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Tandy Aye, MD

Specialties

Endocrinology

Work and Education

Professional Education

Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, 06/30/1999

Internship

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Pediatric Residency, Philadelphia, PA, 06/30/2000

Residency

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Pediatric Residency, Philadelphia, PA, 06/30/2002

Fellowship

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 06/30/2005

Board Certifications

Pediatric Endocrinology, American Board of Pediatrics

Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics

Conditions Treated

Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)

Hyperinsulinism

Klinefelter Syndrome

Thyroid Disorders

Transgender Health

Turner Syndrome

All Publications

Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) detects increased activation of the brain frontal-parietal network in youth with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric diabetes Mazaika, P. K., Marzelli, M., Tong, G., Foland-Ross, L. C., Buckingham, B. A., Aye, T., Reiss, A. L. 2020

Abstract

When considered as a group, children with type 1 diabetes have subtle cognitive deficits relative to neurotypical controls. However, the neural correlates of these differences remain poorly understood. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we investigated the brain functional activations of young adolescents (19 individuals with type 1 diabetes, 18 healthy controls, ages 8-16years) during a Go/No-Go response inhibition task. Both cohorts had the same performance on the task, but the individuals with type 1 diabetes subjects had higher activations in a frontal-parietal network including the bilateral supramarginal gyri and bilateral rostrolateral prefrontal cortices. The activations in these regions were positively correlated with fewer parent-reported conduct problems (i.e. lower Conduct Problem scores) on the BASC-2 behavioral assessment. Lower Conduct Problem scores are characteristic of less rule-breaking behavior suggesting a link between this brain network and better self-control. These findings are consistent with a large functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of children with type 1 diabetes using completely different participants. Perhaps surprisingly, the between-group activation results from fNIRS were statistically stronger than the results using fMRI. This pilot study is the first fNIRS investigation of executive function for individuals with type 1 diabetes. The results suggest that fNIRS is a promising functional neuroimaging resource for detecting the brain correlates of behavior in the pediatric clinic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

View details for DOI 10.1111/pedi.12992

View details for PubMedID 32003523

THE GUIDED TRANSFER OF CARE IMPROVES ADULT CLINIC SHOW RATE. Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Lal, R. A., Maahs, D. M., Dosiou, C., Aye, T., Basina, M. 2020

Abstract

Objective Every year 500,000 youths in the U.S. with chronic disease turn 18 and eventually require transfer to adult subspecialty care. Evidence-based interventions on the organization of transfer of care are limited, although engagement and retention in adult clinic are considered appropriate outcomes. Sustained continuity of care improves patient satisfaction and reduces hospitalization. Methods We conducted a prospective non-randomized cohort study of patients with pediatric endocrine conditions, age 16-26 years, enrolled upon referral to the adult endocrine clinic of a physician trained in both adult and pediatric endocrinology (Med+Peds Endocrinologist). Patients differed based on whether their referral originated from another pediatric endocrinologist (traditional transfer) or if the Med+Peds Endocrinologist previously saw the patient in his pediatric endocrine clinic (guided transfer). Rather than relying on arbitrary age criteria, guided transfer to adult clinic occurred when physician and patient considered it appropriate. The primary outcome was show rate at the first and second adult visits. Results Of 36 patients, 21 were referred by another pediatric endocrinologist and 15 underwent guided transfer. For traditional transfer, show rate to the first and second visit was 38% compared to 100% in the guided transfer group (p = 0.0001). Subgroup analysis of 27 patients with diabetes revealed that both groups had similar initial HbA1c (p = 0.38) and the guided transfer group maintained HbA1c. Conclusions Most traditional transfers were unsuccessful. Guided transfer was significantly more effective, with every patient successfully transferring, and could be implemented with adult endocrinologists willing to see patients in the pediatric clinic.

View details for DOI 10.4158/EP-2019-0470

View details for PubMedID 32045296

Executive task-based brain function in children with type 1 diabetes: An observational study. PLoS medicine Foland-Ross, L. C., Buckingam, B., Mauras, N., Arbelaez, A. M., Tamborlane, W. V., Tsalikian, E., Cato, A., Tong, G., Englert, K., Mazaika, P. K., Reiss, A. L., Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) 2019; 16 (12): e1002979

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Optimal glycemic control is particularly difficult to achieve in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet the influence of dysglycemia on the developing brain remains poorly understood.METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a large multi-site study framework, we investigated activation patterns using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 93 children with T1D (mean age 11.5 1.8 years; 45.2% female) and 57 non-diabetic (control) children (mean age 11.8 1.5 years; 50.9% female) as they performed an executive function paradigm, the go/no-go task. Children underwent scanning and cognitive and clinical assessment at 1 of 5 different sites. Group differences in activation occurring during the contrast of "no-go > go" were examined while controlling for age, sex, and scan site. Results indicated that, despite equivalent task performance between the 2 groups, children with T1D exhibited increased activation in executive control regions (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal and supramarginal gyri; p = 0.010) and reduced suppression of activation in the posterior node of the default mode network (DMN; p = 0.006). Secondary analyses indicated associations between activation patterns and behavior and clinical disease course. Greater hyperactivation in executive control regions in the T1D group was correlated with improved task performance (as indexed by shorter response times to correct "go" trials; r = -0.36, 95% CI -0.53 to -0.16, p < 0.001) and with better parent-reported measures of executive functioning (r values < -0.29, 95% CIs -0.47 to -0.08, p-values < 0.007). Increased deficits in deactivation of the posterior DMN in the T1D group were correlated with an earlier age of T1D onset (r = -0.22, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.02, p = 0.033). Finally, exploratory analyses indicated that among children with T1D (but not control children), more severe impairments in deactivation of the DMN were associated with greater increases in hyperactivation of executive control regions (T1D: r = 0.284, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.46, p = 0.006; control: r = 0.108, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.36, p = 0.423). A limitation to this study involves glycemic effects on brain function; because blood glucose was not clamped prior to or during scanning, future studies are needed to assess the influence of acute versus chronic dysglycemia on our reported findings. In addition, the mechanisms underlying T1D-associated alterations in activation are unknown.CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that increased recruitment of executive control areas in pediatric T1D may act to offset diabetes-related impairments in the DMN, ultimately facilitating cognitive and behavioral performance levels that are equivalent to that of non-diabetic controls. Future studies that examine whether these patterns change as a function of improved glycemic control are warranted.

