Conditions We Treat

Stanford Medicine Children’s Health’s highly complex PAR procedures help you or your child achieve close-to-normal heart-lung function and a higher quality of life.

We offer surgical solutions for all conditions that affect the pulmonary arteries, including the following serious, highly complex conditions:

Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) with pulmonary atresia and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs)

A rare combination of conditions that occurs during a child’s development in the womb. Tetralogy of Fallot is a combination of four congenital heart defects in one:

  • A narrowing of the pulmonary artery (the artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs).
  • A ventricular septal defect (a large hole in the wall between the two sides of the heart).
  • An overriding (misplaced) aorta (the artery that carries blood to the body).
  • An enlarged lower right side of the heart.

Pulmonary atresia (a defect of the pulmonary valve—the valve between the right ventricle of the heart and the main pulmonary artery) adds to the complexity of this condition. Fortunately, MAPCAs (extra arteries created by the body to carry blood to the lungs) are present. Without surgery, individuals with ToF do not survive; we treat ToF with unifocalization.

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with MAPCAs

In transposition of the great arteries, a complex congenital heart defect (present at birth), the two main arteries of the heart that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and body are reversed (transposed). This condition can sometimes present with MAPCAs (extra arteries) that we use to rebuild arteries in your/your child’s lungs for near-normal heart-lung circulation and a better quality of life.  

Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum with MAPCAs

In this condition, the pulmonary valve (the valve between the right ventricle of the heart and the main pulmonary artery) doesn’t form correctly in utero. The ventricular septum (the muscular wall between the heart’s lower chambers) is intact in this condition, and MAPCAs (extra arteries) are present.

Single ventricle anomalies with MAPCAs

When a person is born with a single ventricle condition, one of two heart ventricles (the left and right lower chambers of the heart) doesn’t form properly. Instead, MAPCAs (extra arteries) deliver blood from the heart to the lungs. We partner with the Stanford Children’s Single Ventricle Program to provide holistic care for children, and with Stanford Health Care’s Single Ventricle program to care for adults.

Pulmonary artery stenosis associated with Williams syndrome and non-Williams elastin arteriopathy

Williams syndrome is a disorder of connective tissue (the tissue that defines body spaces and holds the organs in place). Children with Williams syndrome can have heart-lung problems, including pulmonary artery stenosis (a narrowing of the arteries in the lungs). We partner with our dedicated Cardiovascular Connective Tissue Disorders Program to provide holistic care for children, and Stanford Health Care’s Center for Marfan Syndrome and Related Aortic Disorders to care for adults.

Pulmonary artery abnormalities with Alagille syndrome

Children and adults with Alagille syndrome, a rare genetic condition that affects the heart and liver, can have underdeveloped or narrowed pulmonary arteries. We partner with our Alagille Syndrome Program to provide holistic care for your child.

Isolated aortic origin of a branch pulmonary artery

A rare and serious birth defect where a major pulmonary artery forms in the wrong place.

Pulmonary artery stenosis after surgery for congenital heart disease

When pulmonary artery stenosis (a narrowing of the arteries) occurs after a previous heart surgery.

Other types of pulmonary artery stenosis (also called hypoplasia)

Conditions that narrow the pulmonary arteries, such as blood clots deep in the lungs, are an example of this. Narrowed or blocked arteries make it hard for blood to pass through the heart to the lungs.

If your child requires a complex heart surgery or interventional cardiac catheterization procedure, ask about our Heart Center Coordination Program, which can provide your family with a cardiac nurse navigator to guide you through your child’s care journey at Stanford Children’s. The program is currently supporting pediatric patients with certain complex heart needs.