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Sushma Reddy, MD

  • Sushma Reddy



Work and Education

Professional Education

Rajah Muthiah Medical College & Hospital Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, India, 06/30/1998


Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, 06/30/2004


Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, 06/30/2009

Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital, New York, NY, 06/30/2008

Board Certifications

Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics

All Publications

Noncanonical WNT Activation in Human Right Ventricular Heart Failure FRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE Edwards, J. J., Brandimarto, J., Hu, D., Jeong, S., Yucel, N., Li, L., Bedi, K. C., Wada, S., Murashige, D., Hwang, H. V., Zhao, M., Margulies, K. B., Bernstein, D., Reddy, S., Arany, Z. 2020; 7: 582407


Background: No medical therapies exist to treat right ventricular (RV) remodeling and RV failure (RVF), in large part because molecular pathways that are specifically activated in pathologic human RV remodeling remain poorly defined. Murine models have suggested involvement of Wnt signaling, but this has not been well-defined in human RVF. Methods: Using a candidate gene approach, we sought to identify genes specifically expressed in human pathologic RV remodeling by assessing the expression of 28 WNT-related genes in the RVs of three groups: explanted nonfailing donors (NF, n = 29), explanted dilated and ischemic cardiomyopathy, obtained at the time of cardiac transplantation, either with preserved RV function (pRV, n = 78) or with RVF (n = 35). Results: We identified the noncanonical WNT receptor ROR2 as transcriptionally strongly upregulated in RVF compared to pRV and NF (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted P < 0.05). ROR2 protein expression correlated linearly to mRNA expression (R2 = 0.41, P = 8.1 10-18) among all RVs, and to higher right atrial to pulmonary capillary wedge ratio in RVF (R2 = 0.40, P = 3.0 10-5). Utilizing Masson's trichrome and ROR2 immunohistochemistry, we identified preferential ROR2 protein expression in fibrotic regions by both cardiomyocytes and noncardiomyocytes. We compared RVF with high and low ROR2 expression, and found that high ROR2 expression was associated with increased expression of the WNT5A/ROR2/Ca2+ responsive protease calpain-, cleavage of its target FLNA, and FLNA phosphorylation, another marker of activation downstream of ROR2. ROR2 protein expression as a continuous variable, correlated strongly to expression of calpain- (R2 = 0.25), total FLNA (R2 = 0.67), calpain cleaved FLNA (R2 = 0.32) and FLNA phosphorylation (R2 = 0.62, P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: We demonstrate robust reactivation of a fetal WNT gene program, specifically its noncanonical arm, in human RVF characterized by activation of ROR2/calpain mediated cytoskeleton protein cleavage.

View details for DOI 10.3389/fcvm.2020.582407

View details for Web of Science ID 000579825800001

View details for PubMedID 33134326

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7575695

4HNE Impairs Myocardial Bioenergetics in Congenital Heart DiseaseInduced Right Ventricular Failure. Circulation Hwang, H. V., Sandeep, N., Paige, S. L., Ranjbarvaziri, S., Hu, D., Zhao, M., Lan, I. S., Coronado, M., Kooiker, K. B., Wu, S. M., Fajardo, G., Bernstein, D., Reddy, S. 2020


Background: In patients with complex congenital heart disease, such as those with tetralogy of Fallot, the right ventricle (RV) is subject to pressure overload stress, leading to RV hypertrophy and eventually RV failure. The role of lipid peroxidation, a potent form of oxidative stress, in mediating RV hypertrophy and failure in congenital heart disease is unknown. Methods: Lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial function and structure were assessed in RV myocardium collected from patients with RV hypertrophy with normal RV systolic function (RV FAC 47.33.8%) and in patients with RV failure showing decreased RV systolic function (RV FAC 26.63.1%). The mechanism of the effect of lipid peroxidation, mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE; a byproduct of lipid peroxidation) on mitochondrial function and structure was assessed in HL1 murine cardiomyocytes and human induced pluripotent stem cellderived cardiomyocytes. Results: RV failure was characterized by an increase in 4HNE adduction of metabolic and mitochondrial proteins (16/27 identified proteins), in particular electron transport chain proteins. Sarcomeric (myosin) and cytoskeletal proteins (desmin, tubulin) also underwent 4HNEadduction. RV failure showed lower oxidative phosphorylation [moderate RV hypertrophy 287.619.75 vs. RV failure 137.811.57 pmol/(sec*ml), p=0.0004], and mitochondrial structural damage. Using a cell model, we show that 4HNE decreases cell number and oxidative phosphorylation (control 388.123.54 vs. 4HNE 143.711.64 pmol/(sec*ml), p<0.0001). Carvedilol, a known antioxidant did not decrease 4HNE adduction of metabolic and mitochondrial proteins and did not improve oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions: Metabolic, mitochondrial, sarcomeric and cytoskeletal proteins are susceptible to 4HNE-adduction in patients with RV failure. 4HNE decreases mitochondrial oxygen consumption by inhibiting electron transport chain complexes. Carvedilol did not improve the 4HNE-mediated decrease in oxygen consumption. Strategies to decrease lipid peroxidation could improve mitochondrial energy generation and cardiomyocyte survival and improve RV failure in patients with congenital heart disease.

View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.045470

View details for PubMedID 32806952

Proceedings From the 2019 Stanford Single Ventricle Scientific Summit: Advancing Science for Single Ventricle Patients: From Discovery to Clinical Applications. Journal of the American Heart Association Reddy, S., Handler, S. S., Wu, S., Rabinovitch, M., Wright, G. 2020; 9 (7): e015871


Abstracts Because of remarkable advances in survival over the past 40years, the worldwide population of individuals with single ventricle heart disease living with Fontan circulation has grown to 70000, with nearly half aged >18years. Survival to at least 30years of age is now achievable for 75% of Fontan patients. On the other hand, single ventricle patients account for the largest group of the 6000 to 8000 children hospitalized with circulation failure, with or without heart failure annually in the United States, with the highest in-hospital mortality. Because there is little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of heart failure, arrhythmias, pulmonary and lymphatic vascular abnormalities, and other morbidities, there are no specific treatments to maintain long-term myocardial performance or to optimize overall patient outcomes.

View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.119.015871

View details for PubMedID 32188306

Characterizing the Molecular and Histological Events That Govern Right Ventricular Recovery in a Novel Mouse Model of PA De-Banding Boehm, M., Tian, X., Mao, Y., Ichimura, K., Dufva, M., Ali, M. K., Prosseda, S., Shi, Y., Kuramoto, K., Reddy, S., Kheyfets, V. O., Metzger, R. J., Spiekerkoetter, E. AMER THORACIC SOC. 2020
FK506 Requires ALK1 to Attenuate Stimulus-Induced Collagen Production in Human Cardiac Fibroblasts Ali, M., Tian, X., Boehm, M., Andruska, A. M., Zhao, M., Kuramoto, K., Bernstein, D., Metzger, R., Reddy, S., Spiekerkoetter, E. F. AMER THORACIC SOC. 2020
Delineating the molecular and histological events that govern right ventricular recovery using a novel mouse model of PA de-banding. Cardiovascular research Boehm, M., Tian, X., Mao, Y., Ichimura, K., Dufva, M. J., Ali, K., Prosseda, S. D., Shi, Y., Kuramoto, K., Reddy, S., Kheyfets, V. O., Metzger, R. J., Spiekerkoetter, E. 2019