View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002979

View details for PubMedID 31815939

The risk of progression to type 1 diabetes is highly variable in individuals with multiple autoantibodies following screening. Diabetologia Jacobsen, L. M., Bocchino, L., Evans-Molina, C., DiMeglio, L., Goland, R., Wilson, D. M., Atkinson, M. A., Aye, T., Russell, W. E., Wentworth, J. M., Boulware, D., Geyer, S., Sosenko, J. M. 2019

Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Young children who develop multiple autoantibodies (mAbs) are at very high risk for type 1 diabetes. We assessed whether a population with mAbs detected by screening is also at very high risk, and how risk varies according to age, type of autoantibodies and metabolic status.METHODS: Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention participants with mAbs (n=1815; age, 12.359.39years; range, 1-49years) were analysed. Type 1 diabetes risk was assessed according to age, autoantibody type/number (insulin autoantibodies [IAA], glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies [GADA], insulinoma-associated antigen-2 autoantibodies [IA-2A] or zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies [ZnT8A]) and Index60 (composite measure of fasting C-peptide, 60min glucose and 60min C-peptide). Cox regression and cumulative incidence curves were utilised in this cohort study.RESULTS: Age was inversely related to type 1 diabetes risk in those with mAbs (HR 0.97 [95% CI 0.96, 0.99]). Among participants with 2 autoantibodies, those with GADA had less risk (HR 0.35 [95% CI 0.22, 0.57]) and those with IA-2A had higher risk (HR 2.82 [95% CI 1.76, 4.51]) of type 1 diabetes. Those with IAA and GADA had only a 17% 5year risk of type 1 diabetes. The risk was significantly lower for those with Index60 <1.0 (HR 0.23 [95% CI 0.19, 0.30]) vs those with Index60 values 1.0. Among the 12% (225/1815) 12.0years of age with GADA positivity, IA-2A negativity and Index60 <1.0, the 5year risk of type 1 diabetes was 8%.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Type 1 diabetes risk varies substantially according to age, autoantibody type and metabolic status in individuals screened for mAbs. An appreciable proportion of older children and adults with mAbs appear to have a low risk of progressing to type 1 diabetes at 5years. With this knowledge, clinical trials of type 1 diabetes prevention can better target those most likely to progress.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00125-019-05047-w

View details for PubMedID 31768570

Eating Disorder Screening in Transgender Youth. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Avila, J. T., Golden, N. H., Aye, T. 2019

Abstract

PURPOSE: Body dissatisfaction in transgender youth (TY) may increase the risk for eating disorders. This is the first study using the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) to assess for eating disorder psychopathology in TY.METHODS: Youth aged 13-22years (n= 106) presenting to a gender clinic from January 2018 to January 2019 completed the EDE-Q and answered questions on weight manipulation for gender-affirming purposes.RESULTS: Respondents identified as transmasculine (61%), transfeminine (28%), or nonbinary (11%). Mean age was 16.5 years (standard deviation= 2.0), mean weight was 119.9% median body mass index (standard deviation= 32.9), and 32% were on hormonal therapy. Of the participants, 15% had elevated EDE-Q scores. Most (63%) disclosed weight manipulation for gender-affirming purposes, with 11% of assigned females doing so for menstrual suppression. These behaviors had poor concordance with elevated EDE-Q scores (kappa= .137 and .148).CONCLUSIONS: Disordered eating behaviors are relatively common among TY. Further studies are needed to validate the EDE-Q in TY and establish meaningful cutoff score values.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.06.011

View details for PubMedID 31500946

The Guided Transition of Care Lal, R., Maahs, D. M., Dosiou, C., Aye, T., Basina, M. AMER DIABETES ASSOC. 2019
Creating the Subspecialty Pediatrics Investigator Network (vol 192, pg 3, 2018) JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mink, R., Schwartz, A., Carraccio, C., High, P., Dammann, C., McGann, K. A., Kesselheim, J., Aye, T., Baffa, J., Chess, P., Curran, M., Fussell, J., Hsu, D., Mahan, J., Myers, A., Pitts, S., Sauer, C. G., Stafford, D., Turner, D. A., Weiss, P., Herman, B. 2019; 207: 269
EATING DISORDER SCREENING IN GENDER MINORITY ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS Avila, J., Golden, N., Aye, T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S102S103
Challenges with Patient Adoption of Automated Integration of Blood Glucose Meter Data in the Electronic Health Record. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Weatherly, J., Kishnani, S., Aye, T. 2019

Abstract

Providers often encourage patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to contact them with blood glucose (BG) values between visits. However, patients and families find it cumbersome to share their BG values with clinical providers, creating a barrier to communication. Although many phone applications exist to help patients track BG values, most do not integrate with the electronic health record (EHR). Recent advances in technology can integrate the glucose meter (GM) data into the EHR. This pilot and feasibility study aimed to understand how an automated integration system (AIS) of GM data into the EHR and remote monitoring by health care providers would impact patient-provider communication. Patients or parents of patients with T1D (n=32, average HgbA1c 8.5% SD 1.7, average age 13.9 years SD 3.8) who owned an Apple iPod or iPhone (5s or higher) participated, and their number of contacts via telephone calls or MyChart messages between clinic visits was recorded during each of the 3 phases: run-in, intervention, and learned. Twenty-eight families completed all phases, and despite guided review of BG trends and automated integration of BG values, the number of patient-initiated calls (p=0.23) and HgbA1c values (p=0.08) did not improve, nor was there a clinically significant change in the number of BG checks per day. Barriers to adoption and effectiveness of this technology exist, and patient motivation is still needed.

