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Sarah Lee, MD


Neurology - Child Neurology

Work and Education

Professional Education

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 06/01/2010


SUNY Downstate Medical Center Pediatric Residency, Brooklyn, NY, 7/31/2012


Stanford University Child Neurology Residency, Palo Alto, CA, 6/30/2015


Stanford University Vascular Neurology Fellowship, Stanford, CA, 6/30/2016

Board Certifications

Neurology - Child Neurology, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology

Vascular Neurology, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology

All Publications

Pathways for Neuroimaging of Neonatal Stroke. Pediatric neurology Lee, S., Mirsky, D. M., Beslow, L. A., Amlie-Lefond, C., Danehy, A. R., Lehman, L., Stence, N. V., Vossough, A., Wintermark, M., Rivkin, M. J. 2017


To provide consensus-based, suggested imaging protocols to facilitate the accurate and timely diagnosis of a neonate with symptoms concerning for stroke.The Writing Group, an international collaboration of pediatric neurologists and neuroradiologists with expertise in perinatal and childhood stroke, participated in a series of pediatric stroke neuroimaging symposia. These discussions, in conjunction with extensive literature review, led to a consensus for imaging protocols to guide practitioners in the diagnosis of neonatal stroke subtypes as defined by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Common Data Elements. The epidemiology, clinical presentation, and associated risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke are reviewed, with a focused discussion regarding the role of neuroimaging for each subtype.In a neonate with suspected stroke, magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred modality, given the lack of X-irradiation, superior anatomic resolution, and sensitivity for acute ischemia. Core recommended sequences include diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping to diagnose acute ischemia, gradient-recalled echo or susceptibility-weighted imaging to detect intracranial blood and its breakdown products, and T1- and T2-weighted imaging to assess for myelination, extra-axial blood, and edema. Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain may be useful to detect vascular abnormalities, with venography if venous sinus thrombosis is suspected. The application of more novel sequences, as well as the utility of follow up-imaging, is also discussed.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.12.008

View details for PubMedID 28262550

R-SCAN: Imaging for Pediatric Simple Febrile Seizures. Journal of the American College of Radiology Lee, S., Fisher, P., Grant, G. A., Porter, B., Dannenberg, B., Wintermark, M. 2017

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2017.04.007

View details for PubMedID 28551342

Pathways for Neuroimaging of Childhood Stroke PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY Mirsky, D. M., Beslow, L. A., Amlie-Lefond, C., Krishnan, P., Laughlin, S., Lee, S., Lehman, L., Rafay, M., Shaw, D., Rivkin, M. J., Wintermark, M. 2017; 69: 11-23


The purpose of this article is to aid practitioners in choosing appropriate neuroimaging for children who present with symptoms that could be caused by stroke.The Writing Group members participated in one or more pediatric stroke neuroimaging symposiums hosted by the Stroke Imaging Laboratory for Children housed at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Through collaboration, literature review, and discussion among child neurologists with expertise diagnosing and treating childhood stroke and pediatric neuroradiologists and neuroradiologists with expertise in pediatric neurovascular disease, suggested imaging protocols are presented for children with suspected stroke syndromes including arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke.This article presents information about the epidemiology and classification of childhood stroke with definitions based on the National Institutes of Health Common Data Elements. The role of imaging for the diagnosis of childhood stroke is examined in depth, with separate sections for arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke. Abbreviated neuroimaging protocols for rapid diagnosis are discussed. The Writing Group provides suggestions for optimal neuroimaging investigation of various stroke types in the acute setting and suggestions for follow-up neuroimaging. Advanced sequences such as diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion imaging, and vessel wall imaging are also discussed.This article provides protocols for the imaging of children who present with suspected stroke.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.12.004

View details for Web of Science ID 000398648400003

View details for PubMedID 28274641

R-SCAN: Imaging for Pediatric Minor Head Trauma. Journal of the American College of Radiology Lee, S., Grant, G. A., Fisher, P. G., Imler, D., Padrez, R., Avery, C., Sharp, A. L., Wintermark, M. 2017; 14 (2): 294-297

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2016.10.006

View details for PubMedID 28017272