AIMS: The temporal sequence of events underlying functional right ventricular (RV) recovery after improvement of pulmonary hypertension-associated pressure overload are unknown. We sought to establish a novel mouse model of gradual RV recovery from pressure overload and use it to delineate RV reverse-remodeling events.METHODS AND RESULTS: Surgical pulmonary artery banding (PAB) around a 26G needle induced RV dysfunction with increased RV pressures, reduced exercise capacity and caused liver congestion, hypertrophic, fibrotic and vascular myocardial remodeling within 5 weeks of chronic RV pressure overload in mice. Gradual reduction of the afterload burden through PA band absorption (de-PAB) - after RV dysfunction and structural remodeling were established - initiated recovery of RV function (cardiac output, exercise capacity) along with rapid normalization in RV hypertrophy (RV/LV+S, cardiomyocyte area) and RV pressures (RVSP). RV fibrotic (collagen, elastic fibers, vimentin+ fibroblasts) and vascular (capillary density) remodeling were equally reversible, however reversal occurred at a later time-point after de-PAB, when RV function was already completely restored. Microarray gene expression (ClariomS, Thermo Fisher) along with gene ontology analyses in RV tissues revealed growth factors, immune modulators and apoptosis mediators as major cellular components underlying functional RV recovery.CONCLUSIONS: We established a novel gradual de-PAB mouse model and used it to demonstrate that established pulmonary hypertension-associated RV dysfunction is fully reversible. Mechanistically, we link functional RV improvement to hypertrophic normalization that precedes fibrotic and vascular reverse-remodeling events.TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: The right ventricle (RV) in pulmonary arterial hypertension possesses a remarkable ability to recover after lung transplantation. Yet, some transplant centers prefer a heart-lung instead of lung transplantation when the RV function is severely impaired because knowledge is lacking whether fibrotic and vascular myocardial remodeling are completely reversible once the increased afterload burden is relieved. We have developed a mouse model to study gradual unloading of the RV and identified key molecular components and the timing of RV reverse-remodeling events with the ultimate goal to understand the RV recovery process and identify ways how to support the RV during recovery.

View details for DOI 10.1093/cvr/cvz310

View details for PubMedID 31738411

Bleeding and Thrombosis With Pediatric Extracorporeal Life Support: A Roadmap for Management, Research, and the Future From the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society (Part Two). Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Penk, J. S., Reddy, S., Polito, A., Cisco, M. J., Allan, C. K., Bembea, M., Giglia, T. M., Cheng, H. H., Thiagarajan, R. R., Dalton, H. J. 2019


OBJECTIVES: To make recommendations on improving understanding of bleeding and thrombosis with pediatric extracorporeal life support including future research directions.DATA SOURCES: Evaluation of literature and consensus conferences of pediatric critical care and extracorporeal life support experts.STUDY SELECTION: A team of 10 experts with pediatric cardiac and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation experience and expertise met through the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society to review current knowledge and make recommendations for future research to establish "best practice" for anticoagulation management related to extracorporeal life support.DATA EXTRACTION/DATA SYNTHESIS: This white paper focuses on clinical understanding and limitations of current strategies to monitor anticoagulation. For each test of anticoagulation, limitations of current knowledge are addressed and future research directions suggested.CONCLUSIONS: No consensus on best practice for anticoagulation monitoring exists. Structured scientific evaluation to answer questions regarding anticoagulation monitoring and bleeding and thrombotic events should occur in multicenter studies using standardized approaches and well-defined endpoints. Outcomes related to need for component change, blood product administration, healthcare outcome, and economic assessment should be incorporated into studies. All centers should report data on patient receiving extracorporeal life support to a registry.

View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002104

View details for PubMedID 31517728

Right ventricular failure in congenital heart disease. Current opinion in pediatrics Friedberg, M. K., Reddy, S. 2019


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review select literature pertaining to congenital heart disease (CHD)-induced right ventricular (RV) function and failure.RECENT FINDINGS: We review recent findings pertaining to children and adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF), systemic RV and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We emphasize pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to RV dysfunction in these conditions, the risk factors for adverse outcomes and the continuing challenges in treating these patients. We discuss how recent pathology findings, as well as developments in imaging and computer modeling have broadened our understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions. We further review developments in the molecular and cellular basis of RV failure; and in particular, the RV molecular response to stress in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). We highlight some of the genetic complexities in HLHS and how these may influence the long-term outcomes in these patients.SUMMARY: Recent literature has led to new understandings in the pathology, pathophysiology, risk factors for adverse outcomes, molecular and genetic basis for RV dysfunction and failure in CHD. Although these findings provide new therapeutic targets, the treatment of RV failure at this time remains limited.

View details for DOI 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000804

View details for PubMedID 31356354

Bleeding and Thrombosis With Pediatric Extracorporeal Life Support: A Roadmap for Management, Research, and the Future From the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society (Part 1). Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Penk, J. S., Reddy, S., Polito, A., Cisco, M. J., Allan, C. K., Bembea, M. M., Giglia, T. M., Cheng, H. H., Thiagarajan, R. R., Dalton, H. J. 2019


OBJECTIVES: To make practical and evidence-based recommendations on improving understanding of bleeding and thrombosis with pediatric extracorporeal life support and to make recommendations for research directions.DATA SOURCES: Evaluation of literature and consensus conferences of pediatric critical care and extracorporeal life support experts.STUDY SELECTION: A team of 10 experts with pediatric cardiac and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation experience and expertise met through the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society to review current knowledge and make recommendations for future research to establish "best practice" for anticoagulation management related to extracorporeal life support.DATA EXTRACTION/SYNTHESIS: The first of a two-part white article focuses on clinical understanding and limitations of medications in use for anticoagulation, including novel medications. For each medication, limitations of current knowledge are addressed and research recommendations are suggested to allow for more definitive clinical guidelines in the future.CONCLUSIONS: No consensus on best practice for anticoagulation exists. Structured scientific evaluation to answer questions regarding anticoagulant medication and bleeding and thrombotic events should occur in multicenter studies using standardized approaches and well-defined endpoints. Outcomes related to need for component change, blood product administration, healthcare outcome, and economic assessment should be incorporated into studies. All centers should report data on patients receiving extracorporeal life support to a registry. The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry, designed primarily for quality improvement purposes, remains the primary and most successful data repository to date.

View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002054

View details for PubMedID 31274779

Loss of Endothelium-Derived Wnt5a Is Associated With Reduced Pericyte Recruitment and Small Vessel Loss in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension CIRCULATION Yuan, K., Shamskhou, E. A., Orcholski, M. E., Nathan, A., Reddy, S., Honda, H., Mani, V., Zeng, Y., Ozen, M. O., Wang, L., Demirci, U., Tian, W., Nicolls, M. R., Perez, V. 2019; 139 (14): 171024
Overexpression of Hypoxia Inducible Factors in Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells Mitigates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension Barnes, E. A., Che, X., Ito, R., Reddy, S., Cornfield, D. N. AMER THORACIC SOC. 2019
A process for academic societies to develop scientific statements and white papers: experience of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. Cardiology in the young Reddy, S., Polito, A., Staveski, S., Dalton, H. 2018: 14


There are substantial knowledge gaps, practice variation, and paucity of controlled trials owing to the relatively small number of patients with critical heart disease. The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society has recognised this knowledge gap as an area needing a more comprehensive and evidence-based approach to the management of the critically ill child with heart disease. To address this, the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society created a scientific statements and white papers committee. Scientific statements and white papers will present the current state-of-the-art in areas where controversy exists, providing clinicians with guidance in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, particularly where evidence-based data are lacking. This paper provides a template for other societies and organisations faced with the task of developing scientific statements and white papers. We describe the methods used to perform a systematic literature search and evidence rating that will be used by all scientific statements and white papers emerging from the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society aims to revolutionise the care of children with heart disease by shifting our efforts from individual institution-based practices to national standardised protocols and to lay the ground work for multicentre high-impact research directions.

