Comparison of Safety CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Langman, C. B., Greenbaum, L. A., Sarwal, M., Grimm, P., Niaudet, P., Deschenes, G., Cornelissen, E., Morin, D., Cochat, P., Matossian, D., Gaillard, S., Bagger, M. J., Rioux, P. 2012; 7 (7): 1112-1120


Immediate-release cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon; Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Canonsburg, PA) may prevent or delay kidney transplantation and other serious outcomes in patients with cystinosis, but has never been subjected to a prospective clinical trial. Cystagon efficacy requires strict lifelong dosing every 6 hours. Such a dosing schedule and Cystagon-associated side effects are often cited by patients as reasons for nonadherence.This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial was powered to show that a new delayed-release formulation of cysteamine bitartrate, RP103, taken every 12 hours, was noninferior to Cystagon for maintenance of white blood cell (WBC) cystine at levels associated with optimal outcomes in the disease.Forty-three patients were randomized. Using a mixed-effects statistical analysis model, the least-squares mean peak value of WBC cystine level was 0.620.05 nmol 1/2 cystine/mg protein after 12 hours under RP103 and 0.540.05 nmol 1/2 cystine/mg protein after 6 hours under Cystagon, a difference of 0.080.04 nmol 1/2 cystine/mg protein (95.8% confidence interval, 0-0.16). The average steady-state total daily dose of RP103 was 82% of the incoming steady-state total daily dose of Cystagon. There were three-fold more gastrointestinal side effects compared with using Cystagon.A new delayed-release Q12H formulation of cysteamine bitartrate is not inferior to the Q6H formulation (Cystagon) in maintaining low WBC cystine levels in patients with cystinosis but at a lower total daily dose.

View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.12321211

View details for Web of Science ID 000306148500010

View details for PubMedID 22554716

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3386675

Steroid-free immunosuppression in teenagers: Living without a safety net PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Grimm, P. C., Concepcion, W. 2012; 16 (4): 305-307
Steroid avoidance in renal transplantation CURRENT OPINION IN ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION Lightner, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. 2011; 16 (5): 477-482


The recent surge in the use of steroid-avoidance protocols for pediatric renal transplant recipients has been fueled by the numerous adverse side effects of steroids and development of alternatives for successful immunosuppression. Steroid-avoidance protocols were first attempted in the adult population, and with positive outcomes, pediatrics soon followed. As more pediatric patients are placed on steroid-avoidance protocols, we must begin answering several important questions such as patient and graft outcome, safety profiles of various steroid-avoidance induction protocols, viral complications and incidence of transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), metabolic benefits, and the affect of steroid minimization on growth.Initial results from steroid-avoidance protocols show these protocols are safe and effective with improved graft survival, metabolic profiles, and linear growth without an increase in viremia or PTLD.Although initial results are promising, there is still a lack of long-term data from large, prospective randomized trials, and there is not enough data to determine the optimal steroid-avoidance protocol for pediatric renal transplant recipients.

View details for DOI 10.1097/MOT.0b013e32834a8c74

View details for Web of Science ID 000294676600006

View details for PubMedID 21844809

Screening for NPHS2 Mutations May Help Predict FSGS Recurrence after Transplantation JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Jungraithmayr, T. C., Hofer, K., Cochatt, P., Chemin, G., Cortina, G., Fargue, S., Grimm, P., Knueppel, T., Kowarsch, A., Neuhaus, T., Pagel, P., Pfeiffer, K. P., Schaefer, F., Schoenermarck, U., Seeman, T., Toenshoff, B., Weber, S., Winn, M. P., Zschocke, J., Zimmerhackl, L. B. 2011; 22 (3): 579-585


Steroid-resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) often recurs after renal transplantation. In this international survey, we sought to identify genotype-phenotype correlations of recurrent FSGS. We surveyed 83 patients with childhood-onset primary FSGS who received at least one renal allograft and analyzed 53 of these patients for NPHS2 mutations. The mean age at diagnosis was 6.7 years, and the mean age at first renal transplantation was 13 years. FSGS recurred in 30 patients (36%) after a median of 13 days (range, 1.5 to 152 days). Twenty-three patients received a second kidney transplant, and FSGS recurred in 11 (48%) after a median of 16 days (range, 2.7 to 66 days). None of the 11 patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous NPHS2 mutations developed recurrent FSGS compared with 45% of patients without mutations. These data suggest that genetic testing for pathogenic mutations may be important for prognosis and treatment of FSGS both before and after transplantation.

View details for DOI 10.1681/ASN.2010010029

View details for Web of Science ID 000288778800025

View details for PubMedID 21355056

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3060451

Morphometric and Visual Evaluation of Fibrosis in Renal Biopsies JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Farris, A. B., Adams, C. D., Brousaides, N., Della Pelle, P. A., Collins, A. B., Moradi, E., Smith, R. N., Grimm, P. C., Colvin, R. B. 2011; 22 (1): 176-186


Interstitial fibrosis is an outcome measure of increasing importance in clinical trials of both renal transplantation and native disease, but data on the comparative advantages of fibrosis measurement methods are limited. We compared four morphometric techniques and contrasted these with two visual fibrosis-scoring methods on trichrome-stained slides. Two morphometric methods included whole-slide digital images: collagen III immunohistochemistry and a new technique using trichrome and periodic acid-Schiff subtraction morphometry; the other two methods included Sirius Red with and without polarization on multiple digital fields. We evaluated 10 serial sections from 15 renal biopsies with a range of fibrosis extent and diagnoses on duplicate sections with each method on separate days. Three pathologists performed visual scoring on whole-slide images. Visual and morphometric techniques had good to excellent interassay reproducibility (R(2) = 0.62 to 0.96) and interobserver reproducibility (R(2) = 0.75 to 0.99, all P < 0.001). Morphometry showed less variation between observers than visual assessment (mean of 1% to 5% versus 11% to 13%). Collagen III, Sirius Red unpolarized, and visual scores had the strongest correlations (R(2) = 0.78 to 0.89), the greatest dynamic range, and the best correlation with estimated GFR (R(2) = 0.38 to 0.50, P < 0.01 to 0.001). Considering efficiency, reproducibility, and functional correlation, two current techniques stand out as potentially the best for clinical trials: collagen III morphometry and visual assessment of trichrome-stained slides.

View details for DOI 10.1681/ASN.2009091005

View details for Web of Science ID 000288046500024

View details for PubMedID 21115619

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3014046

Ethnic Differences in Rates of Peritubular Capillary Dropout in Post-Transplant Fibrosis Observed in Protocol Renal Allograft Biopsies. 10th American Transplant Congress Talley, E. M., Moradi, E., Bhamre, S., Grimm, P. C., Kambham, N. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2010: 341341
Development of Computerized Image Analysis to Enhance the Reliability and Reproducibility of Renal Allograft Rejection Quantitation Garro, R., Moradi, E., Kambham, N., Grimm, P. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC. 2010: 4344
Steroid-Free Immunosuppression Since 1999: 129 Pediatric Renal Transplants with Sustained Graft and Patient Benefits AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Li, L., Chang, A., Naesens, M., Kambham, N., Waskerwitz, J., Martin, J., Wong, C., Alexander, S., Grimm, P., Concepcion, W., Salvatierra, O., Sarwal, M. M. 2009; 9 (6): 1362-1372


Despite early promising patient and graft outcomes with steroid-free (SF) immunosuppression in pediatric kidney transplant recipients, data on long-term safety and efficacy results are lacking. We present our single-center experience with 129 consecutive pediatric kidney transplant recipients on SF immunosuppression, with a mean follow-up of 5 years. Outcomes are compared against a matched cohort of 57 concurrent recipients treated with steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression. In the SF group, 87% of kidney recipients with functioning grafts remain corticosteroid-free. Actual intent-to-treat SF (ITT-SF) and still-on-protocol SF patient survivals are 96% and 96%, respectively, actual graft survivals for both groups are 93% and 96%, respectively and actual death-censored graft survivals for both groups are 97% and 99%, respectively. Unprecedented catch-up growth is observed in SF recipients below 12 years of age. Continued low rates of acute rejection, posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), hypertension and hyperlipidemia are seen in SF patients, with sustained benefits for graft function. In conclusion, extended enrollment and longer experience with SF immunosuppression for renal transplantation in low-risk children confirms protocol safety, continued benefits for growth and graft function, low acute rejection rates and reduced cardiovascular morbidity.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02640.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000266448900017

