Vamsi Yarlagadda, MD

  • Vamsi Vemana Yarlagadda



Work and Education

Professional Education

Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI, 5/29/2000


Children's Medical Center of Dallas, Dallas, TX, 6/30/2001


Children's Medical Center of Dallas, Dallas, TX, 6/30/2003


Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, 6/30/2006

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, 6/30/2008

Board Certifications

Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics

Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics

Conditions Treated

Bloodless Surgery

All Publications

A Quality Bundle to Support High-Risk Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device Implantation. Pediatric cardiology Knoll, C., Chen, S., Murray, J. M., Dykes, J. C., Yarlagadda, V. V., Rosenthal, D. N., Almond, C. S., Maeda, K., Shin, A. Y. 2019


Pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation outcomes are increasingly promising for children with dilated cardiomyopathy and advanced decompensated heart failure (ADHF). VAD placement in patients with clinical features such as complex congenital cardiac anatomy, small body size, or major comorbidities remains problematic. These comorbidities have been traditionally prohibitive for VAD consideration leaving these children as a treatment-orphaned population. Here we describe the quality bundle surrounding these patients with ADHF considered high risk for VAD implantation at our institution. Over a 7-year period, a quality bundle aimed at the peri-operative care for children with high-risk features undergoing VAD implantation was incrementally implemented at a tertiary children's hospital. Patients were considered high risk if they were neonates (<30days), had single-ventricle physiology, non-dilated cardiomyopathy, biventricular dysfunction, or significant comorbidities. The quality improvement bundle evolved to include (1) structured team-based peri-operative evaluation, (2) weekly VAD rounds addressing post-operative device performance, (3) standardized anticoagulation strategies, and (4) a multidisciplinary system for management challenges. These measures aimed to improve communication, standardize management, allow for ongoing process improvement, and incorporate principles of a high-reliability organization. Between January 2010 and December 2017, 98 patients underwent VAD implantation, 48 (49%) of which had high-risk comorbidities and a resultant cohort survival-to-transplant rate of 65%. We report on the evolution of a quality improvement program to expand the scope of VAD implantation to patients with high-risk clinical profiles. This quality bundle can serve as a template for future large-scale collaborations to improve outcomes in these treatment-orphaned subgroups.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-019-02123-1

View details for PubMedID 31087144

Bridge to Transplant with Ventricular Assist Device Support in Pediatric Patients with Single Ventricle Heart Disease. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) Chen, S., Rosenthal, D. N., Murray, J., Dykes, J. C., Almond, C. S., Yarlagadda, V. V., Wright, G., Navaratnam, M., Reinhartz, O., Maeda, K. 2019


Ventricular assist device (VAD) support for children with single ventricle (SV) heart disease remains challenging. We performed a single-center retrospective review of SV patients on VAD support and examined survival to transplant using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients transplanted were compared with those who died on support. Between 2009 and 2017, there were 14 SV patients with 1,112 patient-days of VAD support. Stages of palliation included pre-Glenn (n = 5), Glenn (n = 5), and Fontan (n = 4). Eight patients (57%) were successfully bridged to transplant at a median 107 days. Deaths occurred early (n = 6, median 16 days) and in smaller patients (10.1 vs. 28.3 kg, P = 0.04). All Fontan patients survived to transplant, whereas only 20% of Glenn patients survived to transplant. Adverse events occurred in 79% (n = 11). Five patients met hospital discharge criteria, with two patients (one pre-Glenn, one Glenn) discharged and transplanted after 219 and 174 days of VAD support. All transplanted patients were discharged at a median 21 days posttransplant. SV patients in various stages of palliation can be successfully bridged to transplant with VAD support. With use of intracorporeal continuous-flow devices, longer-term support and hospital discharge are possible.

View details for PubMedID 30864969

Applying Lessons from an Inaugural Clinical Pathway to Establish a Clinical Effectiveness Program. Pediatric quality & safety Algaze, C. A., Shin, A. Y., Nather, C., Elgin, K. H., Ramamoorthy, C., Kamra, K., Kipps, A. K., Yarlagadda, V. V., Mafla, M. M., Vashist, T., Krawczeski, C. D., Sharek, P. J. 2018; 3 (6): e115


Introduction: Clinical effectiveness (CE) programs promote standardization to reduce unnecessary variation and improve healthcare value. Best practices for successful and sustainable CE programs remain in question. We developed and implemented our inaugural clinical pathway with the aim of incorporating lessons learned in the build of a CE program at our academic children's hospital.Methods: The Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford Heart Center and Center for Quality and Clinical Effectiveness partnered to develop and implement an inaugural clinical pathway. Project phases included team assembly, pathway development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, and improvement. We ascertained Critical CE program elements by focus group discussion among a multidisciplinary panel of experts and key affected groups. Pre and postintervention compared outcomes included mechanical ventilation duration, cardiovascular intensive care unit, and total postoperative length of stay.Results: Twenty-seven of the 30 enrolled patients (90%) completed the pathway. There was a reduction in ventilator days (mean 1.0+0.5 versus 1.9+1.3 days; P < 0.001), cardiovascular intensive care unit (mean 2.3+1.1 versus 4.6+2.1 days; P < 0.001) and postoperative length of stay (mean 5.9+1.6 versus 7.9+2.7 days; P < 0.001) compared with the preintervention period. Elements deemed critical included (1) project prioritization for maximal return on investment; (2) multidisciplinary involvement; (3) pathway focus on best practices, critical outcomes, and rate-limiting steps; (4) active and flexible implementation; and (5) continuous data-driven and transparent pathway iteration.Conclusions: We identified multiple elements of successful pathway implementation, that we believe to be critical foundational elements of our CE program.