View details for PubMedID 30511598

Cardiovascular Disease in the Young Council's Science and Clinical Education Lifelong Learning Committee: Year in Review JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Reddy, S., Marino, B. S., Baker-Smith, C. M., Beaton, A., Krawczeski, C. D., Miyake, C. Y., Cnota, J. F., Glatz, A. C., Feingold, B., Romano, J. C., Cabrera, A. G., John, A. S., Cohen, M. S. 2018; 7 (21): e010617

View details for PubMedID 30571390

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors for Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Tetralogy of Fallot Quo Vadis? CIRCULATION Reddy, S., Bernstein, D., Newburger, J. W. 2018; 137 (14): 147274

View details for PubMedID 29610128

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5886745

Physiological Mitochondrial Fragmentation Is a Normal Cardiac Adaptation to Increased Energy Demand. Circulation research Coronado, M. n., Fajardo, G. n., Nguyen, K. n., Zhao, M. n., Kooiker, K. n., Jung, G. n., Hu, D. Q., Reddy, S. n., Sandoval, E. n., Stotland, A. n., Gottlieb, R. A., Bernstein, D. n. 2018; 122 (2): 28295


Mitochondria play a dual role in the heart, responsible for meeting energetic demands and regulating cell death. Paradigms have held that mitochondrial fission and fragmentation are the result of pathological stresses, such as ischemia, are an indicator of poor mitochondrial health, and lead to mitophagy and cell death. However, recent studies demonstrate that inhibiting fission also results in decreased mitochondrial function and cardiac impairment, suggesting that fission is important for maintaining cardiac and mitochondrial bioenergetic homeostasis.The purpose of this study is to determine whether mitochondrial fission and fragmentation can be an adaptive mechanism used by the heart to augment mitochondrial and cardiac function during a normal physiological stress, such as exercise.We demonstrate a novel role for cardiac mitochondrial fission as a normal adaptation to increased energetic demand. During submaximal exercise, physiological mitochondrial fragmentation results in enhanced, rather than impaired, mitochondrial function and is mediated, in part, by 1-adrenergic receptor signaling. Similar to pathological fragmentation, physiological fragmentation is induced by activation of dynamin-related protein 1; however, unlike pathological fragmentation, membrane potential is maintained and regulators of mitophagy are downregulated. Inhibition of fission with P110, Mdivi-1 (mitochondrial division inhibitor), or in mice with cardiac-specific dynamin-related protein 1 ablation significantly decreases exercise capacity.These findings demonstrate the requirement for physiological mitochondrial fragmentation to meet the energetic demands of exercise, as well as providing additional support for the evolving conceptual framework, where mitochondrial fission and fragmentation play a role in the balance between mitochondrial maintenance of normal physiology and response to disease.

View details for PubMedID 29233845

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5775047

Loss of Endothelial Derived WNT5A is Associated with Reduced Pericyte Recruitment and Small Vessel Loss in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Circulation Yuan, K. n., Shamskhou, E. A., Orcholski, M. E., Nathan, A. n., Reddy, S. n., Honda, H. n., Mani, V. n., Zeng, Y. n., Ozen, M. O., Wang, L. n., Demirci, U. n., Tian, W. n., Nicolls, M. R., de Jesus Perez, V. A. 2018


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder of the pulmonary circulation associated with loss and impaired regeneration of microvessels. Reduced pericyte coverage of pulmonary microvessels is a pathological feature of PAH and is partly due to the inability of pericytes to respond to signaling cues from neighboring pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). We have shown that activation of the Wnt/PCP pathway is required for pericyte recruitment but whether production and release of specific Wnt ligands by PMVECs is responsible for Wnt/PCP activation in pericytes is unknown.Isolation of pericytes and PMVECs from healthy donor and PAH lungs was carried out using 3G5 or CD31 antibody conjugated magnetic beads. Wnt expression profile of PMVECs was documented via qPCR using a Wnt primer library. Exosome purification from PMVEC media was carried out using the ExoTIC device. Hemodynamic profile, right ventricular function and pulmonary vascular morphometry were obtained in a conditional endothelial specific Wnt5a knockout ( Wnt5aECKO) mouse model under normoxia, chronic hypoxia and hypoxia recovery.Quantification of Wnt ligand expression in healthy PMVECs co-cultured with pericytes demonstrated a 35-fold increase in Wnt5a, a known Wnt/PCP ligand. This Wnt5a spike was not seen in PAH PMVECs, which correlated with inability to recruit pericytes in matrigel co-culture assays. Exosomes purified from media demonstrated an increase in Wnt5a content when healthy PMVECs were co-cultured with pericytes, a finding that was not observed in exosomes of PAH PMVECs. Furthermore, the addition of either recombinant Wnt5a or purified healthy PMVEC exosomes increased pericyte recruitment to PAH PMVECs in co-culture studies. While no differences were noted in normoxia and chronic hypoxia, Wnt5aECKO mice demonstrated persistent pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure four weeks after recovery from chronic hypoxia, which correlated with significant reduction, muscularization and decreased pericyte coverage of microvessels.We identify Wnt5a as a key mediator for the establishment of pulmonary endothelial-pericyte interactions and its loss could contribute to PAH by reducing the viability of newly formed vessels. We speculate that therapies that mimic or restore Wnt5a production could help prevent loss of small vessels in PAH.

View details for PubMedID 30586764

miR-21 is associated with fibrosis and right ventricular failure. JCI insight Reddy, S., Hu, D., Zhao, M., Blay, E., Sandeep, N., Ong, S., Jung, G., Kooiker, K. B., Coronado, M., Fajardo, G., Bernstein, D. 2017; 2 (9)


Combined pulmonary insufficiency (PI) and stenosis (PS) is a common long-term sequela after repair of many forms of congenital heart disease, causing progressive right ventricular (RV) dilation and failure. Little is known of the mechanisms underlying this combination of preload and afterload stressors. We developed a murine model of PI and PS (PI+PS) to identify clinically relevant pathways and biomarkers of disease progression. Diastolic dysfunction was induced (restrictive RV filling, elevated RV end-diastolic pressures) at 1 month after generation of PI+PS and progressed to systolic dysfunction (decreased RV shortening) by 3 months. RV fibrosis progressed from 1 month (4.4% 0.4%) to 3 months (9.2% 1%), along with TGF- signaling and tissue expression of profibrotic miR-21. Although plasma miR-21 was upregulated with diastolic dysfunction, it was downregulated with the onset of systolic dysfunction), correlating with RV fibrosis. Plasma miR-21 in children with PI+PS followed a similar pattern. A model of combined RV volume and pressure overload recapitulates the evolution of RV failure unique to patients with prior RV outflow tract surgery. This progression was characterized by enhanced TGF- and miR-21 signaling. miR-21 may serve as a plasma biomarker of RV failure, with decreased expression heralding the need for valve replacement.