View details for PubMedID 19459814

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2724986

Melamine nephrotoxicity: an emerging epidemic in an era of globalization KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Bhalla, V., Grimm, P. C., Chertow, G. M., Pao, A. C. 2009; 75 (8): 774-779


Recent outbreaks of nephrolithiasis and acute kidney injury among children in China have been linked to ingestion of milk-based infant formula contaminated with melamine. These cases provide evidence in humans for the nephrotoxicity of melamine, which previously had been described only in animals. The consequences of this outbreak are already severe and will likely continue to worsen. Herein we summarize the global impact of the melamine milk contamination, the reemergence of melamine-tainted animal feed, and potential mechanisms of melamine nephrotoxicity. Large-scale epidemiologic studies are necessary to further characterize this disease and to assess its potential long-term sequelae. This epidemic of environmental kidney disease highlights the morbidity associated with adulterated food products available in today's global marketplace and reminds us of the unique vulnerability of the kidney to environmental insults. Melamine is the latest in a growing list of diverse potentially toxic compounds about which nephrologists and other health-care providers responsible for the diagnosis and management of kidney disease must now be aware.

View details for DOI 10.1038/ki.2009.16

View details for PubMedID 19212415

Multicenter trial of everolimus in pediatric renal transplant recipients: Results at three year PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Ettenger, R., Hoyer, P., Grimm, P., Webb, N., Loirat, C., Mahan, J. D., Mentser, M., Niaudet, P., Offner, G., Vandamme-Lombaerts, R., Hexham, J. M. 2008; 12 (4): 456-463


There are few prospective clinical trials of mTOR inhibitors (or proliferation signal inhibitors) combined with CNI inhibitors in de novo pediatric renal transplantation. Results reported here are from a multicenter, open-label study in de novo pediatric renal transplant patients (

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2007.00832.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000255551700015

View details for PubMedID 18466433

Incidence of PTLD in pediatric renal transplant recipients receiving basiliximab, calcineurin inhibitor, sirolimus and steroids AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION McDonald, R. A., Smith, J. M., Ho, M., Lindblad, R., Ikle, D., Grimm, P., Wyatt, R., Arar, M., Liereman, D., Bridges, N., Harmon, W. 2008; 8 (5): 984-989


Pediatric renal transplant recipients were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of steroid withdrawal. Subjects received basiliximab, calcineurin inhibitor, sirolimus and steroids. Of 274 subjects enrolled, 19 (6.9%) subjects developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). The relative hazard (RH) for PTLD was 5.3-fold higher in children aged < or =5 versus those >12 years (p = 0.0017). EBV seronegative subjects had a 4.7-fold higher RH compared to EBV positive subjects (p = 0.02). Among EBV donor+/recipient- (D+/R-) subjects, the RH increased by 6.1-fold (p = 0.0001). In a multivariate model, risk factors included recipient age < or =5 years (RH 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6, p = 0.034) and EBV D+/R- status (RH 7.7, 95% CI: 1.6-35.9, p = 0.010). Of 19 patients with PTLD, 17 are alive with functioning grafts and 2 lost their grafts, 1 of whom subsequently died of recurrent PTLD. This 'robust' immunosuppression protocol was associated with low rejection rates but an unacceptably high incidence of PTLD. The combination of basiliximab, calcineurin inhibitor, sirolimus and steroids resulted in over-immunosuppression in a high-risk pediatric population and we do not recommend its use. Future studies must include routine viral monitoring to permit early identification of viral activity and a protocol driven reduction of immunosuppression aimed at avoiding complications.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02167.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000254988500012

View details for PubMedID 18416737

Extended enrollment and analysis of a prospective steroid-free immunosuppression trial supports study safety and efficacy Li, L., Salvatierra, O., Concepcion, W., Wong, C., Alexander, S., Grimm, P., Martin, J., Sarwal, M. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING. 2008: 25354
Banff '05 Meeting report: Differential diagnosis of chronic allograft injury and elimination of chronic allograft nephropathy ('CAN') AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Solez, K., Colvin, R. B., Racusen, L. C., Sis, B., Halloran, P. F., Birk, P. E., Campbell, P. M., Cascalho, M., Collins, A. B., Demetris, A. J., Drachenberg, C. B., Gibson, I. W., Grimm, P. C., Haas, M., Lerut, E., Liapis, H., Mannon, R. B., Marcus, P. B., Mengel, M., Mihatsch, M. J., Nankivell, B. J., Nickeleit, V., Papadimitriou, J. C., Platt, J. L., Randhawa, P., Roberts, I., Salinas-Madriga, L., Salomon, D. R., Seron, D., Sheaff, M., Weening, J. J. 2007; 7 (3): 518-526


The 8th Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology was held in Edmonton, Canada, 15-21 July 2005. Major outcomes included the elimination of the non-specific term "chronic allograft nephropathy" (CAN) from the Banff classification for kidney allograft pathology, and the recognition of the entity of chronic antibody-mediated rejection. Participation of B cells in allograft rejection and genomics markers of rejection were also major subjects addressed by the conference.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01688.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000244715800007

View details for PubMedID 17352710

Sirolimus pharmacokinetics in pediatric renal transplant recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitor co-therapy PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Schachter, A. D., Benfield, M. R., Wyatt, R. J., Grimm, P. C., Fennell, R. S., Herrin, J. T., Lirenman, D. S., McDonald, R. A., Munoz-Arizpe, R., Harmon, W. E. 2006; 10 (8): 914-919


We have previously reported sirolimus (SRL) pharmacokinetics (PK) in pediatric renal transplant recipients on a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-free protocol. We now report pediatric SRL PK in pediatric renal transplant patients receiving SRL + CNI. SRL was dosed to achieve target trough levels between 10 and 20 ng/mL. We performed 49 SRL PK profiles in pediatric renal transplant recipients receiving SRL in combination with either cyclosporine (CsA; 25 profiles), or tacrolimus (TCL; 24 profiles). Ten of the SRL + TCL profiles were obtained from children receiving SRL on a b.i.d. dosing regimen. All other SRL profiles were q.d. regimens. We calculated, the maximum concentration (C(max)), AUC, apparent clearance (aCL; dose/AUC) for dose in mg/m(2), and mean residence time (MRT). SRL levels were measured at 6 and 7 time points for b.i.d. and q.d. dosing, respectively. Regression analysis of SRL trough values vs. AUC showed good correlation in the SRL q.d. + CsA, SRL q.d. + TCL, and SRL b.i.d. + TCL groups (r(2) = 0.95, 0.68, and 0.44, respectively). SRL aCL corrected for body surface area was higher in children aged 0-5 yr receiving SRL with either CsA or TCL. SRL dosing schedule should be tailored to each patient. Higher SRL aCL may be present in younger children when administered with CNI.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2006.00541.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000241678100007

View details for PubMedID 17096757

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1636453

Use of an immune function assay to monitor immunosuppression PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Grimm, P. 2006; 10 (5): 533-535
Transcriptional analysis of the molecular basis of human kidney aging using cDNA microarray profiling KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Melk, A., Mansfield, E. S., Hsieh, S. C., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Grimm, P., Rayner, D. C., Halloran, P. F., Sarwal, M. M. 2005; 68 (6): 2667-2679