View details for DOI 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000115

View details for PubMedID 31334447

Successful use of a ventricular assist device in a neonate with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with right ventricular dysfunction JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Maeda, K., Yarlagadda, V. V., Rosenthal, D. N., Almond, C. S. 2018; 156 (4): E171E173
Impact of Phrenic Nerve Palsy and Need for Diaphragm Plication Following Surgery for Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals SEMINARS IN THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Greene, C. L., Mainwaring, R. D., Sidell, D., Yarlagadda, V. V., Patrick, W. L., Hanley, F. L. 2018; 30 (3): 31824
An alternative cannulation approach for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children for long-term ambulatory support JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Maeda, K., Ryan, K., Conrad, C. K., Yarlagadda, V. V. 2018; 156 (1): E13E14
Successful use of a ventricular assist device in a neonate with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with right ventricular dysfunction. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Maeda, K., Yarlagadda, V. V., Rosenthal, D. N., Almond, C. S. 2018

View details for PubMedID 29970231

An alternative cannulation approach for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children for long-term ambulatory support. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Maeda, K., Ryan, K., Conrad, C. K., Yarlagadda, V. V. 2018

View details for PubMedID 29685584

Impact of Phrenic Nerve Palsy and Need for Diaphragm Plication Following Surgery for Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals. Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Greene, C. L., Mainwaring, R. D., Sidell, D., Yarlagadda, V. V., Patrick, W. L., Hanley, F. L. 2018


Injury to the phrenic nerves may occur during surgery for pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA-VSD and MAPCAs). These patients may develop respiratory failure and require diaphragm plication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of phrenic nerve palsy on recovery following surgery for PA-VSD and MAPCAs. Between 2007 and 2016, approximately 500 patients underwent surgery for PA-VSD and MAPCAs at our institution. Twenty-four patients (4.8%) subsequently had evidence of new phrenic nerve palsy. Sixteen patients were undergoing their first surgical procedure, whereas 8 were undergoing reoperations. All 24 patients underwent diaphragm plication. A cohort of matched controls was identified based on identical diagnosis and procedures but did not sustain a phrenic nerve palsy. Eighteen of the 24 patients (75%) had clinical improvement following diaphragm plication as evidenced by the ability to undergo successful extubation (52 days), transition out of the intensive care unit (3216 days), and discharge from the hospital (4219 days). In contrast, there were 6 patients (25%) who did not demonstrate a temporal improvement following diaphragm plication, as evidenced by intervals of 6138, 10645, and 10846 days, respectively (P<0.05 for all 3 comparisons). The 6 patients who failed to improve following diaphragm plication had a significantly greater number of comorbidities compared to the 18 patients who demonstrated improvement (2.2 vs 0.6 per patient, P<0.05). When compared with the control group, patients who improved following diaphragm plication spent an additional 22 days and patients who failed to improve an additional 90 days in the hospital. The data demonstrate a bifurcation of clinical outcome in patients undergoing diaphragm plication following surgery for PA-VSD and MAPCAs. This bifurcation appears to be linked to the presence or absence of other comorbidities.

View details for PubMedID 29545034

A novel inflow cannulation strategy for pediatric mechanical circulatory support in small left ventricles. journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Ma, M., Yarlagadda, V. V., Rosenthal, D. N., Maeda, K. 2017

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2017.03.034

View details for PubMedID 28416331

Left Ventricular Retraining and Double Switch in Patients With Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries. World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery Ibrahimiye, A. N., Mainwaring, R. D., Patrick, W. L., Downey, L., Yarlagadda, V., Hanley, F. L. 2017; 8 (2): 203-209


Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CC-TGA) is a complex form of congenital heart defect with numerous anatomic subgroups. The majority of patients with CC-TGA are excellent candidates for a double-switch procedure. However, in the absence of an unrestrictive ventricular septal defect or subpulmonary stenosis, the left ventricle (LV) may undergo involution and require retraining prior to double switch. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with patients having CC-TGA who required LV retraining prior to a double-switch procedure.This was a retrospective review of 24 patients with CC-TGA who were enrolled in an LV retraining program in preparation for a double-switch procedure. The median age at the time of enrollment for retraining was 11 months (range 1 month-24 years). The average left ventricle to right ventricle pressure ratio was 0.39 0.07 prior to intervention. All 24 patients underwent placement of an initial pulmonary artery band (PAB) for LV retraining.Eighteen (75%) of the 24 patients underwent a double-switch procedure with no operative mortality. Of these 18 patients, 9 had a single PAB and 9 required a second band for retraining. Six patients have not undergone a double-switch procedure to date. Five patients are good candidates for a double switch and are 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 months, and 35 months since their last PAB. One patient died from a noncardiac cause 26 months after PAB retightening. The 18 patients who underwent a double switch were followed for an average of 5 1 years (range 0.1-10.3 years). There has been no late mortality, and only 2 patients required further reinterventions.The data demonstrate that LV retraining has been highly effective in this select group of patients with CC-TGA. The data also demonstrate that the results of the double-switch procedure have been excellent at midterm follow-up. These results suggest that LV retraining and double switch offer a reliable strategy option for patients with CC-TGA.