View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.91625

View details for PubMedID 28469078

Institution of Veno-arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Does Not Lead to Increased Wall Stress in Patients with Impaired Myocardial Function PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY Koth, A. M., Axelrod, D. M., Reddy, S., Roth, S. J., Tacy, T. A., Punn, R. 2017; 38 (3): 539-546


The effect of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) on wall stress in patients with cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, or other cardiac conditions is unknown. We set out to determine the circumferential and meridional wall stress (WS) in patients with systemic left ventricles before and during VA ECMO. We established a cohort of patients with impaired myocardial function who underwent VA ECMO therapy from January 2000 to November 2013. Demographic and clinical data were collected and inotropic score calculated. Measurements were taken on echocardiograms prior to the initiation of VA ECMO and while on full-flow VA ECMO, in order to derive wall stress (circumferential and meridional), VCFc, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening. A post hoc sub-analysis was conducted, separating those with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and those with impaired systemic output. Thirty-three patients met inclusion criteria. The patients' median age was 0.06years (range 0-18.7). Eleven (33%) patients constituted the organ failure group (Gr2), while the remaining 22 (66%) patients survived to discharge (Gr1). WS and all other echocardiographic measures were not different when comparing patients before and during VA ECMO. Ejection and shortening fraction, WS, and VCFc were not statistically different comparing the survival and organ failure groups. The patients' position on the VCFc-WS curve did not change after the initiation of VA ECMO. Those with PH had decreased WS as well as increased EF after ECMO initiation, while those with impaired systemic output showed no difference in those parameters with initiation of ECMO. The external workload on the myocardium as indicated by WS is unchanged by the institution of VA ECMO support. Furthermore, echocardiographic measures of cardiac function do not reflect the changes in ventricular performance inherent to VA ECMO support. These findings are informative for the interpretation of echocardiograms in the setting of VA ECMO. ECMO may improve ventricular mechanics in those with PH as the primary diagnosis.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-016-1546-9

View details for Web of Science ID 000398030200013

Compassionate deactivation of ventricular assist devices in pediatric patients JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Hollander, S. A., Axelrod, D. M., Bernstein, D., Cohen, H. J., Sourkes, B., Reddy, S., Magnus, D., Rosenthal, D. N., Kaufman, B. D. 2016; 35 (5): 564-567


Despite greatly improved survival in pediatric patients with end-stage heart failure through the use of ventricular assist devices (VADs), heart failure ultimately remains a life-threatening disease with a significant symptom burden. With increased demand for donor organs, liberalizing the boundaries of case complexity, and the introduction of destination therapy in children, more children can be expected to die while on mechanical support. Despite this trend, guidelines on the ethical and pragmatic issues of compassionate deactivation of VAD support in children are strikingly absent. As VAD support for pediatric patients increases in frequency, the pediatric heart failure and palliative care communities must work toward establishing guidelines to clarify the complex issues surrounding compassionate deactivation. Patient, family and clinician attitudes must be ascertained and education regarding the psychological, legal and ethical issues should be provided. Furthermore, pediatric-specific planning documents for use before VAD implantation as well as deactivation checklists should be developed to assist with decision-making at critical points during the illness trajectory. Herein we review the relevant literature regarding compassionate deactivation with a specific focus on issues related to children.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2016.03.020

View details for Web of Science ID 000376951900004

View details for PubMedID 27197773

De Novo and Rare Variants at Multiple Loci Support the Oligogenic Origins of Atrioventricular Septal Heart Defects. PLoS genetics Priest, J. R., Osoegawa, K., Mohammed, N., Nanda, V., Kundu, R., Schultz, K., Lammer, E. J., Girirajan, S., Scheetz, T., Waggott, D., Haddad, F., Reddy, S., Bernstein, D., Burns, T., Steimle, J. D., Yang, X. H., Moskowitz, I. P., Hurles, M., Lifton, R. P., Nickerson, D., Bamshad, M., Eichler, E. E., Mital, S., Sheffield, V., Quertermous, T., Gelb, B. D., Portman, M., Ashley, E. A. 2016; 12 (4)


Congenital heart disease (CHD) has a complex genetic etiology, and recent studies suggest that high penetrance de novo mutations may account for only a small fraction of disease. In a multi-institutional cohort surveyed by exome sequencing, combining analysis of 987 individuals (discovery cohort of 59 affected trios and 59 control trios, and a replication cohort of 100 affected singletons and 533 unaffected singletons) we observe variation at novel and known loci related to a specific cardiac malformation the atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). In a primary analysis, by combining developmental coexpression networks with inheritance modeling, we identify a de novo mutation in the DNA binding domain of NR1D2 (p.R175W). We show that p.R175W changes the transcriptional activity of Nr1d2 using an in vitro transactivation model in HUVEC cells. Finally, we demonstrate previously unrecognized cardiovascular malformations in the Nr1d2tm1-Dgen knockout mouse. In secondary analyses we map genetic variation to protein-interaction networks suggesting a role for two collagen genes in AVSD, which we corroborate by burden testing in a second replication cohort of 100 AVSDs and 533 controls (p = 8.37e-08). Finally, we apply a rare-disease inheritance model to identify variation in genes previously associated with CHD (ZFPM2, NSD1, NOTCH1, VCAN, and MYH6), cardiac malformations in mouse models (ADAM17, CHRD, IFT140, PTPRJ, RYR1 and ATE1), and hypomorphic alleles of genes causing syndromic CHD (EHMT1, SRCAP, BBS2, NOTCH2, and KMT2D) in 14 of 59 trios, greatly exceeding variation in control trios without CHD (p = 9.60e-06). In total, 32% of trios carried at least one putatively disease-associated variant across 19 loci,suggesting that inherited and de novo variation across a heterogeneous group of loci may contribute to disease risk.

View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005963

View details for PubMedID 27058611

Molecular Mechanisms of Right Ventricular Failure. Circulation Reddy, S., Bernstein, D. 2015; 132 (18): 1734-1742


An abundance of data has provided insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and its progression to LV failure. In contrast, there is minimal data on the adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to pressure and volume overload and the transition to RV failure. This is a critical clinical question, because the RV is uniquely at risk in many patients with repaired or palliated congenital heart disease and in those with pulmonary hypertension. Standard heart failure therapies have failed to improve function or survival in these patients, suggesting a divergence in the molecular mechanisms of RV versus LV failure. Although, on the cellular level, the remodeling responses of the RV and LV to pressure overload are largely similar, there are several key differences: the stressed RV is more susceptible to oxidative stress, has a reduced angiogenic response, and is more likely to activate cell death pathways than the stressed LV. Together, these differences could explain the more rapid progression of the RV to failure versus the LV. This review will highlight known molecular differences between the RV and LV responses to hemodynamic stress, the unique stressors on the RV associated with congenital heart disease, and the need to better understand these molecular mechanisms if we are to develop RV-specific heart failure therapeutics.