The molecular basis of renal aging is not completely understood.We used global gene expression monitoring by cDNA microarrays to identify age associated genes in human kidney samples. Our samples included young (8 weeks-8 years, N= 4), adult (31-46 years, N= 7), and old kidneys (71-88 years, N= 9).Old kidneys had more glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and fibrous intimal thickening in small arteries. We identified approximately 500 genes that were differentially expressed among the three age groups. Old kidneys appeared to have increased extracellular matrix turnover and a nonspecific inflammatory response, combined with a reduction in processes dependent on energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. Quantitative supervised bioinformatics analyses of adult and old kidney expression data correlated the expression of 255 gene profiles with renal pathology scores. Microarray class prediction analysis (PAM) identified 50 unique genes that segregated old kidneys into two distinct clusters: those more similar within age class (OO, N= 5) versus old kidneys more similar to adult kidneys (OA, N= 4). The expression of six functionally significant genes was further validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (FN1, MMP7, TNC, SERPIN3A, BPHL, CSPG2) in the experiment group and, subsequently, confirmed independently in 17 additional old and adult age-stratified test kidney samples. The p53 inducible gene, CSPG2, performed best in separating OO kidneys from adults and OA samples in this analysis.The method described in this study using independent validation samples can be envisioned to test utility of the identified genes in assessing age-related changes that contribute to decline in renal function.

View details for Web of Science ID 000233204300022

View details for PubMedID 16316342

Expression and role of the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM in inflammation after bleomycin injury AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Zaman, A., Cui, Z., Foley, J. P., Zhao, H. J., Grimm, P. C., DeLisser, H. M., Savani, R. C. 2005; 33 (5): 447-454


Lung injury is associated with increased concentrations of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA). HA modifies cell behavior through interaction with cell-associated receptors such as receptor for HA-mediated motility (RHAMM, CD168). Using a function blocking anti-RHAMM antibody (R36), we investigated the expression and role of RHAMM in the inflammatory response to intratracheal bleomycin in rats. Immunostaining showed increased expression of RHAMM in macrophages 4-7 d after injury. Surface biotin labeling of cells isolated by lavage confirmed increased surface expression of a 70-kD RHAMM after lung injury, and in situ hybridization demonstrated increased RHAMM mRNA in macrophages responding to injury. Time-lapse cinemicrography demonstrated a 5-fold increase in motility of alveolar macrophages from bleomycin-treated animals that was completely blocked by R36 in vitro. Further, HA-stimulated macrophage chemotaxis was also inhibited by R36. Daily administration of R36 to injured animals resulted in a 40% decrease in macrophage accumulation 7 d after injury. Further, H&E staining of tissue sections showed that bleomycin-mediated changes in lung architecture were improved with R36 treatment. Taken together with previous results showing the inhibitory effects of HA-binding peptide on inflammation and fibrosis, we conclude that the interaction of RHAMM with HA is a critical component of the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lung after injury.

View details for DOI 10.1165/rcmb.2004-0333OC

View details for Web of Science ID 000233181900005

View details for PubMedID 16037485

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2715352

Novel methods of prediction of long-term renal allograft outcome PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Grimm, P. C. 2004; 8 (6): 531-532
Computerized image analysis vs semiquantitative scoring in evaluation of kidney allograft fibrosis and prognosis NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Sund, S., Grimm, P., Reisaeter, A. V., Hovig, T. 2004; 19 (11): 2838-2845


Chronic morphological changes in the kidney allograft predict long-term graft function, but there are few studies comparing different methods in assessing chronic lesions. In the present study, we evaluated allograft cortical interstitial fibrosis, and compared semiquantitative assessment with computerized image analysis of Sirius red-stained collagen in prediction of graft prognosis.Sections were obtained from a series of 1-year protocol living donor kidney graft biopsies (n = 33) and their corresponding baseline specimens (n = 32). At light microscopy, the biopsies were scored for interstitial fibrosis as a percentage of involved tubulointerstitium according to the Banff schema. Quantitation of cortical fractional interstitial fibrosis volume (Vint) was performed with computerized image analysis on coded sections stained with Sirius red. The results were correlated with kidney function at 8-10 years after transplantation, and with late graft loss.There was a significant correlation between the semiquantitative and quantitative methods for measuring cortical interstitial fibrosis in all the biopsies (n = 65, percentage area vs Vint: R = 0.439, P = 0.0003). The correlation further improved when analysing the baseline specimens separately (n = 32, R = 0.704, P<0.0001) and was still significant, but less precise for the 1-year biopsies (n = 33, R = 0.384, P = 0.0274). One-year semiquantitative fibrosis (percentage area) was correlated to serum creatinine at 8-10 years (P = 0.010) and to late graft loss (P = 0.0445). The 1-year Vint values for interstitial fibrosis showed a similar trend but did not reach statistical significance in prediction of long-term graft function.Image analysis quantitation of interstitial collagen with Sirius red corresponded well to light microscopic semiquantitative assessment of interstitial fibrosis. In prediction of long-term graft function, the semiquantitative method was superior, indicating that accumulation of matrix molecules other than fibrillary collagens, oedema and inflammation are also important in graft prognosis.

View details for Web of Science ID 000225115400024

View details for PubMedID 15385637

Dietary phosphorus reduction by pretreatment of human breast milk with sevelamer PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY Ferrara, E., Lemire, J., Reznik, V. M., Grimm, P. C. 2004; 19 (7): 775-779


Hyperphosphatemia leading to hyperparathyroidism and ultimately renal osteodystrophy is a well-known complication of chronic renal failure. A new hydrogel binder, sevelamer, has recently become available for use in hyperphosphatemic patients with renal failure. We had previously mixed the capsule with pumped breast milk and formula, but discovered that the hydrogel formed a viscous solution that infants were unable or unwilling to swallow. We therefore evaluated the phosphorus content of fresh and frozen breast milk before and after treating with different doses of sevelamer at different temperatures and for varying lengths of time. The hydrogel bound promptly to phosphorus, reducing the phosphorus content 78% within 5 min. The viscous hydrogel settled to the bottom of the container within 10 min allowing the supernatant to be easily decanted. We also evaluated the breast milk for changes in other electrolytes, osmolality, pH, and macronutrient content. These results show that fresh or frozen breast milk can be safely pretreated with sevelamer without significantly changing its macronutrient or ionic content, with the exception of calcium and protein. The supernatant can be fed to infants or instilled through a gastrostomy tube without difficulty since the viscous hydrogel settles rapidly to the bottom of the container.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-004-1448-6

View details for Web of Science ID 000221752000014

View details for PubMedID 15103549

The protocol renal allograft biopsy: Has its time come? PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Grimm, P. 2004; 8 (1): 3-5

View details for Web of Science ID 000189007000002

View details for PubMedID 15009834

Mycobacterial peritonitis in pediatric peritoneal dialysis patients PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY Ferrara, E., Lemire, J., Grimm, P. C., Reznik, V. M., Mendoza, S. A., Leake, J. A., Benador, N. M. 2004; 19 (1): 114-117


Peritonitis is the most common complication and the leading cause of death in pediatric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. According to the most recent data available from the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS), approximately 25% of pediatric PD patients who die succumb to infection. There are no reported cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) or Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare peritonitis in the NAPRTCS registry. With an increasing incidence of MTB worldwide and the impairment of cellular immunity in chronic renal failure patients, it is not surprising that mycobacterium peritonitis can occur in PD patients. We report two pediatric PD patients with mycobacterial peritoneal infection diagnosed over an 11-year period at our institution. One patient presented with a malfunctioning Tenckhoff catheter and again 3 years later with hyponatremia and ascites. The other presented with recurrent culture-negative peritonitis. These cases illustrate the importance of more extensive evaluation of PD complications, to include evaluation for mycobacterium with special media or peritoneal biopsy, in the above clinical settings if the routine work-up is unrevealing.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-003-1348-1