View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135116683939

View details for PubMedID 28329464

Alternative Strategy for Biventricular Assist Device in an Infant With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. The Annals of thoracic surgery Dykes, J. C., Reinhartz, O., Almond, C. S., Yarlagadda, V., Murray, J., Rosenthal, D. N., Maeda, K. 2017; 104 (2): e185e186


We report an infant with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent biventricular assist device placement with two 15-mL Berlin Heart EXCOR pediatric ventricular assist devices using an alternative atrial cannulation strategy. The systemic circulation was supported by left atrium (LA) to aorta cannulation. The LA was accessed through the right atrium by extending a 6-mm EXCOR cannula with a Gore-Tex graft connected to an atrial septal defect. The pulmonary circulation was supported with cannulation of the right atrium to pulmonary artery. This alternative cannulation strategy facilitated effective biventricular support and may be applicable to other patients with hypertrophic or restrictive physiology.

View details for PubMedID 28734448

Temporary Circulatory Support in U.S. Children Awaiting Heart Transplantation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Yarlagadda, V. V., Maeda, K., Zhang, Y., Chen, S., Dykes, J. C., Gowen, M. A., Shuttleworth, P., Murray, J. M., Shin, A. Y., Reinhartz, O., Rosenthal, D. N., McElhinney, D. B., Almond, C. S. 2017; 70 (18): 225060


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has long served as the standard of care for short-term mechanical circulatory support in pediatrics. It is unknown whether newer-generation temporary circulatory support (TCS) devices afford children a meaningful survival advantage over ECMO.This study sought to determine whether bridge-to-heart transplant survival with a TCS device is superior to ECMO after adjusting for patient differences.All children21 years of age listed for heart transplant from 2011 to 2015 who received a TCS device orECMO as a bridge to transplant were identified using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data. Children supported with a TCS device were compared with a propensity score (PS)-matched cohort of childrensupported with ECMO as a bridge to transplant. The primary endpoint was Kaplan-Meier survival to transplant.The number of TCS devices implanted in children increased from3 per year before 2011 to 50 in 2015. Overall, 93 patients implanted with TCS devices were included for analysis (59% left ventricular assist devices, 23% right ventricular assist devices, 18% biventricular assist devices). The most commonly used device was the CentriMag-PediMag system (65%), followed by TandemHeart (18%), Rotaflow (6%), and Impella (5%). Among 164 PS-matched patients, support duration was longer for the TCS cohort (median 19days vs. 6days; p< 0.001), and was longest for the CentriMag-PediMag (24days vs. 6days; p< 0.001) with 27% supported for >60days. Compared with the ECMO cohort, the PS-matched TCS cohort had longer survival to transplant (hazard ratio: 0.49; 95% confidence interval: 0.30 to 0.79) and longer overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% confidence interval: 0.39 to 0.96), with 90-day mortality before transplant that was modestly reduced (from 45% withECMO to 39% with TCS).The use of TCS devices in children as a bridge to transplant has risen rapidly in recent years, ledbythegrowth of magnetically levitated centrifugal flow pumps. Compared with conventional ECMO, TCS durationsarelonger, and more importantly, patient survival is superior.

View details for PubMedID 29073953

Anesthesia for Placement of a Paracorporeal Lung Assist Device and Subsequent Heart-Lung Transplantation in a Child with Suprasystemic Pulmonary Hypertension and End-Stage Respiratory Failure. A & A case reports Char, D. S., Yarlagadda, V., Maeda, K., Williams, G. 2016; 6 (10): 308-310


Pediatric patients with end-stage respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension traditionally have poor outcomes when bridged with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to lung or heart-lung transplantation. Therefore, several institutions have attempted paracorporeal lung assist devices as a bridge. However, given the small number of patients, little is known about approaches to anesthetic induction in these hemodynamically unstable patients either before placement of a device or anesthetic induction once a device is in situ. In this case report, we describe our anesthetic experience managing a 13-year-old boy for both paracorporeal lung assist device placement and subsequent heart-lung transplantation.

View details for DOI 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000300

View details for PubMedID 27002753

Major Causes of Stroke in Children With Congenital and Acquired Heart Disease. Elbers, J., Lee, E., Yarlagadda, V. V., Lo, C., Hanisch, D., Lin, A., Almond, C. S., Shin, A. Y. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2016