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The latest information about the 2019 Novel Coronavirus, including vaccine clinics for children ages 6 months and older.

La información más reciente sobre el nuevo Coronavirus de 2019, incluidas las clínicas de vacunación para niños de 6 meses en adelante.


Romy Yun, MD

  • Romy Dju-Hiee Yun


Anesthesia, General


Work and Education

Professional Education

Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, 05/31/2007


MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, 06/30/2008


Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 06/30/2011


Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 07/31/2012

Board Certifications

Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology

Pediatric Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology



All Publications

A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures used in maternal postpartum anxiety. American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM O'Carroll, J., Ando, K., Yun, R., Panelli, D., Nicklin, A., Kennedy, N., Carvalho, B., Blake, L., Coker, J., Kaysen, D., Sultan, P. 2023: 101076


To perform a systematic review and evaluate the psychometric measurement properties of instruments in postpartum anxiety using Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines and identify the best available patient-reported outcome measure.We searched 4 databases (CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science in July 2022) including studies which evaluated at least one psychometric measurement property of a patient reported outcome measurement instrument. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO CRD42021260004 and followed the COSMIN guidelines for systematic reviews.Studies eligible for inclusion included those that assessed a patient-reported outcome measure examining postpartumanxiety. We included studies where the instruments had undergone some form of psychometric property assessment in the postpartum maternal population, consisted of at least 2 questions, and were not subscales.This systematic review used COSMIN and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify the best patient reported outcome measurement instrument for postpartum anxiety. A risk of bias assessment was performed, and a modified GRADE approach used to assess the level of evidence with recommendations being made for the overall quality of each instrument.A total of 28 studies evaluating 13 instruments in 10,570 patients were included. Content validity was sufficient in 9, with 5 instruments receiving a class A recommendation (recommended for use). Postpartum Specific Anxiety Scale, Postpartum Specific Anxiety Scale Research Short Form, Postpartum Specific Anxiety Scale Research Short Form Covid, Postpartum Specific Anxiety Scale- Persian and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory demonstrated adequate content validity and sufficient internal consistency. Nine instruments received a recommendation of class B (further research required). No instrument received a class C recommendation (not recommended for use).Five instruments received a class A recommendation, all with limitations such as not being specific to the postpartum population, not assessing all domains, lacking generalizability or evaluation of cross-cultural validity. There is currently no freely available instrument assessing all domains of postpartum anxiety. Future studies are needed to determine the optimum current instrument or development and validation of a more specific measure for maternal postpartum anxiety.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2023.101076

View details for PubMedID 37402438

Assessing Pediatric Perioperative Affect: A Concise Review of Research and Clinically Relevant Scales. Paediatric anaesthesia Yun, R., Hess, O., Kennedy, K., Stricker, P. A., Blake, L., Caruso, T. J. 2022

View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.14568

View details for PubMedID 36178764

Expert Consensus Regarding Core Outcomes for Enhanced Recovery after Cesarean Delivery Studies: A Delphi study. Anesthesiology Sultan, P., George, R., Weiniger, C. F., El-Boghdadly, K., Pandal, P., Carvalho, B., CRADLE Study Investigators, Ansari, J. R., Benhamou, D., Baluku, M., Bernstein, P. S., Bollag, L. A., Bowden, S. J., Fay, E., Habib, A. S., Halder, S., Landau, R., Lim, G., Liu, V., Moreno, C., Nelson, G. S., Powell, M. F., Pujic, B., Sharawi, N., Singh, N., Smith, R., Stockert, E., Sultan, E., Tiouririne, M., Wilson, R. D., Wrench, I. J., Yun, R., Zakowski, M. 2022


BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity among reported outcomes from enhanced recovery after cesarean delivery impact studies is high. This study aimed to develop a standardized enhanced recovery core outcome set for use in future enhanced recovery after cesarean delivery studies.METHODS: An international consensus study involving physicians, patients and a director of Midwifery and Nursing Services, was conducted using a three-round modified Delphi approach (2 rounds of electronic questionnaires and a 3rd round e-discussion), to produce the core outcome set. An initial list of outcomes was based on a previously published systematic review. Consensus was obtained for the final core outcome set, including definitions for key terms, and preferred units of measurement. Strong consensus was defined as 70% agreement and weak consensus as 50-69% agreement. Of the 64 stakeholders who were approached, 32 agreed to participate. All 32, 31 and 26 stakeholders completed Rounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively.RESULTS: The number of outcomes in the final core outcome set was reduced from 98 to 15. Strong consensus (70% stakeholder agreement) was achieved for 15 outcomes. The core outcome set included: length of hospital stay; compliance with enhanced recovery protocol; maternal morbidity (hospital re-admissions or unplanned consultations); provision of optimal analgesia (maternal satisfaction, compliance with analgesia, opioid consumption / requirement and incidence of nausea or vomiting); fasting times; breastfeeding success; and times to mobilization and urinary catheter removal. The Obstetric Quality of Recovery-10 item composite measure was also included in the final core outcome set. Areas identified as requiring further research included readiness for discharge and analysis of cost savings.CONCLUSIONS: Results from an international consensus to develop a core outcome set for enhanced recovery after cesarean delivery are presented. These are outcomes that could be considered when designing future enhanced recovery studies.

View details for DOI 10.1097/ALN.0000000000004263

View details for PubMedID 35511169

Augmented Reality as Sole Anxiolytic for Pediatric Inhalational Induction of General Anesthesia Sanofsky, B., Caruso, T. J., Zuniga, M., Rodriguez, S., Yun, R. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: 81-84
Perioperative Pediatric Anxiety: A Cry for Universal Scale Adoption. Pediatric quality & safety Yun, R., Kennedy, K. M., Caruso, T. J. 2022; 7 (2): e542

View details for DOI 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000542

View details for PubMedID 35369415

Development and assessment of an efficient pediatric affect and cooperation scale. Journal of clinical anesthesia Kennedy, K., Wang, E., Rodriguez, S. T., Qian, J., Khoury, M., Kist, M. N., Jackson, C., Yun, R., Caruso, T. J. 2021; 76: 110569


STUDY OBJECTIVE: HRAD was developed to quickly evaluate pediatric preprocedural affect and cooperativity during mask induction of anesthesia and peripheral intravenous (PIV) placement. HRAD represents: Happy, Relaxed, Anxious, Distressed, with a yes/no answer to cooperativity. The primary aim of this study was to compare HRAD to previously published scales.DESIGN: We conducted an observational study.SETTING: Videos of pediatric patients were collected in the perioperative environment.PATIENTS: Twenty-four children, twenty-one pediatric anesthesiologists and twenty pediatric perioperative providers were included.INTERVENTIONS: To assess the reliability of HRAD, standard patient videos were created. Children underwent mask induction or PIV placement, and these interventions were video recorded. Mask induction and PIV placement videos were rated by pediatric anesthesiologists and perioperative non-physician providers respectively using HRAD.MEASUREMENTS: Two trained researchers provided the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS), Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD), and Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC) scores, and we calculated correlations to HRAD, inter-rater reliability, and intra-rater reliability.MAIN RESULTS: HRAD scores strongly correlated with mYPAS (r=0.846, p<0.0001) and OSBD scores (r=0.723, p<0.0001). Cooperativity scores correlated strongly with ICC scores in the mask induction group (r=-0.715, p<0.0001) and in the PIV group (r=-0.869, p<0.0001). HRAD inter-rater reliability for mask induction was 0.414 (p<0.0001) and for PIV assessment was 0.378 (p<0.0001). Inter-rater reliability for cooperativity on mask induction was 0.797 (p<0.0001) and PIV assessment was 0.683 (p<0.0001). Intra-rater reliability for mask induction was 0.675 and PIV assessments was 0.678. Intra-rater reliability for cooperativity for mask induction was 0.894 and for PIV assessments was 0.765.CONCLUSIONS: HRAD is an efficient and reliable scale that serves as a practical alternative for measuring pediatric affect during mask induction and PIV placement. The results demonstrate strong correlation with commonly utilized yet more complex affect scales.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2021.110569