View details for Web of Science ID 000188455400021

View details for PubMedID 14648331

Computer-assisted quantification of fibrosis in chronic allograft nephropaty by picosirius red-staining: A new tool for predicting long-term graft function TRANSPLANTATION Pape, L., Henne, T., Offner, G., Strehlau, J., Ehrich, J. H., Mengel, M., Grimm, P. C. 2003; 76 (6): 955-958


Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) has become the predominant limiting factor for long-term transplant survival. A cardinal histomorphologic correlate for CAN is interstitial fibrosis. Currently, no method has been established in routine use that reliably quantifies the extent of interstitial fibrosis in renal grafts. We have used staining with picrosirius red followed by computerized image analysis to study the correlation between graft fibrosis and future development of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a group of children with advanced CAN.Renal biopsies were performed in 56 children (mean age, 13.7+/-3.6 years) after a mean period of 4.6+/-3.1 years after transplantation because of significant increases in serum creatinine. All biopsy specimens were stained with picrosirius red. The magnitude of fibrotic tissue was calculated by computerized image analysis. Linear regression analysis was performed correlating the intensity of graft fibrosis and the changes in the GFR at the time points of renal biopsy and 2 years later.There was a significant positive correlation (r=0.62, P<0.001) between the picrosirius red-stained cortical fractional interstitial fibrosis volume (V(intFib)) and the decrease of GFR within 2 years postrenal biopsy. When V(intFib) was below 5%, 82% of the patients had an increase in GFR within 2 years. Ninety-three percent of the patients with greater than 10% of fibrosis experienced a worsening renal function after 2 years. When comparing patients with stable GFR with patients having a decrease in GFR, a highly significant difference in V(intFib) was found (P=0.008).The quantitative measurement of fibrosis by picrosirius red staining appears to be a useful prognostic indicator for estimating long-term graft function in CAN and may provide an easy, fast, and inexpensive tool helpful for treatment decisions in patients developing CAN.

View details for DOI 10.1097/01.TP.0000078899.62040.E5

View details for Web of Science ID 000185637900013

View details for PubMedID 14508360

Cell senescence in rat kidneys in vivo increases with growth and age despite lack of telomere shortening KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Melk, A., Kittikowit, W., Sandhu, I., Halloran, K. M., Grimm, P., Schmidt, B. M., Halloran, P. F. 2003; 63 (6): 2134-2143


Somatic cells in vitro have a finite life expectancy before entering a state of senescence, but it is unclear whether this state occurs in vivo in kidney development, growth, and aging. We previously showed that human kidney cortex displays telomere shortening with age. In this study, we compared the structural and functional changes in rat kidney with age to phenomena associated with cellular senescence in vitro.We assessed the changes in Fischer 344 rat kidneys from age 1 to 9 months to define growth and development and from age 9 to 24 months to define aging.Rat kidney telomeres were approximately 35 to 40 kb long and did not shorten significantly. Expression of mRNA for p16INK4a, a characteristic senescence gene in vitro, was undetectable in most young rats but rose 27 fold during growth and a further 72-fold during aging. p16INK4a protein was localized to the nucleus and increased with age. p16INK4a mRNA also increased in other tissues. Lipofuscin and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase increased in epithelium with growth and aging and their occurrence was significantly associated with each other. Lipofuscin was particularly found in atrophic nephrons.We conclude that cell senescence occurs in both growth and aging in rat kidney and may contribute to the age-related pathology. These changes are not due to telomere shortening, but may reflect cumulative environmental stress.

View details for Web of Science ID 000182781900017

View details for PubMedID 12753300

Computerized image analysis of sirius red-stained renal allograft biopsies as a surrogate marker to predict long-term allograft function JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Grimm, P. C., Nickerson, P., Gough, J., McKenna, R., Stern, E., Jeffery, J., Rush, D. N. 2003; 14 (6): 1662-1668


Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a major problem in posttransplant management. The lack of a reliable and early surrogate marker of CAN has hampered patient care and research. In this study, the Cortical Fractional Interstitial Fibrosis Volume (V(IntFib)), quantitated with computerized image analysis of Sirius Red-stained protocol biopsies, was examined as a potential surrogate for time to graft failure (TTGF) in 68 renal allograft recipients. At 6 mo posttransplant, V(IntFib) was highly correlated with TTGF (r = 0.64, P < 0.001). Both the Banff Chronic Sum and the Acute Sum Scores were also correlated with TTGF, but less strongly (r = 0.28, P < 0.02; r = 0.35, P < 0.003, respectively). As V(IntFib) was not correlated with the Banff Chronic Score, a multivariate model was created that incorporated V(IntFib) and both Acute and Chronic Banff pathology. This model was highly correlated with TTGF (r = 0.7, P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that V(IntFib) determined by computerized image analysis of Sirius Red-stained protocol biopsies at 6 mo posttransplant, with or without incorporation of Banff acute and chronic scoring, may provide an early surrogate for time to graft failure in renal allograft recipients.

View details for DOI 10.1097/01.ASN.0000066143.02832.5E

View details for Web of Science ID 000183095600029

View details for PubMedID 12761269

Neointimal and tubulointerstitial infiltration by recipient mesenchymal cells in chronic renal-allograft rejection. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Grimm, P. C., Nickerson, P., Jeffery, J., Savani, R. C., Gough, J., McKenna, R. M., Stern, E., Rush, D. N. 2001; 345 (2): 93-97


Tissue remodeling depends on mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts and myofibroblasts) and is a prominent feature of chronic renal-transplant rejection. It is not known whether the mesenchymal cells that participate in remodeling originate locally or from circulating precursor cells.We obtained biopsy specimens of renal allografts from six male recipients of an allograft from a female donor, four female recipients of an allograft from a male donor, two male recipients of an allograft from a male donor, and two female recipients of an allograft from a female donor. All the allografts were undergoing chronic rejection. All but two specimens were obtained within six months after transplantation. We used immunohistochemical methods to identify mesenchymal cells with smooth-muscle alpha-actin and in situ hybridization to identify mesenchymal cells with Y-chromosome DNA.No Y-chromosome bodies were identified in the case of the two renal-allograft specimens in which both the donor and the recipient were female. In the case of the two renal-allograft specimens in which both the donor and the recipient were male, approximately 40 percent of mesenchymal cells contained a Y-chromosome body. In the case of the six specimens in which the donor was female and the recipient was male, a mean (+/-SD) of 34+/-16 percent of mesenchymal cells in the neointima, 38+/-12 percent of such cells in the adventitia, and 30+/-7 percent of such cells in the interstitium contained the Y-chromosomal marker, indicating that they originated from the recipient rather than the donor. In the case of the four renal-allograft specimens in which the donor was male and the recipient was female, the respective values were 24+/-15 percent, 33+/-9 percent, and 23+/-8 percent, indicating a persistent population of donor mesenchymal cells.The presence of mesenchymal cells of host origin in the vascular and interstitial compartments of renal allografts undergoing chronic rejection provides evidence that a circulating mesenchymal precursor cell has the potential to migrate to areas of inflammation.

View details for Web of Science ID 000169776900003

View details for PubMedID 11450677

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt prior to renal transplantation in a child with autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease and portal hypertension: A case report PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Benador, N., Grimm, P., Lavine, J., Rosenthal, P., Reznik, V., Lemire, J. 2001; 5 (3): 210-214


Autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) can cause renal failure and portal hypertension in children. Portal hypertension may complicate the course of renal transplantation (Tx). We report the successful outcome of a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and portal hypertension treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), a minimally invasive endovascular technique of portosystemic shunt, prior to renal Tx.