View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2019.0178

View details for PubMedID 31335195

Salivary cortisol levels by tandem mass spectrometry during high dose ACTH stimulation test for adrenal insufficiency in children. Endocrine Chao, C. S., Shi, R. Z., Kumar, R. B., Aye, T. 2019

Abstract

Serum cortisol measurements after ACTH stimulation are currently used to evaluate for adrenal insufficiency in children. We aim to determine if salivary cortisol measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can confirm or replace serum cortisol during high dose ACTH stimulation test to improve test compliance and interpretation. We also aim to gain preliminary understanding of normal ranges of salivary cortisol in normal children at am, bedtime, and midnight.Children aged 6-17 years meeting study criteria and tested for adrenal insufficiency were recruited to concomitantly collect saliva and serum samples during high dose ACTH stimulation test. Normal children aged 3-18 years were recruited to collect morning, bedtime, and midnight saliva samples. Salivary cortisol was measured using LC-MS/MS while serum cortisol was determined by an immunoassay.Salivary cortisol in normal children were higher at am and lower at bedtime and midnight (p value <0.0002 and <0.007, respectively). The midnight and bedtime levels were not sufficiently different (p value 0.36). Salivary cortisol during ACTH stimulation test positively and closely correlated with serum cortisol with 100% specificity and sensitivity when 18g/dL for serum and 500ng/dL for salivary cortisol were used as cutoff values respectively for adrenal sufficiency.Measurement of salivary cortisol by LC-MS/MS is less invasive, more convenient and better time controlled in busy pediatric clinic, therefore is better suited for young children to be used during high dose ACTH stimulation test to evaluate for adrenal insufficiency and to assist interpretation of test results by serum cortisol.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s12020-019-02084-8

View details for PubMedID 31535345

Challenges of Funding Pediatric Fellowship Programs-Invited Commentary from the Council of Pediatric Subspecialties. The Journal of pediatrics Heyman, M. B., Weiss, P., Boyer, D., Fussell, J., Imundo, L., Aye, T., Jarjour, I. T., Spicer, R., Bale, J. 2019; 204: 4

View details for PubMedID 30579474

Impact of Sex and Maturation on Trabecular and Cortical Microarchitecture in Children and Young Adults Aye, T., Kent, K., Long, J., Whalen, J., Strickland, A., Burghardt, A., Leonard, M. B. WILEY. 2018: 20910
Care of the Transgender Adolescent with Type 1 Diabetes Avila, J., Aye, T. AMER DIABETES ASSOC. 2018
Longitudinal assessment of hippocampus structure in children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric diabetes Foland-Ross, L. C., Reiss, A. L., Mazaika, P. K., Mauras, N., Weinzimer, S. A., Aye, T., Tansey, M. J., White, N. H., Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) 2018

Abstract

The extant literature finds that children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) experience mild cognitive alterations compared to healthy age-matched controls. The neural basis of these cognitive differences is unclear but may relate in part to the effects of dysglycemia on the developing brain. We investigated longitudinal changes in hippocampus volume in young children with early-onset T1D. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 142 children with T1D and 65 age-matched control subjects (4-10years of age at study entry) at 2 time points, 18 months apart. The effects of diabetes and glycemic exposure on hippocampal volume and growth were examined. Results indicated that although longitudinal hippocampus growth did not differ between children with T1D and healthy control children, slower growth of the hippocampus was associated with both increased exposure to hyperglycemia (interval HbA1c) and greater glycemic variability (MAGE) in T1D. These observations indicate that the current practice of tolerating some hyperglycemia to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia in young children with T1D may not be optimal for the developing brain. Efforts that continue to assess the factors influencing neural and cognitive development in children with T1D will be critical in minimizing the deleterious effects of diabetes.

View details for PubMedID 29675980

Large Changes in Brain Volume Observed in an Asymptomatic Young Child With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes care Mazaika, P. K., Aye, T., Reiss, A. L., Buckingham, B. A. 2018; 41 (7): 153537

View details for PubMedID 29934482

Impact of Early Diabetic Ketoacidosis on the Developing Brain. Diabetes care Aye, T., Mazaika, P. K., Mauras, N., Marzelli, M. J., Shen, H., Hershey, T., Cato, A., Weinzimer, S. A., White, N. H., Tsalikian, E., Jo, B., Reiss, A. L. 2018

Abstract

This study examined whether a history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is associated with changes in longitudinal cognitive and brain development in young children with type 1 diabetes.Cognitive and brain imaging data were analyzed from 144 children with type 1 diabetes, ages 4 to <10 years, who participated in an observational study of the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet). Participants were grouped according to history of DKA severity (none/mild or moderate/severe). Each participant had unsedated MRI scans and cognitive testing at baseline and 18 months.In 48 of 51 subjects, the DKA event occurred at the time of onset, at an average of 2.9 years before study entry. The moderate/severe DKA group gained more total and regional white and gray matter volume over the observed 18 months compared with the none/mild group. When matched by age at time of enrollment and average HbA1c during the 18-month interval, participants who had a history of moderate/severe DKA compared with none/mild DKA were observed to have significantly lower Full Scale Intelligence Quotient scores, cognitive performance on the Detectability and Commission subtests of the Conners' Continuous Performance Test II, and the Dot Locations subtest of the Children's Memory Scale.A single episode of moderate/severe DKA in young children at diagnosis is associated with lower cognitive scores and altered brain growth. Further studies are needed to assess whether earlier diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and prevention of DKA may reduce the long-term effect of ketoacidosis on the developing brain.