View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012975

View details for PubMedID 26527692

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4635965

The vulnerable right ventricle. Current opinion in pediatrics Reddy, S., Bernstein, D. 2015; 27 (5): 563-568


The right ventricle (RV) is uniquely at risk in many patients with repaired or palliated congenital heart disease (CHD) such as tetralogy of Fallot, corrected transposition, single right ventricle, and in those with pulmonary hypertension. These patients live with abnormal cardiac loading conditions throughout their life, predisposing them to right heart failure.Standard heart failure therapies, developed to treat left ventricular failure, have failed to improve function or survival in patients with RV failure, suggesting a divergence in the molecular mechanisms of right versus left ventricular failure. As surgical techniques for repair of the most complex forms of RV-affecting CHDs continue to improve, more children with CHD will survive into adulthood. Long-term survival and quality of life will ultimately depend on our ability to preserve RV function.The purpose of this review is to highlight the differences between the right and left ventricular responses to stress, our current knowledge of how the RV adapts to the unique hemodynamic stressors experienced by patients with CHD, and the need to better understand the molecular mechanisms of RV failure, providing new targets for the development of RV-specific heart failure therapeutics.

View details for DOI 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000268

View details for PubMedID 26262580

BMPR2 Preserves Mitochondrial Function and DNA during Reoxygenation to Promote Endothelial Cell Survival and Reverse Pulmonary Hypertension CELL METABOLISM Diebold, I., Hennigs, J. K., Miyagawa, K., Li, C. G., Nickel, N. P., Kaschwich, M., Cao, A., Wang, L., Reddy, S., Chen, P., Nakahira, K., Alcazar, M. A., Hopper, R. K., Ji, L., Feldman, B. J., Rabinovitch, M. 2015; 21 (4): 596-608


Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and mutant bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) areassociated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), an incurable disease characterized by pulmonary arterial (PA) endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis, decreased microvessels, and occlusive vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that reduced BMPR2 induces PAEC mitochondrial dysfunction, promoting a pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic state. Mice with EC deletion of BMPR2 develop hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension that, in contrast to non-transgenic littermates, does not reverse upon reoxygenation and is associated with reduced PA microvessels and lung EC p53, PGC1 and TFAM, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial DNA. Decreasing PAEC BMPR2 by siRNA during reoxygenation represses p53, PGC1, NRF2, TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP and induces mitochondrial DNA deletion and apoptosis. Reducing PAEC BMPR2 in normoxia increases p53, PGC1, TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production, and glycolysis, and induces mitochondrial fission and a pro-inflammatory state. These features are recapitulated in PAECs from PAH patients with mutant BMPR2.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.03.010

View details for Web of Science ID 000352500800014

View details for PubMedID 25863249

Adrenergic receptor genotype influences heart failure severity and -blocker response in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. Pediatric research Reddy, S., Fung, A., Manlhiot, C., Selamet Tierney, E. S., Chung, W. K., Blume, E., Kaufman, B. D., Goldmuntz, E., Colan, S., Mital, S. 2015; 77 (2): 363-369


Adrenergic receptor (ADR) genotypes are associated with heart failure (HF) and -blocker response in adults. We assessed the influence of ADR genotypes in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).Ninety-one children with advanced DCM and 44 with stable DCM were genotyped for three ADR genotypes associated with HF risk in adults: 2cdel322-325, 1Arg389, and 2Arg16. Data were analyzed by genotype and -blocker use. Mean age at enrollment was 8.5 y.One-year event-free survival was 51% in advanced and 80% in stable DCM. High-risk genotypes were associated with higher left ventricular (LV) filling pressures, higher systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, greater decline in LV ejection fraction (P < 0.05), and a higher frequency of mechanical circulatory support while awaiting transplant (P = 0.05). While -blockers did not reduce HF severity in the overall cohort, in the subset with multiple high-risk genotypes, those receiving -blockers showed better preservation of cardiac function and hemodynamics compared with those not receiving -blockers (interaction P < 0.05).Our study identifies genetic risk markers that may help in the identification of patients at risk for developing decompensated HF and who may benefit from early institution of -blocker therapy before progression to decompensated HF.

View details for DOI 10.1038/pr.2014.183

View details for PubMedID 25406899

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4298011

Time-dependent evolution of functional vs. remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Jung, G. n., Fajardo, G. n., Ribeiro, A. J., Kooiker, K. B., Coronado, M. n., Zhao, M. n., Hu, D. Q., Reddy, S. n., Kodo, K. n., Sriram, K. n., Insel, P. A., Wu, J. C., Pruitt, B. L., Bernstein, D. n. 2015


Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are a powerful platform for uncovering disease mechanisms and assessing drugs for efficacy/toxicity. However, the accuracy with which hiPSC-CMs recapitulate the contractile and remodeling signaling of adult cardiomyocytes is not fully known. We used -adrenergic receptor (-AR) signaling as a prototype to determine the evolution of signaling component expression and function during hiPSC-CM maturation. In "early" hiPSC-CMs (less than or equal to d 30), 2-ARs are a primary source of cAMP/PKA signaling. With longer culture, 1-AR signaling increases: from 0% of cAMP generation at d 30 to 56.8 6.6% by d 60. PKA signaling shows a similar increase: 15.7 5.2% (d 30), 49.8 0.5% (d 60), and 71.0 6.1% (d 90). cAMP generation increases 9-fold from d 30 to 60, with enhanced coupling to remodeling pathways (e.g., Akt and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II) and development of caveolin-mediated signaling compartmentalization. By contrast, cardiotoxicity induced by chronic -AR stimulation, a major component of heart failure, develops much later: 5% cell death at d 30 vs. 55% at d 90. Moreover, -AR maturation can be accelerated by biomechanical stimulation. The differential maturation of -AR functional vs. remodeling signaling in hiPSC-CMs has important implications for their use in disease modeling and drug testing. We propose that assessment of signaling be added to the indices of phenotypic maturation of hiPSC-CMs.-Jung, G., Fajardo, G., Ribeiro, A. J. S., Kooiker, K. B., Coronado, M., Zhao, M., Hu, D.-Q., Reddy, S., Kodo, K., Sriram, K., Insel, P. A., Wu, J. C., Pruitt, B. L., Bernstein, D. Time-dependent evolution of functional vs. remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation.

View details for PubMedID 26675706

Variability of characteristics and outcomes following cardiopulmonary resuscitation events in diverse ICU settings in a single, tertiary care children's hospital*. Pediatric critical care medicine Gupta, P., Yan, K., Chow, V., Dao, D. T., Gossett, J. M., Leong, K., Franzon, D., Halamek, L. P., Reddy, S., Berg, R. A., Roth, S. J., Nadkarni, V. M. 2014; 15 (3): e128-41


The primary objective of this study was to compare and contrast the characteristics and survival outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for "monitored" events in pediatric patients treated with chest compressions more than or equal to 1 minute in varied ICU settings.Retrospective observational study.Three different specialized ICUs in a single, tertiary care, academic children's hospital.We collected demographic information, preexisting conditions, preevent characteristics, event characteristics, and outcome data. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures included return of spontaneous circulation, 24-hour survival, and survival with good neurologic outcome.None.Four hundred eleven patients treated with chest compressions for more than or equal to 1 minute were included in the analysis: 170 patients were located in the cardiovascular ICU, 157 patients in the neonatal ICU, and 84 patients in the PICU. Arrest durations were longer in the cardiovascular ICU than other ICUs. Use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation was more prevalent in the cardiovascular ICU (cardiovascular ICU, 17%; neonatal ICU, 3%; PICU, 4%). Return of spontaneous circulation, 24-hour survival, survival to hospital discharge, and good neurologic outcome were highest among neonatal ICU patients (survival to discharge, 53%) followed by cardiovascular ICU patients (survival to discharge, 46%) and PICU patients (survival to discharge, 36%). In a multivariable model controlling for patient and event characteristics, using cardiovascular ICU as reference, adjusted odds of survival in PICU were 0.33 (95% CI, 0.14-0.76; p = 0.009) and odds of survival in neonatal ICU were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.31-2.11; p = 0.65).Comparative analysis of pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in three different ICU settings demonstrated a significant variation in baseline, preevent, and event characteristics. Although outcomes vary significantly among the three different ICUs, it was difficult to ascertain if this difference was due to variation in the disease process or variation in the location of the patient.