View details for Web of Science ID 000169342500012

View details for PubMedID 11422825

Neoral pharmacokinetics in Latino and Caucasian pediatric renal transplant recipients PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY Lemire, J., Capparelli, E. V., Benador, N., Grimm, P., MacDonald, D., Reznik, V. 2001; 16 (4): 311-314


Interpopulation variability of drug pharmacokinetics (PK) has been described. For example, the systemic clearance of nifedipine is higher in Mexicans than Caucasians. African-Americans have a lower cyclosporine bioavailability than Caucasians. Limited data are available in the Latino population. Under identical conditions, we compared the PK profile of Neoral (cyclosporine for microemulsion) obtained in stable pediatric renal transplant recipients of Latino and Caucasian origin. A slightly lower area under the curve (AUC) when corrected for dose per body surface area or per kilogram of body weight was observed in Caucasians compared with Latinos. This difference was more pronounced in the younger age group (< 12 years) with a higher peak-to-trough ratio. However, the Caucasians required a higher dosage of Neoral than the Latinos to achieve that same AUC. There was no difference between the groups in the time (tmax) to reach maximal concentration (Cmax) of Neoral. A higher apparent clearance of the drug was observed in the Caucasians compared with the Latinos, especially in the younger age group. No differences in pre- and post-dose levels were observed between the two groups. These differences might affect dose adjustment between the two subpopulations.

View details for Web of Science ID 000168399200001

View details for PubMedID 11354772

A role for hyaluronan in macrophage accumulation and collagen deposition after bleomycin-induced lung injury AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Savani, R. C., Hou, G. P., Liu, P., Wang, C., Simons, E., Grimm, P. C., Stern, R., Greenberg, A. H., DeLisser, H. M., Khalil, N. 2000; 23 (4): 475-484


Elevated concentrations of hyaluronan (HA) are associated with the accumulation of macrophages in the lung after injury. We have investigated the role of HA in the inflammatory and fibrotic responses to lung injury using the intratracheal instillation of bleomycin in rats as a model. After bleomycin-induced lung injury, both HA content in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and staining for HA in macrophages accumulating in injured areas of the lung were maximal at 4 d. Increased HA in BAL correlated with increased locomotion of isolated alveolar macrophages. HA-binding peptide was able to specifically block macrophage motility in vitro. Importantly, systemic administration of HA-binding peptide to rats before injury not only decreased alveolar macrophage motility and accumulation in the lung, but also reduced lung collagen alpha (I) messenger RNA and hydroxyproline contents. We propose a model in which HA plays a critical role in the inflammatory response and fibrotic consequences of acute lung injury.

View details for Web of Science ID 000089888300009

View details for PubMedID 11017912

Interstitial nephritis in children with Crohn's disease CLINICAL PEDIATRICS Benador, N., Grimm, P., Lemire, J., Griswold, W., Billman, G., Reznik, V. 2000; 39 (4): 253-254

View details for Web of Science ID 000086550000011

View details for PubMedID 10791141

Quantitation of allograft fibrosis and chronic allograft nephropathy. Pediatric transplantation Grimm, P. C., Nickerson, P., Gough, J., McKenna, R., Jeffery, J., Birk, P., Rush, D. N. 1999; 3 (4): 257-270


Despite improvements in the prevention and treatment of acute renal allograft rejection, the long-term survival of renal transplants has not increased. Immunologic and non-immunologic factors contribute to the gradual deterioration of graft function and to the histologic lesion characterized by vascular and interstitial fibrosis ('chronic rejection'). Quantitation of this process has been attempted using various invasive and non-invasive methods. These methods, performed at different times post-transplant, are reviewed in this article. In particular, pathology scoring systems and the potential of using computerized image analysis of biopsy material are discussed.

View details for PubMedID 10562970

Effect of increasing baseline immunosuppression on the prevalence of clinical and subclinical rejection: A pilot study JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Nickerson, P., Jeffery, J., Gough, J., Grimm, P., McKenna, R., Birk, P., Rush, D. 1999; 10 (8): 1801-1805


This group has reported that treatment of subclinical rejection in the first 3 mo posttransplant with corticosteroids decreases late clinical rejections and improves graft function at 2 yr in renal transplant recipients. The current study was performed to determine whether an increase in baseline immunosuppression would decrease the prevalence of early subclinical rejections, as well as the incidence of early and late clinical rejections. Patients received mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and Neoral cyclosporin A (CsA) posttransplant (n = 29), of which 17 underwent protocol biopsies at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 (Neoral + MMF Protocol Biopsy [Bx]), while 12 declined protocol biopsies (Neoral + MMF Control). These individuals were compared with 72 historical control patients treated with Sandimmune CsA and Imuran, of which 36 had undergone protocol biopsies at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 (Sandimmune + Azathioprine [AZA] Protocol Bx), and 36 had a protocol biopsy at month 6 (Sandimmune + AZA Control). Baseline immunosuppression with Neoral + MMF decreased the incidence of early clinical rejections (0 to 3 mo) and cumulative corticosteroid exposure, but had no impact on the prevalence of early subclinical rejection. Moreover, to maximally decrease the risk of developing late clinical rejections (months 7 to 12) in Neoral + MMF patients required that protocol biopsies be done and that subclinical rejection be treated. The paradoxical finding of recent clinical trials that a reduction in acute clinical rejection has not improved long-term graft outcome may be explained in part by the failure to control subclinical rejection.

View details for Web of Science ID 000081721300020

View details for PubMedID 10446949

Clinical rejection is distinguished from subclinical rejection by increased infiltration by a population of activated macrophages 31st Congress of the American-Society-of-Nephrology Grimm, P. C., McKenna, R., Nickerson, P., Russell, M. E., Gough, J., Gospodarek, E., Liu, B., Jeffery, J., Rush, D. N. AMER SOC NEPHROLOGY. 1999: 158289


It has been reported previously that one-third of protocol renal biopsies in asymptomatic, biochemically stable renal transplant recipients in the first 6 mo show unsuspected subclinical graft rejection (both infiltrate and tubulitis) and that subclinical rejection is a risk factor for chronic renal dysfunction. This study was performed to determine whether differences in phenotype or activation status of graft-infiltrating cells underlie these different manifestations of acute rejection. Biopsies with normal histology (n = 10), subclinical rejection (n = 13), and clinical rejection (n = 9) were studied using immunohistochemistry and computerized image analysis. Subclinical and clinical rejections had similar histologic Banff scores. Univariate analysis showed a trend for a higher infiltration with CD8+ (P = 0.053) and CD68+(P = 0.06) cells in clinical rejection. Of the activation markers studied (CD25, perforin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), only allograft inflammatory factor-1+-activated macrophages were significantly (P = 0.014) increased in the infiltrate of clinical rejection biopsies. These data suggest that activated macrophages or their products are responsible for acute renal dysfunction associated with clinical rejection episodes.

View details for Web of Science ID 000081143900020

View details for PubMedID 10405215

Immune-activation gene expression in clinically stable renal allograft biopsies - Molecular evidence for subclinical rejection 17th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Transplant-Physicians Lipman, M. L., Shen, Y. N., Jeffery, J. R., Gough, J., McKenna, R. M., Grimm, P. C., Rush, D. N. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 1998: 167381


A significant percentage of biopsies from stable, well-functioning renal allografts have histologic findings consistent with acute rejection or borderline rejection. The implication of this finding is not yet fully understood. We analyzed immune-activation gene transcripts in stable protocol biopsies to determine the extent of immunologic activity of graft-infiltrating cells in this setting. Histologic classification of the biopsies was based on the Banff criteria. To emphasize that the tissue samples were procured from grafts with no clinical evidence of impaired function, we interjected the term "subclinical" into the Banff terminology. This produced three histologic categories: normal, borderline subclinical rejection, and acute subclinical rejection.We used competitive template polymerase chain reaction techniques to quantify transcript amounts for the constant region of the T-cell receptor beta chain; the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, transforming growth factor beta, interferon gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-15; and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte effector molecules, granzyme B, perforin, and Fas ligand.We found that histologically normal biopsies were typically devoid of gene transcripts or had very low amounts. Conversely, biopsies with acute subclinical rejection by histologic examination had heightened amounts of transcripts for many of the genes assayed. Borderline subclinical rejection samples showed an intermediate amount of expression.These results demonstrate that histologic features of rejection are often accompanied by enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory gene transcripts, despite the absence of clinically overt graft dysfunction. As this state of subclinical rejection could prove detrimental to long-term graft function, a role for surveillance biopsies of stable grafts with intent to treat subclinical rejection should be considered.