View details for DOI 10.2337/dc18-1405

View details for PubMedID 30573652

Efficacy of an Overnight Predictive Low-Glucose Suspend System in Relation to Hypoglycemia Risk Factors in Youth and Adults With Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of diabetes science and technology Calhoun, P. M., Buckingham, B. A., Maahs, D. M., Hramiak, I., Wilson, D. M., Aye, T., Clinton, P., Chase, P., Messer, L., Kollman, C., Beck, R. W., Lum, J. 2016; 10 (6): 1216-1221

Abstract

We developed a system to suspend insulin pump delivery overnight when the glucose trend predicts hypoglycemia. This predictive low-glucose suspend (PLGS) system substantially reduces nocturnal hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis. Evaluation of hypoglycemia risk factors that could potentially influence the efficacy of the system remains critical for understanding possible problems with the system and identifying patients that may have the greatest benefit when using the system.The at-home randomized trial consisted of 127 study participants with hemoglobin A1c (A1C) of 8.5% (mmol/mol) for patients aged 4-14 years and 8.0% for patient aged 15-45 years. Factors assessed included age, gender, A1C, diabetes duration, daily percentage basal insulin, total daily dose of insulin (units/kg-day), bedtime BG, bedtime snack, insulin on board, continuous glucose monitor (CGM) rate of change (ROC), day of the week, time system activated, daytime exercise intensity, and daytime CGM-measured hypoglycemia.The PLGS system was effective in preventing hypoglycemia for each factor subgroup. There was no evidence that the PLGS system was more or less effective in preventing hypoglycemia in any one subgroup compared with the other subgroups based on that factor. In addition, the effect of the system on overnight hyperglycemia did not differ in subgroups.The PLGS system tested in this study effectively reduced hypoglycemia without a meaningful increase in hyperglycemia across a variety of factors.

View details for PubMedID 27207890

Ketone production in children with type 1 diabetes, ages 4-14 years, with and without nocturnal insulin pump suspension. Pediatric diabetes Wadwa, R. P., Chase, H. P., Raghinaru, D., Buckingham, B. A., Hramiak, I., Maahs, D. M., Messer, L., Ly, T., Aye, T., Clinton, P., Kollman, C., Beck, R. W., Lum, J. 2016

Abstract

To compare the frequency of elevated morning blood ketone levels according to age in 4-14 year olds with type 1 diabetes following overnight use of an automated low glucose insulin suspension system, or following control nights when the system was not used.For 28 children ages 4-9 years and 54 youth ages 10-14 years, elevation of morning blood ketone levels was assessed using the Precision Xtra Ketone meter following 1155 and 2345 nights, respectively. Repeated measures logistic regression models were used to compare age groups for blood ketone level elevation following control nights (system not activated) and following intervention nights with and without insulin suspension.Elevated morning blood ketones (0.6 mmol/L) were present following 10% of 580 control nights in the 4-9 year olds compared with 2% of 1162 control nights in 10-14 year olds (P < 0.001). Likewise, the frequency was greater following intervention nights in the younger age group (13% of 575 nights vs 2% of 1183 nights, P < 0.001). A longer duration of pump suspension resulted in a higher percentage of mornings with elevated blood ketones in the younger age group (P = 0.002), but not in the older age group (P = 0.63). The presence of elevated morning ketone levels did not progress to ketoacidosis in any subject.Elevated morning blood ketones are more common in younger children with type 1 diabetes with or without nocturnal insulin suspension. Care providers need to be aware of the differences in ketogenesis in younger age children relative to various clinical situations.

View details for DOI 10.1111/pedi.12410

View details for PubMedID 27402452

Changes in beta cell function during the proximate post-diagnosis period in persons with type 1 diabetes PEDIATRIC DIABETES Dimeglio, L. A., Cheng, P., Beck, R. W., Kollman, C., Ruedy, K. J., Slover, R., Aye, T., Weinzimer, S. A., Bremer, A. A., Buckingham, B. 2016; 17 (4): 237-243

Abstract

Prior studies examining beta-cell preservation in type 1 diabetes have predominantly assessed stimulated C-peptide concentrations approximately 10wk after diagnosis. We examined whether earlier assessments might aid in prediction of beta cell function over time.Using data from a multi-center randomized trial assessing the effect of intensive diabetes management initiated within 1wk of diagnosis, we assessed which clinical factors predicted 90-min mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) stimulated C-peptide values obtained 2 and 6wk after diagnosis. We also studied associations of these factors with C-peptide values at 1- and 2-year post-diagnosis. Data from intervention and control groups were pooled.Among 67 study participants (mean age 13.35.7yr, range 7.8-45.7yr) in multivariable analyses, C-peptide increased from baseline to 2wks and then 6wk. C-peptide levels at these times were significantly correlated with 1- and 2-yr C-peptide concentrations (all p<0.001), with the strongest observed associations between 6-wk C-peptide and the 1- and 2-yr values (r=0.66 and r=0.61, respectively). In multivariable analyses, greater baseline and 6-wk C-peptide, and older age independently predicted greater 1- and 2-yr C-peptide concentrations.C-peptide assessments close to diagnosis were predictive of subsequent C-peptide production. Our data demonstrate a clear increase in C-peptide over the initial 6wk after diabetes diagnosis followed by a plateau. Our data do not suggest that MMTT assessments performed closer to diagnosis than 6wk would improve prediction of subsequent residual beta cell function.

View details for DOI 10.1111/pedi.12271

View details for Web of Science ID 000379831900001

View details for PubMedID 25720763

Longitudinal Evaluation of Cognitive Functioning in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes over 18 Months. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society Cato, M. A., Mauras, N., Mazaika, P., Kollman, C., Cheng, P., Aye, T., Ambrosino, J., Beck, R. W., Ruedy, K. J., Reiss, A. L., Tansey, M., White, N. H., Hershey, T. 2016; 22 (3): 293-302

Abstract

Decrements in cognitive function may already be evident in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we report prospectively acquired cognitive results over 18 months in a large cohort of young children with and without T1D.A total of 144 children with T1D (mean HbA1c: 7.9%) and 70 age-matched healthy controls (mean age both groups 8.5 years; median diabetes duration 3.9 years; mean age of onset 4.1 years) underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline and after 18-months of follow-up. We hypothesized that group differences observed at baseline would be more pronounced after 18 months, particularly in those T1D patients with greatest exposure to glycemic extremes.Cognitive domain scores did not differ between groups at the 18 month testing session and did not change differently between groups over the follow-up period. However, within the T1D group, a history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was correlated with lower Verbal IQ and greater hyperglycemia exposure (HbA1c area under the curve) was inversely correlated to executive functions test performance. In addition, those with a history of both types of exposure performed most poorly on measures of executive function.The subtle cognitive differences between T1D children and nondiabetic controls observed at baseline were not observed 18 months later. Within the T1D group, as at baseline, relationships between cognition (Verbal IQ and executive functions) and glycemic variables (chronic hyperglycemia and DKA history) were evident. Continued longitudinal study of this T1D cohort and their carefully matched healthy comparison group is planned.