View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000067

View details for PubMedID 24413318

Atherosclerosis causing recurrent catastrophic aortopulmonary shunt dehiscence in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Pediatric cardiology May, L., Hanley, F. L., Connolly, A. J., Reddy, S. 2013; 34 (8): 1945-1948


Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with cholestatic liver disease, pulmonary valvar stenosis or atresia, vasculopathy, and renal disease. Although the liver and cardiac manifestations contribute to overall morbidity and mortality during their life span, these patients also carry a burden of important but often underappreciated vascular abnormalities. This report describes a 3year-old girl with Alagille syndrome, hepatic cholestasis, systemic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals (TOF/PA/MAPCAs). She presented for bilateral pulmonary artery plasty and central shunt upsizing. She then experienced three shunt dehiscence episodes, necessitating emergent intervention. Autopsy showed diffuse atherosclerosis and significant atherosclerotic plaque at the site of shunt dehiscence. This is the first reported case of ALGS with TOF/PA/MAPCAs and catastrophic shunt dehiscence due to significant generalized vasculopathy caused by dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Dyslipidemia, a known comorbidity in ALGS, is one of few modifiable risk factors that should be screened for and treated, particularly before cardiac surgery.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-012-0484-4

View details for PubMedID 22923029

Deletion of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor prevents the development of cardiomyopathy in mice JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR CARDIOLOGY Fajardo, G., Zhao, M., Urashima, T., Farahani, S., Hu, D., Reddy, S., Bernstein, D. 2013; 63: 155-164


Beta adrenergic receptor (-AR) subtypes act through diverse signaling cascades to modulate cardiac function and remodeling. Previous in vitro studies suggest that 1-AR signaling is cardiotoxic whereas 2-AR signaling is cardioprotective, and may be the case during ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. The objective of this study was to assess whether 2-ARs also play a cardioprotective role in the pathogenesis of non-ischemic forms of cardiomyopathy. To dissect the role of 1 vs 2-ARs in modulating MLP (Muscle LIM Protein) cardiomyopathy, we crossbred MLP-/- with 1-/- or 2-/- mice. Deletion of the 2-AR improved survival, cardiac function, exercise capacity and myocyte shortening; by contrast haploinsufficency of the 1-AR reduced survival. Pathologic changes in Ca(2+) handling were reversed in the absence of 2-ARs: peak Ca(2+) and SR Ca(2+) were decreased in MLP-/- and 1+/-/MLP-/- but restored in 2-/-MLP-/-. These changes were associated with reversal of alterations in troponin I and phospholamban phosphorylation. Gi inhibition increased peak and baseline Ca(2+), recapitulating changes observed in the 2-/-/MLP-/-. The L-type Ca(2+) blocker verapamil significantly decreased cardiac function in 2-/-MLP-/- vs WT. We next tested if the protective effects of 2-AR ablation were unique to the MLP model using TAC-induced heart failure. Similar to MLP, 2-/- mice demonstrated delayed progression of heart failure with restoration of myocyte shortening and peak Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) release. Deletion of 2-ARs prevents the development of MLP-/- cardiomyopathy via positive modulation of Ca(2+) due to removal of inhibitory Gi signaling and increased phosphorylation of troponin I and phospholamban. Similar effects were seen after TAC. Unlike previous models where 2-ARs were found to be cardioprotective, in these two models, 2-AR signaling appears to be deleterious, potentially through negative regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2013.07.016

View details for Web of Science ID 000325387300017

View details for PubMedID 23920331

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3791213

FK506 activates BMPR2, rescues endothelial dysfunction, and reverses pulmonary hypertension. journal of clinical investigation Spiekerkoetter, E., Tian, X., Cai, J., Hopper, R. K., Sudheendra, D., Li, C. G., El-Bizri, N., Sawada, H., Haghighat, R., Chan, R., Haghighat, L., de Jesus Perez, V., Wang, L., Reddy, S., Zhao, M., Bernstein, D., Solow-Cordero, D. E., Beachy, P. A., Wandless, T. J., ten Dijke, P., Rabinovitch, M. 2013; 123 (8): 3600-3613


Dysfunctional bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 (BMPR2) signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We used a transcriptional high-throughput luciferase reporter assay to screen 3,756 FDA-approved drugs and bioactive compounds for induction of BMPR2 signaling. The best response was achieved with FK506 (tacrolimus), via a dual mechanism of action as a calcineurin inhibitor that also binds FK-binding protein-12 (FKBP12), a repressor of BMP signaling. FK506 released FKBP12 from type I receptors activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), ALK2, and ALK3 and activated downstream SMAD1/5 and MAPK signaling and ID1 gene regulation in a manner superior to the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine and the FKBP12 ligand rapamycin. In pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) from patients with idiopathic PAH, low-dose FK506 reversed dysfunctional BMPR2 signaling. In mice with conditional Bmpr2 deletion in ECs, low-dose FK506 prevented exaggerated chronic hypoxic PAH associated with induction of EC targets of BMP signaling, such as apelin. Low-dose FK506 also reversed severe PAH in rats with medial hypertrophy following monocrotaline and in rats with neointima formation following VEGF receptor blockade and chronic hypoxia. Our studies indicate that low-dose FK506 could be useful in the treatment of PAH.

View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI65592

View details for PubMedID 23867624

Altered ubiquitin-proteasome signaling in right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology Rajagopalan, V., Zhao, M., Reddy, S., Fajardo, G., Wang, X., Dewey, S., Gomes, A. V., Bernstein, D. 2013; 305 (4): H551-62


Alterations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) have been described in left ventricular hypertrophy and failure, although results have been inconsistent. The role of the UPS in right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVH) and RV failure (RVF) is unknown. Given the greater percent increase in RV mass associated with RV afterload stress, as present in many congenital heart lesions, we hypothesized that alterations in the UPS could play an important role in RVH/RVF. UPS expression and activity were measured in the RV from mice with RVH/RVF secondary to pulmonary artery constriction (PAC). Epoxomicin and MG132 were used to inhibit the proteasome, and overexpression of the 11S PA28 subunit was used to activate the proteasome. PAC mice developed RVH (109.3% increase in RV weight to body weight), RV dilation with septal shift, RV dysfunction, and clinical RVF. Proteasomal function (26S 5 chymotrypsin-like activity) was decreased 26% (P < 0.05). Protein expression of 19S subunit Rpt5 (P < 0.05), UCHL1 deubiquitinase (P < 0.0001), and Smurf1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (P < 0.01) were increased, as were polyubiquitinated proteins (P < 0.05) and free-ubiquitins (P = 0.05). Pro-apoptotic Bax was increased (P < 0.0001), whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 decreased (P < 0.05), resulting in a sixfold increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Proteasomal inhibition did not accelerate RVF. However, proteasome enhancement by cardiac-specific proteasome overexpression partially improved survival. Proteasome activity is decreased in RVH/RVF, associated with upregulation of key UPS regulators and pro-apoptotic signaling. Enhancement of proteasome function partially attenuates RVF, suggesting that UPS dysfunction contributes to RVF.