View details for Web of Science ID 000077958500018

View details for PubMedID 9884258

Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation: research tool or clinically useful? CURRENT OPINION IN NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION Rush, D. N., Nickerson, P., Jeffery, J. R., McKenna, R. M., Grimm, P. C., Gough, J. 1998; 7 (6): 691-694


Early protocol biopsies of stable, well functioning renal allografts reveal a high prevalence of clinically unsuspected acute and chronic pathology. It is becoming increasingly apparent that these histopathological findings are both pathogenic and predictive of long-term allograft outcome. Therefore, protocol biopsies may be required for optimal post-transplant surveillance until non-invasive methods to detect allograft inflammation are developed.

View details for Web of Science ID 000077477000012

View details for PubMedID 9864667

Beneficial effects of treatment of early subclinical rejection: A randomized study JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Rush, D., Nickerson, P., Gough, J., McKenna, R., Grimm, P., Cheang, M., Trpkov, K., SOLEZ, K., Jeffery, J. 1998; 9 (11): 2129-2134


The prevalence of subclinical rejection, by the Banff criteria, is approximately 30% in the first 3 mo in renal transplant recipients. A randomized study was performed to determine whether the treatment of subclinical rejection with corticosteroids was associated with improved outcomes in these patients. Seventy-two patients, stratified by donor source, were randomized to biopsies at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 mo (Biopsy group), or to 6- and 12-mo biopsies only (Control group). Patients were analyzed by "intent to treat" and were followed for a minimum of 2 yr. Patients in the Biopsy arm of the study had a significant decrease in early (months 2 and 3) and late (months 7 to 12) acute rejection episodes, a reduced chronic tubulointerstitial score at 6 mo, and a lower serum creatinine at 24 mo than did patients in the Control arm. There was a trend toward an increase in infectious morbidity, but no increase in mortality, in the patients randomized to the Biopsy group. The results of this study suggest that early protocol biopsies and the treatment of subclinical rejection with corticosteroids may lead to better histologic and functional outcomes in renal transplant recipients.

View details for Web of Science ID 000076547400020

View details for PubMedID 9808101

Matching for private or public HLA epitopes reduces acute rejection episodes and improves two-year renal allograft function TRANSPLANTATION McKenna, R. M., Lee, K. R., Gough, J. C., Jeffery, J. R., Grimm, P. C., Rush, D. N., Nickerson, P. 1998; 66 (1): 38-43


The current role of HLA matching in renal transplantation is controversial. Public HLA epitope matching has been suggested to be as advantageous as private HLA matching, with the added benefit of increasing recipients' access to well-matched grafts.In this single-center study of 105 renal transplant recipients, we examined the association of HLA matching with early (0-3 months) and late (4-6 months) rejection episodes (RE), as well as renal allograft function up to 2 years after transplant.Poor HLA-DR, but not HLA-A or -B, matching was associated with early RE (0 DR matches, RE=2.7+/-0.19, 1 DR match, RE=2.37+/-0.18, vs. 2 DR matches, RE=1.5+/-0.38; P < 0.01). In contrast, poor HLA-B, but not HLA-A or -DR, matching was associated with late rejections (0 HLA-B matches, RE=1.1+/-0.51 vs. 1-2 HLA-B matches, RE=0.51+/-0.1; P < 0.004). HLA-B matching was also associated with a significantly lower serum creatinine (SCr) level at 24 months (0 HLA-B matches, SCr=178+/-20 micromol/L vs. SCr=132+/-6 micromol/L for 1-2 HLA-B matches; P < 0.025). Matching for 10 supertypic HLA-A and -B cross-reactive groups was associated with reduced late graft rejection (0-2 residue matches, RE=1.15+/-0.18 vs. RE=0.62+/-0.12 for 3 to 7 residue matches; P < 0.013) as well as a significantly lower SCr level at 24 months (0-2 residue matches, SCr=205+/-29 micromol/L vs SCr=131+/-6 micromol/L for 3 to 7 residue matches; P < 0.001) after transplantation.HLA-DR matching was associated with a reduced frequency of early rejection episodes, whereas HLA-B or residue/cross-reactive group matching was associated with a reduced frequency of late rejection episodes and improved graft function at 2 years.

View details for Web of Science ID 000074889300006

View details for PubMedID 9679819

Nonradioactive Northern blotting with biotinylated and digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes ELECTROPHORESIS Meltzer, J. C., Sanders, V., Grimm, P. C., Chiasson, N., Hoeltke, H. J., Garrett, K. L., Greenberg, A. H., Nance, D. M. 1998; 19 (8-9): 1351-1355


The application of nonradioactive RNA probes for Northern blotting offers the advantage of a rapid turn-around time for results without the loss of sensitivity for target mRNA detection. However, a problem that has impeded the widespread use of nonradioactive RNA probes for use in Northern blotting is the difficulty in stripping these probes from nylon membranes after hybridization. In this report we describe two protocols for stripping digoxigenin (Dig)-labeled RNA probes from nylon membranes. One protocol utilizes a phosphate-buffered formamide stripping solution to remove nonchemically modified (regular) RNA probes while the other method utilizes strippable probes that were produced with a chemically modified nucleotide (CTP) and removed by a specific stripping solution. This latter method was developed by Ambion Inc. and is called Strip-EZ. We also describe a protocol for the detection of two separate rat mRNAs using both biotin and digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes that does not require stripping the membrane after hybridization. Finally, we describe the use of another new labeling technology, called Chem-Link, that quickly and conveniently labels RNA for use in Northern blotting.

View details for Web of Science ID 000074652100025

View details for PubMedID 9694280

Production of digoxigenin-labelled RNA probes and the detection of cytokine mRNA in rat spleen and brain by in situ hybridization BRAIN RESEARCH PROTOCOLS Meltzer, J. C., Sanders, V., Grimm, P. C., Stern, E., Rivier, C., Lee, S., Rennie, S. L., Gietz, R. D., Hole, A. K., Watson, P. H., Greenberg, A. H., Nance, D. M. 1998; 2 (4): 339-351


Non-radioactive in situ hybridization is a sensitive method for determining the site of production for secretory molecules such as cytokines. We report here on the central and peripheral induction of proinflammatory cytokines by endotoxin, and outline procedures for the generation and application of rat-specific digoxigenin (Dig)-labelled RNA probes for the localization of mRNA by in situ hybridization. Rats were injected either intravenously (i.v.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with vehicle or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sacrificed at various time intervals post-injection. Rats were then perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and the spleens and brains were removed and cryoprotected in 30% sucrose. Dig-labelled, rat-specific, antisense and sense RNA probes were generated by in vitro transcription from PCR-derived templates. Positive staining with all the antisense probes was cytoplasmic, whereas the sense probes showed no staining. Numerous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) mRNA positive cells were observed in the marginal zone and in the red pulp of the spleen after iv LPS injections, whereas sections from saline-treated animals showed minimal cytokine mRNA expression. Cells positive for TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA were detectable in the brain after i.c.v. injections of LPS, but not after icv injection of vehicle. An antisense probe for c-fos was utilized in these studies as a positive control for our procedure due to its anatomically specific expression in the rat brain after LPS. In conclusion we have demonstrated that in situ hybridization with Dig-labelled RNA probes is an efficient, sensitive and reliable tool to localize cytokine mRNA production in rat tissue.