View details for DOI 10.1017/S1355617715001289

View details for PubMedID 26786245

Variations in Brain Volume and Growth in Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Mazaika, P. K., Weinzimer, S. A., Mauras, N., Buckingham, B., White, N. H., Tsalikian, E., Hershey, T., Cato, A., Aye, T., Fox, L., Wilson, D. M., Tansey, M. J., Tamborlane, W., Peng, D., Raman, M., Marzelli, M., Reiss, A. L. 2016; 65 (2): 476-485

Abstract

Early-onset type 1 diabetes may affect the developing brain during a critical window of rapid brain maturation. Structural MRI was performed on 141 children with diabetes (4-10 years of age at study entry) and 69 age-matched control subjects at two time points spaced 18 months apart. For the children with diabetes, the mean (SD) HbA1c level was 7.9 0.9% (63 9.8 mmol/mol) at both time points. Relative to control subjects, children with diabetes had significantly less growth of cortical gray matter volume and cortical surface area and significantly less growth of white matter volume throughout the cortex and cerebellum. For the population with diabetes, the change in the blood glucose level at the time of scan across longitudinal time points was negatively correlated with the change in gray and white matter volumes, suggesting that fluctuating glucose levels in children with diabetes may be associated with corresponding fluctuations in brain volume. In addition, measures of hyperglycemia and glycemic variation were significantly negatively correlated with the development of surface curvature. These results demonstrate that early-onset type 1 diabetes has widespread effects on the growth of gray and white matter in children whose blood glucose levels are well within the current treatment guidelines for the management of diabetes.

View details for DOI 10.2337/db15-1242

View details for PubMedID 26512024

Predictive Low-Glucose Insulin Suspension Reduces Duration of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Children Without Increasing Ketosis DIABETES CARE Buckingham, B. A., Raghinaru, D., Cameron, F., Bequette, B. W., Chase, H. P., Maahs, D. M., Slover, R., Wadwa, R. P., Wilson, D. M., Ly, T., Aye, T., Hramiak, I., Clarson, C., Stein, R., Gallego, P. H., Lum, J., Sibayan, J., Kollman, C., Beck, R. W. 2015; 38 (7): 1197-1204

Abstract

Nocturnal hypoglycemia can cause seizures and is a major impediment to tight glycemic control, especially in young children with type 1 diabetes. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a continuous glucose monitor-based overnight predictive low-glucose suspend (PLGS) system.In two age-groups of children with type 1 diabetes (11-14 and 4-10 years of age), a 42-night trial for each child was conducted wherein each night was assigned randomly to either having the PLGS system active (intervention night) or inactive (control night). The primary outcome was percent time <70 mg/dL overnight.Median time at <70 mg/dL was reduced by 54% from 10.1% on control nights to 4.6% on intervention nights (P < 0.001) in 11-14-year-olds (n = 45) and by 50% from 6.2% to 3.1% (P < 0.001) in 4-10-year-olds (n = 36). Mean overnight glucose was lower on control versus intervention nights in both age-groups (144 18 vs. 152 19 mg/dL [P < 0.001] and 153 14 vs. 160 16 mg/dL [P = 0.004], respectively). Mean morning blood glucose was 159 29 vs. 176 28 mg/dL (P < 0.001) in the 11-14-year-olds and 154 25 vs. 158 22 mg/dL (P = 0.11) in the 4-10-year-olds, respectively. No differences were found between intervention and control in either age-group in morning blood ketosis.In 4-14-year-olds, use of a nocturnal PLGS system can substantially reduce overnight hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis, although overnight mean glucose is slightly higher.

View details for DOI 10.2337/dc14-3053

View details for PubMedID 26049549

Factors Associated with Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in At-Risk Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Wilson, D. M., Calhoun, P. M., Maahs, D. M., Chase, H. P., Messer, L., Buckingham, B. A., Aye, T., Clinton, P. K., Hramiak, I., Kollman, C., Beck, R. W. 2015; 17 (6): 385-391

Abstract

Hypoglycemia remains an impediment to good glycemic control, with nocturnal hypoglycemia being particularly dangerous. Information on major contributors to nocturnal hypoglycemia remains critical for understanding and mitigating risk.Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data for 855 nights were studied, generated by 45 subjects 15-45 years of age with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 8.0% who participated in a larger randomized study. Factors assessed for potential association with nocturnal hypoglycemia (CGM measurement of <60mg/dL for 30min) included bedtime blood glucose (BG), exercise intensity, bedtime snack, insulin on board, day of the week, previous daytime hypoglycemia, age, gender, HbA1c level, diabetes duration, daily basal insulin, and daily insulin dose.Hypoglycemia occurred during 221 of 885 (25%) nights and was more frequent with younger age (P<0.001), lower HbA1c levels (P=0.006), medium/high-intensity exercise during the preceding day (P=0.003), and the occurrence of antecedent daytime hypoglycemia (P=0.001). There was a trend for lower bedtime BG levels to be associated with more frequent nocturnal hypoglycemia (P=0.10). Bedtime snack, before bedtime insulin bolus, weekend versus weekday, gender, and daily basal and bolus insulin were not associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia.Awareness that HbA1c level, exercise, bedtime BG level, and daytime hypoglycemia are all modifiable factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia may help patients and providers decrease the risk of hypoglycemia at night. Risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia increased in a linear fashion across the range of variables, with no clear-cut thresholds to guide clinicians or patients for any particular night.