View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.00771.2012

View details for PubMedID 23729213

Physiologic and molecular characterization of a murine model of right ventricular volume overload. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology Reddy, S., Zhao, M., Hu, D., Fajardo, G., Katznelson, E., Punn, R., Spin, J. M., Chan, F. P., Bernstein, D. 2013; 304 (10): H1314-27


Pulmonary insufficiency (PI) is a common long-term sequel after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, causing progressive right ventricular (RV) dilation and failure. We describe the physiologic and molecular characteristics of the first murine model of RV volume overload. PI was created by entrapping the pulmonary valve leaflets with sutures. Imaging, catheterization, and exercise testing were performed at 1, 3, and 6 mo and compared with sham controls. RNA from the RV free wall was hybridized to Agilent whole genome oligonucleotide microarrays. Volume overload resulted in RV enlargement, decreased RV outflow tract shortening fraction at 1 mo followed by normalization at 3 and 6 mo (39 2, 44 2, and 41 2 vs. 46 3% in sham), early reversal of early and late diastolic filling velocities (E/A ratio) followed by pseudonormalization (0.87 0.08, 0.82 0.08, and 0.96 0.08 vs. 1.04 0.03; P < 0.05), elevated end-diastolic pressure (7.6 0.7, 6.9 0.8, and 7 0.5 vs. 2.7 0.2 mmHg; P < 0.05), and decreased exercise duration (26 0.4, 26 1, and 22 1.3 vs. 30 1.1 min; P < 0.05). Subendocardial RV fibrosis was evident by 1 mo. At 1 mo, 372 genes were significantly downregulated. Mitochondrial pathways and G protein-coupled receptor signaling were the most represented categories. At 3 mo, 434 genes were upregulated and 307 downregulated. While many of the same pathways continued to be downregulated, TNF-, transforming growth factor-(1) (TGF-(1)), p53-signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling transitioned from down- to upregulated. We describe a novel murine model of chronic RV volume overload recapitulating aspects of the clinical disease with gene expression changes suggesting early mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction, enhanced TGF- signaling, ECM remodeling, and apoptosis.

View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.00776.2012

View details for PubMedID 23504182

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1a in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells lowers vascular tone by decreasing Myosin light chain phosphorylation. Circulation research Kim, Y., Barnes, E. A., Alvira, C. M., Ying, L., Reddy, S., Cornfield, D. N. 2013; 112 (9): 1230-1233

View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.300646

View details for PubMedID 23513056

Dynamic microRNA expression during the transition from right ventricular hypertrophy to failure PHYSIOLOGICAL GENOMICS Reddy, S., Zhao, M., Hu, D., Fajardo, G., Hu, S., Ghosh, Z., Rajagopalan, V., Wu, J. C., Bernstein, D. 2012; 44 (10): 562-575


MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNAs that are emerging as crucial regulators of cardiac remodeling in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and failure (LVF). However, there are no data on their role in right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and failure (RVF). This is a critical question given that the RV is uniquely at risk in patients with congenital right-sided obstructive lesions and in those with systemic RVs. We have developed a murine model of RVH and RVF using pulmonary artery constriction (PAC). miR microarray analysis of RV from PAC vs. control demonstrates altered miR expression with gene targets associated with cardiomyocyte survival and growth during hypertrophy (miR 199a-3p) and reactivation of the fetal gene program during heart failure (miR-208b). The transition from hypertrophy to heart failure is characterized by apoptosis and fibrosis (miRs-34, 21, 1). Most are similar to LVH/LVF. However, there are several key differences between RV and LV: four miRs (34a, 28, 148a, and 93) were upregulated in RVH/RVF that are downregulated or unchanged in LVH/LVF. Furthermore, there is a corresponding downregulation of their putative target genes involving cell survival, proliferation, metabolism, extracellular matrix turnover, and impaired proteosomal function. The current study demonstrates, for the first time, alterations in miRs during the process of RV remodeling and the gene regulatory pathways leading to RVH and RVF. Many of these alterations are similar to those in the afterload-stressed LV. miRs differentially regulated between the RV and LV may contribute to the RVs increased susceptibility to heart failure.

View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00163.2011

View details for Web of Science ID 000304367600003

View details for PubMedID 22454450

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3426410

Recipient Genotype Is a Predictor of Allograft Cytokine Expression and Outcomes After Pediatric Cardiac Transplantation 80th Annual Scientific Session of the American-Heart-Association (AHA) Auerbach, S. R., Manlhiot, C., Reddy, S., Kinnear, C., Richmond, M. E., Gruber, D., McCrindle, B. W., Deng, L., Chen, J. M., Addonizio, L. J., Chung, W. K., Mital, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2009: 190917


This study sought to investigate the influence of recipient renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) genotype on cardiac function, rejection, and outcomes after heart transplantation.The RAAS influences cardiac function and up-regulates inflammatory/immune pathways. Little is known about the effect of recipient RAAS polymorphisms in pediatric cardiac transplantation.Patients <25 years of age, after cardiac transplantation, were enrolled (2003 to 2008) and genotyped for polymorphisms in genes associated with RAAS upregulation: AGT-G, ACE-D, AGTR1-C, CYP11B2-G, and CMA-A. Presence of at least 1 high-risk allele was defined as a high-risk genotype. Univariable and multivariable associations between genotypes and outcomes were assessed in time-dependent models using survival, logistic, or linear regression models. Biopsy samples were immunostained for interleukin (IL)-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha during rejection and quiescence.A total of 145 patients were studied, 103 primary cohort and 42 replication cohort; 81% had rejection, 51% had graft dysfunction, and 13% had vasculopathy, 7% died and 8% underwent re-transplantation. A higher number of homozygous high-risk RAAS genotypes was associated with a higher risk of graft dysfunction (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.5, p = 0.02) and a higher probability of death (HR: 2.5, p = 0.04). The number of heterozygous high-risk RAAS genotypes was associated with frequency of rejection (+0.096 events/year, p < 0.001) and rejection-associated graft dysfunction (+0.37 events/year, p = 0.002). IL-6 and TGF-beta were markedly upregulated during rejection in patients with >/=2 high-risk RAAS genotypes.Recipient RAAS polymorphisms are associated with a higher risk of rejection, graft cytokine expression, graft dysfunction, and a higher mortality after cardiac transplantation. This may have implications for use of RAAS inhibitors in high-risk patients after transplantation.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.02.027

View details for Web of Science ID 000266236600012

View details for PubMedID 19442892

Genomic Profiling of Left and Right Ventricular Hypertrophy in Congenital Heart Disease 53rd Annual Scientific Session of the American-College-of-Cardiology Kaufman, B. D., Desai, M., Reddy, S., Osorio, J. C., Chen, J. M., Mosca, R. S., Ferrante, A. W., Mital, S. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2008: 76067