View details for Web of Science ID 000074668100013

View details for PubMedID 9630715

Pediatric renal transplantation: indications and special considerations. A position paper from the Pediatric Committee of the American Society of Transplant Physicians. Pediatric transplantation Davis, I. D., Bunchman, T. E., Grimm, P. C., Benfield, M. R., Briscoe, D. M., Harmon, W. E., Alexander, S. R., Avner, E. D. 1998; 2 (2): 117-129


Renal transplantation of children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) appears to be the optimal form of renal replacement therapy. This report, which expresses the opinions of the nephrology members of the Pediatric Committee of the American Society of Transplant Physicians, discusses the indications for pediatric renal transplantation and identifies the unique aspects of caring for children with CRI and ESRD. Indications for pediatric renal transplantation include: 1) symptoms of uremia not responsive to standard therapy; 2) failure to thrive due to limitations in total caloric intake; 3) delayed psychomotor development; 4) hypervolemia; 5) hyperkalemia; and 6) metabolic bone disease due to renal osteodystrophy. The urgency and timing of renal transplantation in children must be considered in the context of a number of issues unique to children with CRI and ESRD such as delayed cognitive and educational performance, growth retardation, delayed puberty, etiology of ESRD, and timing of immunizations. In addition, these children frequently display various inherited and sporadic syndromes with multiorgan involvement requiring the expertise of a variety of pediatric subspecialists including the pediatric urologist, who plays a critical role in the evaluation of children with obstructive uropathy and other anomalies of the genito-urinary system. The advantages of a living-related donor are also delineated. The importance of adequate immunosuppression on graft function, early recognition of the signs and symptoms acute rejection, preventive strategies for minimizing the morbidity and mortality from viral infections in the post-transplant period, and the impact of transplantation on cognitive function, educational status, and catch-up growth are also discussed. To address these complex issues, transplant care of pediatric patients must be provided by a multidisciplinary team of pediatric health care professionals.

View details for PubMedID 10082443

Identification of clinical and histopathologic risk factors for diminished renal function 2 years posttransplant JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Nickerson, P., Jeffery, J., Gough, J., McKenna, R., Grimm, P., Cheang, M., Rush, D. 1998; 9 (3): 482-487


The aim of this study was to identify early clinical and pathologic variates that independently predict diminished renal allograft function at 24 mo posttransplant. A clinical pathologic data base was prospectively derived from 71 patients in whom protocol renal biopsies were performed at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 mo posttransplant. The major end point was the 24-mo serum creatinine. Variates correlating independently (r2 = 0.67) with the 24-mo serum creatinine were the chronic biopsy scores (months 3 and 6), late rejections (months 4 to 6), cyclosporin A (CsA) levels (months 1 to 2), and delayed graft function. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for having a serum creatinine > or = 130 mumol/L at 24 mo increased for every year the donor age increased (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.13; range, 9 to 55) or for each late rejection episode (OR = 5.9; 95% CI, 1.7 to 20.1), whereas a mean CsA level > 300 micrograms/L from months 1 to 3 was protective (OR = 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.43). Variates correlating independently (r2 = 0.53) with the change in serum creatinine from 6 to 24 mo (delta Cr6-24) were the chronic biopsy scores at months 3 and 6. The adjusted OR of the delta Cr6-24 rising > or = +20 mumol/L increased for every year the donor age increased (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.16; range 9 to 56) or when the 6-mo chronic biopsy score was > or = 2 (OR = 6.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 36.4). An estimate of the relative risk for diminished renal function at 2 yr can be assigned within 6 mo of transplant based on chronic pathology, late acute rejections, CsA levels, and donor age.

View details for Web of Science ID 000072214900018

View details for PubMedID 9513912

The receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility is expressed in human renal allografts and is correlated with Banff chronic rejection scores VI Alexis Carrel Conference on Chronic Rejection and Graft Atherosclerosis Routledge, M. W., Rush, D., McKenna, R., Gough, J., Jeffery, J., Stern, E., Liu, B., Savani, R. C., Grimm, P. C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1997: 26034

View details for Web of Science ID A1997XV03200036

View details for PubMedID 9290759

Enhanced immunohistochemical detection of autonomic nerve fibers, cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase by light and fluorescent microscopy in rat spleen JOURNAL OF HISTOCHEMISTRY & CYTOCHEMISTRY Meltzer, J. C., Grimm, P. C., Greenberg, A. H., Nance, D. M. 1997; 45 (4): 599-610


We have developed enhanced immunohistochemical protocols for detecting autonomic nerve fibers and splenocyte-associated proteins in rat spleen. This includes norepinephrine-synthesizing enzymes (dopamine-beta hydroxylase (DBH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)), neuropeptide Y (NPY), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), c-fos protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the macrophage cell marker ED1. Animals were divided into sham-operated and splenic nerve-sectioned groups for detection of DBH, TH, and NPY. For immunodetection of TNF-alpha, iNOS, IFN-gamma and c-fos, animals were injected IV with saline or 100 microg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were sacrificed at various time intervals post injection. Rats were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde, spleens removed and cryoprotected, and 50-microm floating sections were cut on a freezing microtome. Immunodetection was performed with various detection systems and substrate/chromogen solutions, and in some cases using pretreatment with proteinase K (PK) for antigen unmasking. PK pretreatment increased immunostaining for DBH, TH, NPY, IFN-gamma, iNOS, and ED1, and the improvement was concentration-dependent. Using NPY immunostaining to index the signal-to-noise ratio for various substrates and detection systems, we found that an alkaline phosphatase detection system with NBT/BCIP as a substrate was the best procedure for light microscopy, whereas the CY3-labeled secondary antibody technique proved optimal for fluorescent microscopy. Surgical transection of the splenic nerve eliminated all nerve fiber staining for DBH, TH, and NPY. TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, c-fos, and iNOS proteins were observed in the spleen in a time-dependent manner after LPS stimulation. Fluorescent double labeling, visualized with fluorescent confocal scanning laser microscopy, revealed many NPY fibers distributed among the ED1-labeled macrophages. These results demonstrate that immunohistochemistry can be used to index the activational effects of an immune challenge on splenocytes in situ and verifies that splenic immune cells are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system.

View details for Web of Science ID A1997WU66200012

View details for PubMedID 9111238

Histamine H-1-receptors in the nasal mucosa: A mystery solved? CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY Simons, F. E., Grimm, P. G. 1996; 26 (4): 368-370

View details for Web of Science ID A1996UF43000002

View details for PubMedID 8732232



Immunosuppressive drugs used in clinical transplantation block cytokine mRNA transcription in vitro, but clinical rejection episodes are common. An understanding of what cytokine message is transcribed would be helpful in determining what contributes to the success of immunosuppression and provide directions for further research aimed at targeting specific cytokines. Previous studies have examined cytokine mRNA in rejecting solid organ biopsies by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with variable results. We used nonradioactive in situ hybridization with cytokine-specific riboprobes to determine the frequency of cells expressing cytokine mRNA in the allograft infiltrate. Kidney biopsies were obtained from patients receiving protocol biopsies and with clinical evidence of rejection. Fourteen biopsies with a pathologic diagnosis of rejection were studied. Eight showed no cytokine staining, 2 expressed IL-2, and 3 expressed IL-4 and IFN-gamma. The positive cells were present at a low frequency (mean 2, range 1-5 per 10 high-power fields). The proportion of kidney biopsies expressing detectable message for interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by in situ hybridization were similar to those reported using RT-PCR. The novel finding is that these cytokines are expressed in a few strongly positive cells in the allograft infiltrate. The vast majority of infiltrating cells are negative. This suggests that either the biopsies were performed when cytokine message was not expressed at a high level or that in human allograft recipients the sustained expression of the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma may not be necessary for graft rejection.

View details for Web of Science ID A1995QK22500024

View details for PubMedID 7533348


View details for Web of Science ID A1994PH00800006

View details for PubMedID 7800426



In situ hybridization is a technique with widespread application. However, its usefulness has been limited by the need for radioactive materials and the requirement for the DNA to be cloned onto an appropriate vector. We have utilized the polymerase chain reaction to directly incorporate a T7 RNA polymerase promoter sequence onto the cDNA for interleukin-2. Digoxigenin-labelled riboprobes were then synthesized using this PCR product as a template. The digoxigenin-labelled riboprobes were then used in non-radioactive in situ hybridization to detect messenger RNA for interleukin-2 in mitogen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This methodology has the potential for widespread application in immunology and cytokine research.

