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Roshni Mathew, MD

  • Roshni Mathew

Specialties

Infectious Diseases

Work and Education

Professional Education

Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, Karnataka, India, 06/01/2003

Residency

University of Illinois at Chicago Pediatric Residency, Chicago, IL, 06/30/2008

Fellowship

Stanford University Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellowship, Stanford, CA, 8/30/2011

Board Certifications

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, American Board of Pediatrics

Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics

All Publications

Reduction of Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection Through Focus on the Mesosystem: Standardization, Data, and Accountability. Pediatric quality & safety Mathew, R., Simms, A., Wood, M., Taylor, K., Ferrari, S., Rhein, M., Margallo, D., Bain, L. C., Valencia, A. K., Bargmann-Losche, J., Donnelly, L. F., Lee, G. M. 2020; 5 (2): e272

Abstract

Introduction: Efforts to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates require strong microsystems for success. However, variation in practices across units leads to challenges in ensuring accountability. We redesigned the organization's mesosystem to provide oversight and alignment of microsystem efforts and ensure accountability in the context of the macrosystem. We implemented an A3 framework to achieve reductions in CLABSI through adherence to known evidence-based bundles.Methods: We conducted this CLABSI reduction improvement initiative at a 395-bed freestanding, academic, university-affiliated children's hospital. A mesosystem-focused A3 emphasized bundle adherence through 3 key drivers (1) practice standardization, (2) data transparency, and (3) accountability. We evaluated the impact of this intervention on CLABSI rates during the pre-intervention (01/15-09/17) and post-intervention (07/18-06/19) periods using a Poisson model controlling for baseline trends.Results: Our quarterly CLABSI rates during the pre-intervention period ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line-days. With the mesosystem in place, CLABSI rates ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 per 1,000 central line days during the post-intervention period. Adjusting for secular trends, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the post versus pre-intervention CLABSI rate of 71%.Conclusion: Our hospital-wide CLABSI rate declined for the first time in many years after the redesign of the mesosystem and a focus on practice standardization, data transparency, and accountability. Our approach highlights the importance of alignment across unit-level microsystems to ensure high-fidelity implementation of practice standards throughout the healthcare-delivery system.

View details for DOI 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000272

View details for PubMedID 32426638

Differences in Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Rates Based on the Criteria Used to Count Central Line Days. JAMA Scheinker, D., Ward, A., Shin, A. Y., Lee, G. M., Mathew, R., Donnelly, L. F. 2020; 323 (2): 18385

View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2019.18616

View details for PubMedID 31935018

Mucormycosis diagnosed during induction chemotherapy in five pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatric blood & cancer Aftandilian, C., Eguiguren, L., Mathew, R., Messner, A. 2019: e27834

Abstract

Mucormycosis in pediatric oncology patients is a rare invasive fungal infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe five patients diagnosed with mucormycosis during induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at our institution. All of the patients in our series survived, some in spite of having disseminated disease. Most of the patients' chemotherapy was modified with the aim of controlling their leukemia while minimizing immunosuppression until their fungal infection was under control. Although mucormycosis is frequently fatal, rapid diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach can lead to excellent outcomes, even in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy.

View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.27834

View details for PubMedID 31131954

Foregone Inclusion: Neonatal CMV Hepatitis and Cholestasis. Digestive diseases and sciences Martin, M., Holmes, S., Sim, J., Hassan, M., Mathew, R., Bensen, R., Barakat, M. 2019

View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-019-05691-7

View details for PubMedID 31187327

Complicated pneumonia: current concepts and state of the art. Current opinion in pediatrics Tracy, M. C., Mathew, R. 2018

Abstract

This review aims to provide clinicians engaged in the care of infants and children an update on the current understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical management of complicated pneumonia. The review provides timely information surrounding areas of consensus and ongoing research.The epidemiology and etiologies of complicated pneumonia continue to evolve over the past several decades in context of the introduction of new vaccines. We review uncommon and emerging pathogens. Immunocompromised patients are particularly at risk for complications. The 2011 clinical practice guidelines for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia from The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America and the British Thoracic Society are changing approaches to evaluation and management. The efficacy of new diagnostic laboratory studies, and imaging techniques, continues to be studied. Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment, with several new options to consider. Techniques for the drainage of parapneumonic effusions continue to optimize.Although much is known about complicated pneumonia, it remains a significant burden. New diagnostic and therapeutic interventions hold much promise. This review seeks to provide clinicians with evidence that motivates a reasoned approach to the evaluation and management of complicated pneumonia.

View details for PubMedID 29528891

Pleural Effusion and Fever in an Immunocompromised Patient. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Kay, A. W., Itoh, M., Valdez, J., Chen, S. F., Mathew, R., Gans, H. A. 2015; 4 (1): e6-9

View details for DOI 10.1093/jpids/piu018

View details for PubMedID 26407371