View details for PubMedID 34739949

Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) Use During Microdirect Laryngoscopy and Bronchoscopy: Initial Data from a Randomized, Prospective, Multi-Collaborative Trial Swanger, A., Yun, R., Olbrecht, V., Winograd, V., Evans, M. A., Stein, M., Ravula, N., Menendez, M., Wang, E., Sidell, D., Caruso, T. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021: 784-785
Application of Echogenic Technology for Catheters Used in Ultrasound-Guided Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks JOURNAL OF ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE Mariano, E. R., Yun, R. D., Kim, T. E., Carvalho, B. 2014; 33 (5): 905-911


Limited data exist regarding the echogenicity of perineural catheters, but visualization is crucial to ensure accurate placement and efficacy of the subsequent local anesthetic infusion. The objective of this study was to determine the comparative echogenicity of various regional anesthesia catheters. In an in vitro porcine-bovine model, we compared the echogenic qualities of 3 commercially available regional anesthesia catheters and 1 catheter under development to optimize echogenicity. Outcomes included visual echogenicity ranking, image quality, and scanning time, as assessed by 2 blinded investigators. The experimental catheter was found to be more echogenic than 2 of the 3 comparators.

View details for DOI 10.7863/ultra.33.5.905

View details for Web of Science ID 000335620700018

View details for PubMedID 24764346

Temperature-controlled radiofrequency treatment of tonsillar hypertrophy for reduction of upper airway obstruction in pediatric patients. Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery Coticchia, J. M., Yun, R. D., Nelson, L., Koempel, J. 2006; 132 (4): 425-30


To determine if temperature-controlled radiofrequency (TCRF) tonsil reduction and adenoidectomy (TCRF&A) and conventional tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) are statistically similar in outcome and to compare morbidity between TCRF&A and conventional T&A.Randomized control trial.Tertiary care children's hospital.The study population comprised 23 patients aged 2.6 to 12.5 years with symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, hypertrophic tonsils with no other areas of upper airway obstruction with the exception of hypertrophic adenoids, and a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) of less than 30.Temperature-controlled radiofrequency tonsil reduction (mean +/- SD, 12.6 +/- 1.5 ablations per patient and 994.68 +/- 91.88 J per insertion) and adenoidectomy or traditional bovie T&A.Primary outcomes were respiratory distress index and total volume reduction. Secondary outcomes include postoperative pain, daytime sleepiness, speech and swallowing problems, weight and diet, narcotic use, and analogue snoring scale.The respiratory distress index difference for TCRF&A was 5.63 vs 6.56 for standard T&A. On postoperative day 1 for the 13 patients who underwent TCRF&A, 0 reported severe pain, 11 (85%) had mild to moderate pain, and 2 (15%) had no pain. In the 10 patients who underwent standard T&A, 1 (10%) had severe pain and 9 (90%) had mild to moderate pain. By postoperative week 1, all TCRF&A patients experienced mild or no pain, whereas 1 (10%) of the standard T&A patients still had moderate pain. Mean visual analogue snore scores (0-10) 4 weeks after surgery were less than 1 for both groups. The mean +/- SD weight loss at postoperative week 1 for TCRF tonsil reduction patients was 1.0 +/- 3.5 lb (0.45 +/- 1.58 kg) vs 4.6 +/- 3.9 lb (2.07 +/- 1.76 kg) for standard T&A patients. Return to normal diet at postoperative week 1 occurred in 11 TCRF&A patients (85%) and 0 standard T&A patients.The respiratory distress indexes were similar for TCRF&A patients and standard T&A patients. In addition, there were similar analog snoring scales, decreased pain, and weight loss.