View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2014.0342

View details for PubMedID 25761202

Longitudinal Assessment of Neuroanatomical and Cognitive Differences in Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes: Association With Hyperglycemia DIABETES Mauras, N., Mazaika, P., Buckingham, B., Weinzimer, S., White, N. H., Tsalikian, E., Hershey, T., Cato, A., Cheng, P., Kollman, C., Beck, R. W., Ruedy, K., Aye, T., Fox, L., Arbelaez, A. M., Wilson, D., Tansey, M., Tamborlane, W., Peng, D., Marzelli, M., Winer, K. K., Reiss, A. L. 2015; 64 (5): 1770-1779

Abstract

Significant regional differences in gray and white matter volume and subtle cognitive differences between young diabetic and nondiabetic children have been observed. Here, we assessed whether these differences change over time and the relation with dysglycemia. Children ages 4 to <10 years with (n = 144) and without (n = 72) type 1 diabetes (T1D) had high-resolution structural MRI and comprehensive neurocognitive tests at baseline and 18 months and continuous glucose monitoring and HbA1c performed quarterly for 18 months. There were no differences in cognitive and executive function scores between groups at 18 months. However, children with diabetes had slower total gray and white matter growth than control subjects. Gray matter regions (left precuneus, right temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes and right medial-frontal cortex) showed lesser growth in diabetes, as did white matter areas (splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior-parietal lobe, bilateral anterior forceps, and inferior-frontal fasciculus). These changes were associated with higher cumulative hyperglycemia and glucose variability but not with hypoglycemia. Young children with T1D have significant differences in total and regional gray and white matter growth in brain regions involved in complex sensorimotor processing and cognition compared with age-matched control subjects over 18 months, suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may be detrimental to the developing brain.

View details for DOI 10.2337/db14-1445

View details for PubMedID 25488901

A Randomized Trial of a Home System to Reduce Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes DIABETES CARE Maahs, D. M., Calhoun, P., Buckingham, B. A., Chase, H. P., Hramiak, I., Lum, J., Cameron, F., Bequette, B. W., Aye, T., Paul, T., Slover, R., Wadwa, R. P., Wilson, D. M., Kollman, C., Beck, R. W. 2014; 37 (7): 1885-1891

Abstract

Overnight hypoglycemia occurs frequently in individuals with type 1 diabetes and can result in loss of consciousness, seizure, or even death. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to determine whether nocturnal hypoglycemia could be safely reduced by temporarily suspending pump insulin delivery when hypoglycemia was predicted by an algorithm based on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) glucose levels.Following an initial run-in phase, a 42-night trial was conducted in 45 individuals aged 15-45 years with type 1 diabetes in which each night was assigned randomly to either having the predictive low-glucose suspend system active (intervention night) or inactive (control night). The primary outcome was the proportion of nights in which 1 CGM glucose values 60 mg/dL occurred.Overnight hypoglycemia with at least one CGM value 60 mg/dL occurred on 196 of 942 (21%) intervention nights versus 322 of 970 (33%) control nights (odds ratio 0.52 [95% CI 0.43-0.64]; P < 0.001). Median hypoglycemia area under the curve was reduced by 81%, and hypoglycemia lasting >2 h was reduced by 74%. Overnight sensor glucose was >180 mg/dL during 57% of control nights and 59% of intervention nights (P = 0.17), while morning blood glucose was >180 mg/dL following 21% and 27% of nights, respectively (P < 0.001), and >250 mg/dL following 6% and 6%, respectively. Morning ketosis was present <1% of the time in each arm.Use of a nocturnal low-glucose suspend system can substantially reduce overnight hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis.

View details for DOI 10.2337/dc13-2159

View details for Web of Science ID 000338020400022

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4067393

A randomized trial of a home system to reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes care Maahs, D. M., Calhoun, P., Buckingham, B. A., Chase, H. P., Hramiak, I., Lum, J., Cameron, F., Bequette, B. W., Aye, T., Paul, T., Slover, R., Wadwa, R. P., Wilson, D. M., Kollman, C., Beck, R. W. 2014; 37 (7): 1885-1891

Abstract

Overnight hypoglycemia occurs frequently in individuals with type 1 diabetes and can result in loss of consciousness, seizure, or even death. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to determine whether nocturnal hypoglycemia could be safely reduced by temporarily suspending pump insulin delivery when hypoglycemia was predicted by an algorithm based on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) glucose levels.Following an initial run-in phase, a 42-night trial was conducted in 45 individuals aged 15-45 years with type 1 diabetes in which each night was assigned randomly to either having the predictive low-glucose suspend system active (intervention night) or inactive (control night). The primary outcome was the proportion of nights in which 1 CGM glucose values 60 mg/dL occurred.Overnight hypoglycemia with at least one CGM value 60 mg/dL occurred on 196 of 942 (21%) intervention nights versus 322 of 970 (33%) control nights (odds ratio 0.52 [95% CI 0.43-0.64]; P < 0.001). Median hypoglycemia area under the curve was reduced by 81%, and hypoglycemia lasting >2 h was reduced by 74%. Overnight sensor glucose was >180 mg/dL during 57% of control nights and 59% of intervention nights (P = 0.17), while morning blood glucose was >180 mg/dL following 21% and 27% of nights, respectively (P < 0.001), and >250 mg/dL following 6% and 6%, respectively. Morning ketosis was present <1% of the time in each arm.Use of a nocturnal low-glucose suspend system can substantially reduce overnight hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis.

View details for DOI 10.2337/dc13-2159

View details for PubMedID 24804697

Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society Cato, M. A., Mauras, N., Ambrosino, J., Bondurant, A., Conrad, A. L., Kollman, C., Cheng, P., Beck, R. W., Ruedy, K. J., Aye, T., Reiss, A. L., White, N. H., Hershey, T. 2014; 20 (2): 238-247

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time. (JINS, 2014, 20, 238-247).