The right ventricle (RV) has a lower ability than the left ventricle (LV) to adapt to systemic load. The molecular basis of these differences is not known. We compared hypertrophy-signaling pathways between the RV and the LV in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD).Gene expression was measured using DNA microarrays in myocardium from children with CHD with LV or RV obstructive lesions undergoing surgery. The expression of 175 hypertrophy-signaling genes was compared between the LV (n=7) and the RV (n=11). Hierarchic clustering was performed.Seventeen genes (10%) were differentially expressed between the LV and the RV. Expression of genes for angiotensin, adrenergic, G-proteins, cytoskeletal, and contractile components was lower (P < .05) and expression of maladaptive factors (fibroblast growth factors, transforming growth factor-beta, caspases, ubiquitin) was higher in the RV compared with the LV (P < .05). Five of 7 LV samples clustered together. Only 4 of 11 RV samples clustered with the LV. Genes critical to adaptive remodeling correlated with the degree of LV hypertrophy but not RV hypertrophy.The transcription of pathways of adaptive remodeling was lower in the RV compared with the LV. This may explain the lower ability of the RV to adapt to hemodynamic load in CHD.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2008.06.002

View details for Web of Science ID 000261269800008

View details for PubMedID 18995181

Pyloric Stenosis AAP Textbook on Pediatric Care Sushma Reddy, Deepak M Kamat 2008; Chapter315


Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease with variable rate of progression. Young age is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in HCM. The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) genotype on the progression of HCM in children is unknown. Children with HCM (n = 65) were enrolled prospectively across two centers (2001-2005). All subjects were genotyped for five RAAS gene polymorphisms previously associated with LV hypertrophy (pro-LVH): AGT M235T, ACE DD, CMA-1903 A/G, AGTR1 1666 A/C and CYP11B2-344 C/T. Linear regression models, based on maximum likelihood estimates, were created to assess the independent effect of RAAS genotype on LV hypertrophy (LVH). Forty-six subjects were homozygous for <2 and 19 were homozygous for > or =2 pro-LVH RAAS polymorphisms. Mean age at presentation was 9.6 +/- 6 years. Forty children had follow-up echocardiograms after a median of 1.5 years. Indexed LV mass (LVMI) and LV mass z-scores were higher at presentation and follow-up in subjects with > or =2 pro-LVH genotypes compared to those with <2 (P < 0.05). Subjects with > or =2 pro-LVH genotypes also demonstrated a greater increase in septal thickness (IVST) and in LV outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction on follow-up (P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, a higher number of pro-LVH genotypes was associated with a larger effect size (P < 0.05). Pro-LVH RAAS gene polymorphisms are associated with progressive septal hypertrophy and LVOT obstruction in children with HCM. Identification of RAAS modifier genes may help to risk-stratify patients with HCM.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00439-007-0429-9

View details for Web of Science ID 000251143900011

View details for PubMedID 17851694

RAAS gene polymorphisms influence progression of pediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 77th Scientific Meeting of the American-Heart-Association Kaufman, B. D., Auerbach, S., Reddy, S., Manlhiot, C., Deng, L., Prakash, A., Printz, B. F., Gruber, D., Papavassiliou, D. P., Hsu, D. T., Sehnert, A. J., Chung, W. K., Mital, S. SPRINGER. 2007: 51523


The left ventricle (LV) adapts to chronic hypoxia by expressing protective angiogenic, metabolic, and antioxidant genes to improve O2 delivery and energy production, and to minimize reoxygenation injury. The ability of the right ventricle (RV) to adapt to hypoxia in children with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is unknown.Gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction was measured in RV myocardium obtained during surgical repair of TOF from 23 patients: 13 cyanotic and 10 acyanotic. Results were compared between the 2 groups and correlated with age at surgery, severity of cyanosis, and early postoperative course. The cyanotic patients were younger at surgery compared with acyanotic (5+/-3 versus 9+/-4 months; P=0.01), had higher hematocrit (43+/-4 versus 38+/-3 grams/dL; P=0.004), and lower O2 saturations (84+/-4% versus 98+/-2%; (P<0.001). Cyanotic patients had a significantly lower expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glycolytic enzymes, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) (P<0.05), and a higher expression of collagen (P<0.01) compared with acyanotic patients. Gene expression correlated inversely with severity of cyanosis ie, preoperative hematocrit (P<0.01) and positively with preoperative saturation (P<0.05). The relationship between gene expression and cyanosis was independent of age at surgery. Ca2+ handling genes did not correlate with the severity of hypoxia. Lower angiogenic, glycolytic, and antioxidant gene expression correlated with increasing postoperative lactate (P<0.05).The RV fails to up regulate adaptive pathways in response to increasing hypoxia in children with TOF. The implications of an early maladaptive response of the RV on long-term RV function require further investigation.

View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.001248

View details for Web of Science ID 000238688200008

View details for PubMedID 16820602

Failure of right ventricular adaptation in children with tetralogy of Fallot 78th Annual Scientific Session of the American-Heart-Association Reddy, S., Osorio, J. C., Duque, A. M., Kaufman, B. D., Phillips, A. B., Chen, J. M., Quaegebeur, J., Mosca, R. S., Mital, S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2006: I37I42


To determine prospectively the incidence of an inlet patch (IP) in children requiring esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and assess the prevalence of presenting symptoms between children with and without an IP.All patients undergoing EGD in a 2-year period were assessed for the presence of an IP with biopsy confirmation. IP, distal esophagus, and stomach biopsy specimens were blindly reviewed by a pathologist for the presence and degree of inflammation and intestinal metaplasia. Symptoms from children with and without an IP were compared.From 407 EGDs done by a single endoscopist, 24 patients had confirmed IP (incidence of 5.9%). The presence and degree of inflammation were always relatively greater in the columnar mucosa of the IP than in the antral/body gastric mucosa in the same patient (P = .0027) Inflammation was similar in the squamous epithelium around the IP and in the distal esophagus (P=.46). Two patients had intestinal metaplasia of the IP. The patients with IPs had a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the control group (P = .03).Children with IPs may have a higher frequency of respiratory symptoms. Periodic surveillance should be performed in children with intestinal metaplasia of an IP.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.03.002

View details for Web of Science ID 000232412100023

View details for PubMedID 16182679

Inlet patch: Heterotopic gastric mucosa - Another contributor to supraesophageal symptoms? JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Macha, S., Reddy, S., Rabah, R., Thomas, R., Tolia, V. 2005; 147 (3): 379-382


The occurrence of pulmonary venous obstruction after total cavopulmonary connection with intraatrial lateral tunnel is a rare occurrence. We present two cases of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with restrictive interatrial communication presenting late after this type of modified Fontan repair. This occurred even after complete excision of the atrial septum at the time of Stage 1 Norwood in both cases. A novel approach to this problem of resecting the roof of the coronary sinus was utilized to enlarge the interatrial communication.

View details for DOI 10.1016/S0003-4975(03)01173-1

View details for Web of Science ID 000186986500072

View details for PubMedID 14667654

Restrictive interatrial communication in hypoplastic left heart syndrome after modified Fontan repair ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Nemeh, H. W., Reddy, S., Walters, H. L., Hakimi, M., Ross, R. D. 2003; 76 (6): 2089-2091