View details for Web of Science ID A1994MU31400009

View details for PubMedID 8308289



Cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) involves proliferation of cyst lining epithelial and changes in trans-epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport. In vitro studies have suggested that mislocation of Na,K-ATPase to the apical tubular surface may be an important component of cyst fluid transport. We undertook in vivo studies of Na,K-ATPase location using the "threshold" murine model of glucocorticoid-induced PKD (GIPKD). Using histological, immunohistochemical, and densitometric techniques, we compared cyst formation and the cellular location of Na,K-ATPase in suckling C3H (low threshold for GIPKD) and DBA (high threshold) mice given an inducing dose of 200 mg/kg methylprednisolone acetate. As expected, C3H mice demonstrated greater cyst formation as measured by proportion of section area occupied by the tubule lumen (26.7% vs 15.5%; p < 0.001). Cyst formation was associated with increased Na,K-ATPase staining and increased apical Na,K-ATPase location. MPA treatment in C3H mice resulted in apical staining that exceeded basolateral staining (35.3% of reference window vs 29.8%; p < 0.001). The relatively GIPKD-resistant DBA mice did not show such change in Na,K-ATPase location. These immunohistochemical studies suggest a role for Na,K-ATPase in renal cyst formation.

View details for Web of Science ID A1993KT97300009

View details for PubMedID 8383715



The use of pediatric ambulatory care facilities to perform invasive procedures that have low morbidity is increasingly popular. Over a 2-year period, 46 pediatric renal biopsies were performed in an ambulatory care setting at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital, with the patient discharged the same day. There was no serious complications and adequate tissue was obtained in 45 cases. Renal biopsy may be safely performed on an outpatient basis on carefully selected patients by experienced operators in properly equipped facilities.

View details for Web of Science ID A1992HU49200022

View details for PubMedID 1616846

Pediatric renal transplantation. Advances in pediatrics Grimm, P. C., Ettenger, R. 1992; 39: 441-493

View details for PubMedID 1442319

RENAL-TRANSPLANTATION IN CHILDREN PEDIATRIC ANNALS Yadin, O., Grimm, P. C., Ettenger, R. B. 1991; 20 (12): 657-667

View details for Web of Science ID A1991GV36500003

View details for PubMedID 1766697



This report describes the potential and actual effects that recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) may have on the practice of renal transplantation. Three aspects are highlighted. The first is the effects in the dialysis patient transplanted after treatment with rHuEpo. These include the potential risks of graft thrombosis and prolonged initial nonfunction (for which there is little supportive evidence), and the impact on pretransplant immune-modulating regimens, which take advantage of the so-called transfusion effect. As the importance of this effect to overall graft survival has diminished strikingly, this may be of little consequence. The second aspect relates to the highly presensitized dialysis patient. The literature and our own data are presented, showing the beneficial effects of rHuEpo therapy on reducing the level of humoral anti-HLA sensitization. This may lead to benefits that include reduced time on the waiting list for a cadaveric renal transplant, and possibly improved allograft survival. Finally, our data on the use of rHuEpo in 13 patients with anemia (usually due to chronic graft failure) after transplantation is discussed. rHuEpo therapy was effective in all patients, leading to reversal of anemia. Side effects, including hypertension and hypertensive seizures, occurred in the subgroup of patients with significant renal dysfunction (serum creatinine greater than 2.5 mg/DL).

View details for Web of Science ID A1991GK19700011

View details for PubMedID 1928081



The contribution of sensitized B lymphocytes to second-set allograft rejection has been relatively ignored despite their regular appearance in rejecting allografts. This study presents evidence that adoptively transferred sensitized B lymphocytes accelerate the rate of acute allograft rejection in a sublethally irradiated rat cardiac allograft model. Donors of reconstituting B lymphocytes were sensitized with three consecutive ACI skin grafts. Transplantation of a heart from an ACI strain donor into a Lewis strain recipient (complete RT1 mismatch) results in rejection in 6.8 +/- 0.3 days. When the allograft donor and recipient are irradiated with 650 cGy prior to transplantation, rejection occurs at 31.5 +/- 3.0 days. Irradiated recipients reconstituted with 10(6) syngeneic sensitized splenic B cells reject their grafts in 20.1 +/- 2.0 days, while reconstitution with 10(6) unsensitized syngeneic B cells has no effect on the rate of rejection (P = 0.0007). These data strongly suggest that sensitized B lymphocytes have a marked accelerating effect on the tempo of allograft rejection.

View details for Web of Science ID A1991GD58000005

View details for PubMedID 1881134


View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39000158

View details for PubMedID 1990568


View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39100043

View details for PubMedID 1989141


View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39000157

View details for PubMedID 1990567



Highly presensitized patients wait longer for a renal allograft than unsensitized patients and have a poorer allograft survival rate. Repeated blood transfusions have been implicated in the induction and maintenance of sensitization. To determine the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) therapy on five transfusion dependent, highly sensitized adolescents on dialysis, we serially measured percentage panel reactive antibody (%PRA) levels, titers of identifiable discrete anti-HLA Class I antibody specificities, and non-specific indices of cellular immunity before and following initiation of rHuEPO therapy. Although four of the five patients had previously rejected at least one renal allograft, the removal of chronic antigenic stimulation from blood transfusions led to a marked reduction in anti-HLA antibody titers to recognizable private and public specificities (P less than 0.001) and a reduction of mean %PRA from 80% to 56% (P less than 0.05). Each patient demonstrated a reduction of two or more dilutions to at least two anti-HLA antibody specificities. A control group of five patients matched for age, transfusion dependence and sensitization status demonstrated no change during a comparable time interval. PHA responsiveness decreased significantly in the rHuEPO group whereas autologous and allogenic mixed lymphocyte response, spontaneous blastogenesis and T-cell subsets did not. These data indicate that in highly sensitized dialysis patients rHuEPO may lead to decreased sensitization, shorter waiting time on dialysis and possibly improved allograft survival rates.

View details for Web of Science ID A1990DK40000003

View details for PubMedID 2385080



The cpk mutation in mice produces a lethal recessive form of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) that, like human forms of the condition, is associated with an age-related incidence of hepatic cysts. Injection of plastic into the biliary tree of affected animals revealed that these cysts arise from focal dilatations of the epithelial lining that may enlarge to the point that they obstruct the bile ducts. This concept was supported by histological and scanning and electron microscopic studies. No evidence could be found of primary obstruction of the biliary tree. The same techniques were then employed in specimens of human liver from patients with both recessive (ARPKD) and dominantly inherited PKD (ADPKD). Similar abnormalities of the biliary tree were identified. These abnormalities were not found in control liver samples from patients without PKD. The liver of the patient with ADPKD also demonstrated many von Meyenburg complexes. These were related to some cyst development, but these complexes freely communicated with bile ducts, contrary to currently held opinion. We conclude that hepatic abnormalities in the cpk mouse and human PKD arise from changes in bile ducts that are analogous to the renal lesions.

View details for Web of Science ID A1990CQ84600014

View details for PubMedID 2310613

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1998675



We report two paediatric renal transplant patients in whom interaction with the calcium channel blocking agent verapamil resulted in reduced cyclosporin A (CyA) elimination. Prior therapy with another calcium channel blocking agent, nifedipine, did not affect CyA pharmacokinetics. We speculate that verapamil reduced CyA elimination in children via an effect upon the microsomal oxidase system that is independent of calcium channel activity.

View details for Web of Science ID A1989AE67500017

View details for PubMedID 2702114

INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS INDUCED BY CLOXACILLIN NEPHRON Grimm, P. C., Ogborn, M. R., Larson, A. J., Crocker, J. F. 1989; 51 (2): 285-286

View details for Web of Science ID A1989R880000025

View details for PubMedID 2915772