View details for DOI 10.1017/S1355617713001434

View details for PubMedID 24512675

Alterations in white matter structure in young children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes care Barnea-Goraly, N., Raman, M., Mazaika, P., Marzelli, M., Hershey, T., Weinzimer, S. A., Aye, T., Buckingham, B., Mauras, N., White, N. H., Fox, L. A., Tansey, M., Beck, R. W., Ruedy, K. J., Kollman, C., Cheng, P., Reiss, A. L. 2014; 37 (2): 332-340

Abstract

To investigate whether type 1 diabetes affects white matter (WM) structure in a large sample of young children.Children (ages 4 to <10 years) with type 1 diabetes (n = 127) and age-matched nondiabetic control subjects (n = 67) had diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans in this multisite neuroimaging study. Participants with type 1 diabetes were assessed for HbA1c history and lifetime adverse events, and glucose levels were monitored using a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) device and standardized measures of cognition.Between-group analysis showed that children with type 1 diabetes had significantly reduced axial diffusivity (AD) in widespread brain regions compared with control subjects. Within the type 1 diabetes group, earlier onset of diabetes was associated with increased radial diffusivity (RD) and longer duration was associated with reduced AD, reduced RD, and increased fractional anisotropy (FA). In addition, HbA1c values were significantly negatively associated with FA values and were positively associated with RD values in widespread brain regions. Significant associations of AD, RD, and FA were found for CGM measures of hyperglycemia and glucose variability but not for hypoglycemia. Finally, we observed a significant association between WM structure and cognitive ability in children with type 1 diabetes but not in control subjects.These results suggest vulnerability of the developing brain in young children to effects of type 1 diabetes associated with chronic hyperglycemia and glucose variability.

View details for DOI 10.2337/dc13-1388

View details for PubMedID 24319123

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3898758

High success rates of sedation-free brain MRI scanning in young children using simple subject preparation protocols with and without a commercial mock scanner-the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) experience. Pediatric radiology Barnea-Goraly, N., Weinzimer, S. A., Ruedy, K. J., Mauras, N., Beck, R. W., Marzelli, M. J., Mazaika, P. K., Aye, T., White, N. H., Tsalikian, E., Fox, L., Kollman, C., Cheng, P., Reiss, A. L. 2014; 44 (2): 181-186

Abstract

The ability to lie still in an MRI scanner is essential for obtaining usable image data. To reduce motion, young children are often sedated, adding significant cost and risk.We assessed the feasibility of using a simple and affordable behavioral desensitization program to yield high-quality brain MRI scans in sedation-free children.222 children (4-9.9years), 147 with type 1 diabetes and 75 age-matched non-diabetic controls, participated in a multi-site study focused on effects of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI scans were performed. All children underwent behavioral training and practice MRI sessions using either a commercial MRI simulator or an inexpensive mock scanner consisting of a toy tunnel, vibrating mat, and video player to simulate the sounds and feel of the MRI scanner.205 children (92.3%), mean age 71.7years had high-quality T1-W scans and 174 (78.4%) had high-quality diffusion-weighted scans after the first scan session. With a second scan session, success rates were 100% and 92.5% for T1-and diffusion-weighted scans, respectively. Success rates did not differ between children with type 1 diabetes and children without diabetes, or between centers using a commercial MRI scan simulator and those using the inexpensive mock scanner.Behavioral training can lead to a high success rate for obtaining high-quality T1-and diffusion-weighted brain images from a young population without sedation.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-013-2798-7

View details for PubMedID 24096802

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3946760

Alterations in white matter structure in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus DIABETES CARE Barnea-Goraly, N., Raman, M., Mazaika, P., Marzelli, M., et al 2014: 33240

Abstract

To investigate whether type 1 diabetes affects white matter (WM) structure in a large sample of young children.Children (ages 4 to <10 years) with type 1 diabetes (n = 127) and age-matched nondiabetic control subjects (n = 67) had diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans in this multisite neuroimaging study. Participants with type 1 diabetes were assessed for HbA1c history and lifetime adverse events, and glucose levels were monitored using a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) device and standardized measures of cognition.Between-group analysis showed that children with type 1 diabetes had significantly reduced axial diffusivity (AD) in widespread brain regions compared with control subjects. Within the type 1 diabetes group, earlier onset of diabetes was associated with increased radial diffusivity (RD) and longer duration was associated with reduced AD, reduced RD, and increased fractional anisotropy (FA). In addition, HbA1c values were significantly negatively associated with FA values and were positively associated with RD values in widespread brain regions. Significant associations of AD, RD, and FA were found for CGM measures of hyperglycemia and glucose variability but not for hypoglycemia. Finally, we observed a significant association between WM structure and cognitive ability in children with type 1 diabetes but not in control subjects.These results suggest vulnerability of the developing brain in young children to effects of type 1 diabetes associated with chronic hyperglycemia and glucose variability.

View details for DOI 10.2337/dc13-1388

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3898758

Real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems in the classroom/school environment. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Benassi, K., Drobny, J., Aye, T. 2013; 15 (5): 409-412

Abstract

Abstract Background: Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) spend 4-7h/day in school with very little supervision of their diabetes management. Therefore, families have become more dependent on technology, such as use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM), to provide increased supervision of their diabetes management. We sought to assess the impact of RT-CGM use in the classroom/school environment. Subjects and Methods: Children with T1D using RT-CGM, their parents, and teachers completed a questionnaire about RT-CGM in the classroom/school environment. Results: The RT-CGM was tolerated well in the classroom/school environment. Seventy percent of parents, 75% of students, and 51% of teachers found RT-CGM useful in the classroom/school environment. The students found the device to be more disruptive than did their parents and teachers. However, all three groups agreed that RT-CGM increased their comfort with diabetes management at school. Conclusions: Our study suggests that RT-CGM is useful and not disruptive in the classroom/school environment. The development of education materials for teachers could further increase its acceptance in the classroom/school environment.