View details for DOI 10.1001/archotol.132.4.425

View details for PubMedID 16618912

Age-, site-, and time-specific differences in pediatric deep neck abscesses. Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery Coticchia, J. M., Getnick, G. S., Yun, R. D., Arnold, J. E. 2004; 130 (2): 201-7


To clarify presentations, organisms, and locations of deep neck abscesses in children.Retrospective review.Tertiary children's hospital. The study population comprised 169 patients younger than 19 years who were surgically treated for deep neck abscesses between 1989 and 1999.Resolution of abscess.Neck mass (91%), fever (86%), cervical adenopathy (83%), poor oral intake (66%), and neck stiffness (59%) were common in all ages. Patients younger than 4 years, compared with patients 4 years or older, presented with agitation (50% vs 14%), cough (35% vs 14%), drooling (27% vs 12%), lethargy (46% vs 33%), oropharyngeal abnormalities (45% vs 60%), respiratory distress (5% vs 2%), retractions (5% vs 2%), rhinorrhea (53% vs 15%), stridor (4% vs 2%), and trismus (14% vs 53%). Children younger than 1 year were infected with Staphylococcus aureus (79%) vs group A streptococcus (6%). Children 1 year or older were infected with group A streptococcus (29%) vs S aureus (16%). Retropharyngeal or parapharyngeal regions were involved in children 1 year or older (49%) vs younger than 1 year (21%). Anterior or posterior triangles and submandibular or submental regions were involved in 39% and 36%, respectively, of children younger than 1 year vs 30% and 23%, respectively, of children 1 year or older. Retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses yielded group A streptococcus (34%) vs S aureus (11%). Anterior and posterior triangle abscesses yielded S aureus (35%) vs group A streptococcus (19%), as did submandibular and submental abscesses (42% vs 19%).Abscesses in children younger than 1 year affected anterior or posterior triangles and submandibular or submental regions, yielding S aureus. Abscesses in children 1 year or older affected retropharyngeal or parapharyngeal regions, yielding group A streptococcus.

View details for DOI 10.1001/archotol.130.2.201

View details for PubMedID 14967751

mSin3A/histone deacetylase 2- and PRMT5-containing Brg1 complex is involved in transcriptional repression of the Myc target gene cad. Molecular and cellular biology Pal, S., Yun, R., Datta, A., Lacomis, L., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Kumar, J., Tempst, P., Sif, S. 2003; 23 (21): 7475-87


The role of hSWI/SNF complexes in transcriptional activation is well characterized; however, little is known about their function in transcriptional repression. We have previously shown that subunits of the mSin3A/histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) corepressor complex copurify with hSWI/SNF complexes. Here we show that the type II arginine-specific methyltransferase PRMT5, which is involved in cyclin E repression, can be found in association with Brg1 and hBrm-based hSWI/SNF complexes. We also show that hSWI/SNF-associated PRMT5 can methylate hypoacetylated histones H3 and H4 more efficiently than hyperacetylated histones H3 and H4. Protein-protein interaction studies indicate that PRMT5 and mSin3A interact with the same hSWI/SNF subunits as those targeted by c-Myc. These observations prompted us to examine the expression profile of the c-Myc target genes, carbamoyl-phosphate synthase-aspartate carbamoyltransferase-dihydroorotase (cad) and nucleolin (nuc). We found that cad repression is altered in cells that express inactive Brg1 and in cells treated with the HDAC inhibitor depsipeptide. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that Brg1, mSin3A, HDAC2, and PRMT5 are directly recruited to the cad promoter. These results suggest that hSWI/SNF complexes, through their ability to interact with activator and repressor proteins, control expression of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation.

View details for DOI 10.1128/mcb.23.21.7475-7487.2003

View details for PubMedID 14559996

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC207647