View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2012.0314

View details for PubMedID 23530577

White Matter Structural Differences in Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study DIABETES CARE Aye, T., Barnea-Goraly, N., Ambler, C., Hoang, S., Schleifer, K., Park, Y., Drobny, J., Wilson, D. M., Reiss, A. L., Buckingham, B. A. 2012; 35 (11): 2167-2173

Abstract

To detect clinical correlates of cognitive abilities and white matter (WM) microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in young children with type 1 diabetes.Children, ages 3 to <10 years, with type 1 diabetes (n = 22) and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 14) completed neurocognitive testing and DTI scans.Compared with healthy controls, children with type 1 diabetes had lower axial diffusivity (AD) values (P = 0.046) in the temporal and parietal lobe regions. There were no significant differences between groups in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity (RD). Within the diabetes group, there was a significant, positive correlation between time-weighted HbA(1c) and RD (P = 0.028). A higher, time-weighted HbA(1c) value was significantly correlated with lower overall intellectual functioning measured by the full-scale intelligence quotient (P = 0.03).Children with type 1 diabetes had significantly different WM structure (as measured by AD) when compared with controls. In addition, WM structural differences (as measured by RD) were significantly correlated with their HbA(1c) values. Additional studies are needed to determine if WM microstructural differences in young children with type 1 diabetes predict future neurocognitive outcome.

View details for DOI 10.2337/dc12-0017

View details for PubMedID 22966090

Analysis of the NovoTwist pen needle in comparison with conventional screw-thread needles. Journal of diabetes science and technology Aye, T. 2011; 5 (6): 1488-1489

Abstract

Administration of insulin via a pen device may be advantageous over a vial and syringe system. Hofman and colleagues introduce a new insulin pen needle, the NovoTwist, to simplify injections to a small group of children and adolescents. Their overall preferences and evaluation of the handling of the needle are reported in the study. This new needle has the potential to ease administration of insulin via a pen device that may increase both the use of a pen device and adherence to insulin therapy.

View details for PubMedID 22226270

The Feasibility of Detecting Neuropsychologic and Neuroanatomic Effects of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children DIABETES CARE Aye, T., Reiss, A. L., Kesler, S., Hoang, S., Drobny, J., Park, Y., Schleifer, K., Baumgartner, H., Wilson, D. M., Buckingham, B. A. 2011; 34 (7): 1458-1462

Abstract

To determine if frequent exposures to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia during early childhood lead to neurocognitive deficits and changes in brain anatomy.In this feasibility, cross-sectional study, young children, aged 3 to 10 years, with type 1 diabetes and age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects completed neuropsychologic (NP) testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain.NP testing and MRI scanning was successfully completed in 98% of the type 1 diabetic and 93% of the HC children. A significant negative relationship between HbA1c and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) verbal comprehension was observed. WISC index scores were significantly reduced in type 1 diabetic subjects who had experienced seizures. White matter volume did not show the expected increase with age in children with type 1 diabetes compared with HC children (diagnosis by age interaction, P=0.005). A similar trend was detected for hippocampal volume. Children with type 1 diabetes who had experienced seizures showed significantly reduced gray matter and white matter volumes relative to children with type 1 diabetes who had not experienced seizures.It is feasible to perform MRI and NP testing in young children with type 1 diabetes. Further, early signs of neuroanatomic variation may be present in this population. Larger cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of neurocognitive function and neuroanatomy are needed to define the effect of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain.

View details for DOI 10.2337/dc10-2164

View details for PubMedID 21562318

Toward Closing the Loop: An Update on Insulin Pumps and Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Aye, T., Block, J., Buckingham, B. 2010; 39 (3): 609-?

Abstract

This article reviews current pump and continuous glucose monitoring therapy and what will be required to integrate these systems into closed-loop control. Issues with sensor accuracy, lag time, and calibration are discussed as well as issues with insulin pharmacodynamics, which result in a delayed onset of insulin action in a closed-loop system. A stepwise approach to closed-loop therapy is anticipated, where the first systems will suspend insulin delivery based on actual or predicted hypoglycemia. Subsequent systems may control to range, limiting the time spent in hyperglycemia by mitigating the effects of a missed food bolus or underestimate of consumed carbohydrates, while minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ecl.2010.05.005

View details for Web of Science ID 000282146100011

View details for PubMedID 20723823

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2938733

Metformin Extended Release Treatment of Adolescent Obesity A 48-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial With 48-Week Follow-up ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Wilson, D. M., Abrams, S. H., Aye, T., Lee, P. D., Lenders, C., Lustig, R. H., Osganian, S. V., Feldman, H. A. 2010; 164 (2): 116-123

Abstract

Metformin has been proffered as a therapy for adolescent obesity, although long-term controlled studies have not been reported.To test the hypothesis that 48 weeks of daily metformin hydrochloride extended release (XR) therapy will reduce body mass index (BMI) in obese adolescents, as compared with placebo.Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.The 6 centers of the Glaser Pediatric Research Network from October 2003 to August 2007.Obese (BMI > or = 95th percentile) adolescents (aged 13-18 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 39) or placebo groups. Intervention Following a 1-month run-in period, subjects following a lifestyle intervention program were randomized 1:1 to 48 weeks' treatment with metformin hydrochloride XR, 2000 mg once daily, or an identical placebo. Subjects were monitored for an additional 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measure Change in BMI, adjusted for site, sex, race, ethnicity, and age and metformin vs placebo.After 48 weeks, mean (SE) adjusted BMI increased 0.2 (0.5) in the placebo group and decreased 0.9 (0.5) in the metformin XR group (P = .03). This difference persisted for 12 to 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. No significant effects of metformin on body composition, abdominal fat, or insulin indices were observed.Metformin XR caused a small but statistically significant decrease in BMI when added to a lifestyle intervention program.clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00209482 and NCT00120146.

View details for PubMedID 20124139